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trees and flowers, to come earlier or later than their seasons; and to come up and bear more speedily, than by their natural course they do. We make them also by art greater much than their nature; and their fruit greater, and sweeter, and of differing taste, smell, colour, and figure, from their nature. And many of them we so order, as that they become of medicinal use.
We have also means to make divers plants rise by mixtures of earths without seeds; and likewise to make divers new plants, differing from the vulgar; and to make one tree or plant turn into another.
We have also parks and enclosures of all sorts of beasts and birds, which we use not only for view or rareness, but likewise for dissections and trials, that thereby may take light, what may be wrought upon the body of man. Wherein we find many strange effects; as continuing life in them, though divers parts, which you account vital, be perished, and taken forth ; resuscitating of some that seem dead in appearance; and the like. We try also all poisons, and other medicines upon them, as well of chirurgery as physic. By art likewise, we make them greater or taller, than their kind is; and contrariwise dwarf them, and stay their growth: we make them more fruitful and bearing than their kind is; and contrariwise
barren, and not generative. Also we make them differ in colour, shape, activity, many ways. We find means to make commixtures and copulations of divers kinds, which have produced many new kinds, and them not barren, as the general opinion is. We make a number of kinds of serpents, worms, flies, fishes, of putrefaction; whereof some are advanced (in effect) to be perfect creatures, like beasts, or birds; and haye sexes, and do propagate. Neither do we this by chance, but we know before-hand, of what matter and commixture, what kind of those creatures, will arise.
We have also particular pools, where we make trials upon fishes, as we have said before of beasts and birds.
We have also places for breed and generation of those kinds of worms, and flies, which are of special use; such as are with you your silk-worms and bees.
I will not hold you long with recounting of our brew-houses, bake-houses and kitchens, where are made divers drinks, breads and meats, rare, and of special effects. Wines we have of drinks of other juice, of fruits, of grains, and roots ; and of mixtures with honey, sugar, manna, and fruits dried and decocted. Also of the tears or wounding of trees, and of the pulp of canes. And these drinks are of several ages, some to the age or last of forty years.
We have drinks also brewed with several herbs, and roots, and spices; yea, with several fleshes, and white-meats; whereof some of the drinks are such as are in effect meat and drink both : so that divers, especially in age, do desire to live with them, with little or no meat, or bread.
And above all, we strive to have drinks of extreme thin parts; to insinuate into the body, and yet without all biting, sharpness, or fretting; insomuch as some of them put upon the back of your hand, will, with a little stay, pass through to the palm, and yet taste mild to the mouth. We have also waters which we ripen into that fashion, as they become nourishing ; so that they are indeed excellent drink; and many will use no other. Breads we have of several grains, roots, and kernels; yea, and some of flesh, and fish, dried; with divers kinds of leavings and seasonings : so that some do extremely move appetites; some do nourish so, as divers do live of them, without any other meat; who live very long So for meats, we have some of them so beaten, and made tender, and mortified, yet without corrupting, as a weak heat of the stomach will turn them into good chylus, as well as a strong heat would meat otherwise prepared. We have some meats also, and breads, and drinks, which
taken by men, enable them to fast long after ; and some other, that used make the very flesh of men's bodies sensibly more hard and tough; and their strength far greater, than otherwise it would be.
We have dispensalories, or shops of medicines; wherein you may easily think, if we have such variety of plants and living creatures, more than you have in Europe, (for we know what you have,) the simples, drugs, and ingredients of medicines, must likewise be in so much the greater variety. We have them likewise of divers ages, and long fermentations. And for their preparations, we have not only all manner of exquisite distillations and separations, and especially by gentle heats and percolations through divers strainers, yea, and substances; but also exact forms of composition, whereby they incorporate almost as they were natural simples. We have also divers mechanical arts, which
you have not; and stuffs made by them; as papers, linen, silks, tissues; dainty works of feathers of wonderful lustre; excellent dyes, and many others: and shops likewise as well for such as are not brought into vulgar use amongst us, as for those
For you must know, that of the things before recited, many of them are grown into use throughout the kingdom; but yet, if they did flow
from our intention, we have of them also for patterns and principals.
We have also furnaces of great diversities, and that keep great diversity of heats ; fierce and quick; strong and constant; soft and mild; blown, quiet, dry, moist; and the like. But above all, we have heats in imitation of the sun's and heavenly bodies' heat, that pass divers inequalities, and (as it were) orbs, progresses and returns, whereby we produce admirable effects. Besides, we have heats of dungs, and of bellies and maws of living creatures, and of their bloods and bodies ; and of hays and herbs laid up moist; of lime unquenched; and such like, Instruments also which generate heat only by motion. And farther, places for strong insolations: and again, places under the earth, which by nature, or art, yield heat. These divers heats we use, as the nature of the operation, which we intend, requireth.
We have also perspective houses, where we make demonstrations of all lights and radiations ; and of all colours; and out of things uncoloured and transparent, we can represent unto you all several colours; not in rain-bows, (as it is in gems and prisms,) but of themselves single. We represent also all multiplications of light, which we carry to great distance; and make so sharp, as to discern small points and lines: also all colorations