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With regard to the Modification of the mass of matter of which an animal is formed, it is accidental as to the creature itself; I mean, it was not in the power or will of the creature to choose, whether it should sustain the shape of a brute, or of a man: and yet, whether it be of one shape, or of the other; or, whether it be inhabited or animated by the * foul of a brute or the * soul of a man; the substance or matter, of which the creature is composed, would be equally susceptible of feeling. It is solely owing to the good

* It is of no consequence, as to the cafe now before us, whether the SOUL is, as some think, only a Power, which cannot exist without the Body; or, as is generally supposed, a Spiritual Substance, that can exist, distinct and separate from the body,


Pleasure of GOD, that We are created Men; or animals in the shape of men. For, He that*

formed Man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into bis nostrils the breath of life that he might become a living foul and endued with the sense of feeling, could, if he had so pleased, by the same plastic power, have cast the very fame duft into the mould of a Beast; which, being animated by the life-giving breath of its Maker, would have become of a living foul in that form; and, in that form, would have been as susceptible of pain, as in the form of a Man. And if, in brutal shape, We had been endued with the same degree of reason * Gen, ji, 7. + Ģen. i. 30. in the margin. C


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and reflection which we now en joy; and other Beings, in human shape, should take upon them to torment, abuse, and barbarously ill treat us, because we were not made in their shape; the injustice and cruelty of their behaviour to Us would be felf-evident: and we should naturally infer, that, whether we walk upon two legs or four; whether our heads are prone or erect; whether we are naked or covered with hair ; whether we have tails or no tails, horns or no horns; long ears or round ears; or, whether we bray like an ass, speak like a man, whistle like a bird, or are mute as a filh ; Nature never intended these distinctions as foundations for right of tyranny and oppression. But, per

haps, it will be said, it is absurd to make such an inference from a meer fupposition that a man might have been a brute, and a brute might have been a man; for, the supposition itself is chimerical, and has no foundation in nature ; and all arguments fhould be drawn from fact, and not from fancy of what might be or might not be, To this I reply in few words, and in general; that all cases and arguments, deduced from the important and benevolent precept of Doing to others as we would be done unto, necessarily require such kind of fuppofitions ; that is, they fuppose the case to be otherwise than it really is. For instance ; a Rich man is not a Poor man; yet, the duty plainly arising from the Pre


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cept, is this - The man who is now rich, ought to behave to the man who is now poor, in such a manner as the Rich man If be were poor would be willing that the Poor man If he were rich should behave towards him. Here is a case which in fact does not exist between these two men, for the rich man is not a poor man, nor is the poor man a rich man ; yet the Supposition is necessary to enforce and illustrate the precept, and the reafonableness of it is allowed. And if the supposition is reasonable in one cafe; it is reasonable, at least, not contrary to reason, in all cases to which this general precept can extend, and in which the duty enjoined by it can and ought to be performed. Therefore though

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