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The sun-beams tanneth the skin of man; and in some places turneth it to black.

The sun-beams are hardly endured by many, but cause headach, faintness, and with many they cause rheums, yet to aged men they are comfortable.

The sun causes pestilences which with us rage about autumn, but it is reported in Barbary they break up about June and rage most in the winter.

The heat of the sun and of fire and living creatures agree in some things which pertain to vivification; as the back of a chimney will set forward an apricocktree as well as the sun; the fire will raise a dead butterfly as well as the sun and so will the heat of a living creature; the heat of the sun in sand will hatch an egg: qu.

The heat of the sun in the hottest countries nothing so violent as that of fire, no not scarcely so hot to the sense as that of a living creature.

The sun a fountain of light as well as heat. The other celestial bodies manifest in light, and yet non constat whether all borrowed as in the moon,1 but obscure in heat.

The southern and western wind with us is the warmest, whereof the one bloweth from the sun the other from the sea, the northern and eastern the more cold; qu. whether in the coast of Florida or at Brasil the east wind be not the warmest and the west the coldest, and so beyond the antarctic tropic the southern wind the coldest.

The air useth to be extreme hot before thunders. The sea and air ambient appeareth to be hotter

1 The words and yet

moon are interlined in the MS.

than that at land; for in the northern voyages two or three degrees farther at the open sea they find less ice than two or three degrees more south near land : but qu. for that may be by reason of the shores and shallows.

The snows dissolve fastest upon the sea-coasts yet the winds are counted the bitterest from the sea, and such as trees will bend from. Qu.

The streams or clouds of brightness which appear in the firmament, being such through which the stars may be seen, and shoot not but rest, are signs of heat.

The pillars of light which are seen upright and do commonly shoot and vary are signs of cold, but both these are signs of drought.

The air when it is moved is to the sense colder, as in winds, fannings, ventilabra.

The air in things fibrous, as fleeces, furs, &c. warm, and those stuffs to the feeling warm.

The water to man's body seemeth colder than the air, and so in summer in swimming it seemeth at the first going in; and yet after one hath been in a while at the coming forth again the air seemeth colder than the water.

The snow more cold to the sense than water, and the ice than snow, and they have in Italy means to keep snow and ice for the cooling of their drinks: qu. whether it be so in froth in respect of the liquor.

Baths of hot water feel hottest at the first going in. The frost dew which we see in hoar frost and in the rymes upon trees or the like accounted more mortifying cold than snow, for snow cherisheth the

ground and any thing sowed in it, the other biteth and killeth.

Stone and metal exceeding cold to the feeling more than wood, yea more than jet or amber or horn which are no less smooth.


The snow is ever in the winter season, but the hail which is more of the nature of ice is ever in the sumseason; whereupon it is conceived that as the hollows of the earth are warmest in the winter, so that region of the air is coldest in the summer, as if they were a fugue of the nature of either from the contrary, and a collecting itself to an union and so to a further strength..

So in the shades under trees in the summer which stand in an open field, the shade noted to be colder than in a wood.

Cold effecteth congelation in liquors so as they do · consist and hold together which before did run.

Cold breaketh glasses if they be close stopped in frost, when the liquor freezeth within.

Cold in extreme maketh metals that are dry and brittle cleft and crack, Araque dissiliunt; so of pots of earth and glass.

Cold maketh bones of living creatures more fragile.

Cold maketh living creatures to swell in the joints and the blood to clot and turn more blue.

Bitter frosts do make all drinks to taste more dead and flat.

Cold maketh the arters and flesh more asper and rough.

Cold causes rheums and distillations by compressing the brain, and laxes by like reason.

Cold increases appetite in the stomach and willingness to stir.

Cold maketh the fire to scald and sparkle.

Paracelsus reporteth that if a glass of wine be set upon a tarras in a bitter frost it will leave some liquor unfrozen in the centre of the glass, which excelleth spiritus vini drawn by fire.

Cold in Muscovy and the like countries causes those parts which are voidest of blood, as the nose, the ears, the toes, the fingers, to mortify and rot; specially if you come suddenly to fire after you have been in the air abroad, they are sure to moulder and dissolve. They use for remedy as is said washing in snow water.

If a man come out of a bitter cold suddenly to the fire he is ready to swoon or overcome.

So contrariwise at Nova Zembla when they opened their door at times to go forth he that opened the door was in danger to overcome.1

The quantity of fish in the cold countries, Norway, &c. very abundant.

The quantity of fowl and eggs laid in the cliffs in great abundance.

In Nova Zembla they found no beast but bears and foxes, whereof the bears gave over to be seen about September, and then the foxes began.2

Meat will keep from putrifying longer in frosty weather, than at other times.

In Iceland they keep fish by exposing it to the cold from putrifying without sait.

The nature of man endureth the colds in the coun

1 See Three Voyages, &c. Hackl. Soc. 1853, p. 130.

2" Before the sun began to decline we saw no foxes, and then the bears used to go from us."- Hackl. Soc. 1853, p. 120.

tries of Scricfinnia, Biarmia, Lappia, Iceland, Gronland; and that not by perpetual keeping in in stoves in the winter time as they do in Russia, but contrariwise their chief fairs and intercourse is written to be in the winter, because the ice evens 1 and levelleth the passages of waters, plashes, &c.


A thaw after a frost doth greatly rot and mellow the ground.

Extreme cold hurteth the eyes and causes blindness in many beasts, as is reported.

The cold maketh any solid substance, as wood, stone, metal, put to the flesh to cleave to it and to pull the flesh after it, and so put to any cloth that is moist.

Cold maketh the pilage of beasts more thick and long, as foxes of Muscovy, sables, &c.

Cold maketh the pilage of most beasts incline to grayness or whiteness, as foxes, bears, and so the plumage of fowls, and maketh also the crests of cocks and their feet white, as is reported.

. Extreme colds will make nails leap out of the walls and out of locks2 and the like.

Extreme cold maketh leather to be stiff like horn. In frosty weather the stars appear clearest and most. sparkling.

In the change from frost to open weather or from open weather to frosts, commonly great mists.

In extreme colds any thing never so little which arresteth the air maketh it to congeal; as we see in cobwebs in windows, which is one of the least and weakest thrids that is and yet drops gather about it like chains of pearl.

1 even in MS.

2 Qu. whether lockes or lockers.

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