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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
THE CATHEDRAL OF CHRIST-CHURCH, , ancient altar-tombs, and the shrine of Frideswide, an OXFORD.
elaborate and magnificent tomb, consisting of three King Henry the Eighth, on dissolving the monas- tiers of tabernacle work, the upper tier of which is teries in this country, determined to apply a portion
| richly ornamented with canopied niches. Many of of the funds arising from them to the erection and the windows were destroyed during the parliamentary endowment of some new collegiate churches and war. Among the monuments are those of Lady Elibishoprics. Thus he added six episcopal sees to the
zabeth Montacute; of Robert Burton, author of the old number, five of which are retained ;-Bristol, Anatomy of Melancholy; of several members of the Chester, Gloucester, Oxford, and Peterborough, (the university, and of other eminent persons who died at two latter having been taken out of Lincoln ;) but the Oxford, while Charles the First held his court at sixth, the bishopric of Westminster, after continuing Christ-Church; also a very fine statue of Dr. Cyril ten years, was abolished in the reign of Edward the Jackson, by our eminent living sculptor Chantrey. Sixth. It is a curious fact, that five other dioceses Part of the cloisters remain. The chapter-house is were contemplated by Henry; viz., Bodmin, Col- | a beautiful specimen of the early English style. chester,' Dunstable, Shrewsbury, and Southwell; ! The following is, we believe, a correct statement of neither of which, owing to the king finding other the dimensions of this cathedral. ways for his money, was ever matured according to Length from east to west. .... . 154 feet. the plan devised. In 1546, he removed the see of
Height of choir ......... 374
IIeight in the western part ..... 411 Oxford from the ancient abbey-church of Osney,
Length ot cross aisle, from north to south 102 where it had been established for five years, to the
Height of steeple. ........ 144 church of St. Frideswide, from that time called Christ
1 It would not be right in our short account of the Church Cathedral; Dr. R. King, abbot of Osney,
building, to pass by without notice “ the bonny Christbecoming the first bishop of Oxford. Antiquaries
Church bells,”which, ten in number, hang in the tower have been eloquent in the praise of the abbey-church
of the Cathedral, and which were brought thither of Osney, which was about half a mile from Oxford,
from Osney Abbey. Nor must we omit to mention assuring us that in extent and beauty, “it was not
“ the Mighty Tom," the largest bell in England, which only the envy of other religious houses in England,
| was also brought from Osney to this church, and has but also beyond the seas."
formed the subject of more than one classical copy of As the venerable structure represented in the plate
verses, On hearing its well-known sound, the students was originally the church of St. Frideswide, on the
of the University take it as a signal to retire within their site of whose monastery the noble and distinguished
respective colleges. Willis says “ Bishop John Fell, college of Christ-Church (first founded by Cardinal
| who built the noble tower in front of the stately gate Wolsey,) also stands, we cannot forbear giving the
| of Christ-Church, removed thither, out of the camlegendary history of this lady. Frideswide, anciently
panile or bell-tower in the cathedral, the great bell honoured as the patroness of Oxford, was the daughter
called Tom; which Thomas, now called Great Tom of of Didanus, a petty prince in those parts, who had
Christ-Church, had this inscription anciently on it:founded an abbey. Algar, Earl of Leicester, fell
In Thomæ laude deeply in love with the maiden, and coveted her for
Resono Bim Bom sine fraude." his wife, though she was a nun, and had been set Which monkish couplet of bad latin may be thus apart as sacred from the world. Meeting with a " done into English refusal, he wickedly resolved to carry her off by force;
In praise of Thomas, I repeat but the virgin, as it is said, miraculously warned of
My Dong! Dixg! Dong! without deceit. his design, withdrew privately in a boat, to a place“ Dr. Tresham, a papist, is said to have baptized this ten miles from Oxford, called Benton, where she lay bell by the name of Mary, when it was removed from concealed with two of her ladies, in a forsaken hut Osney to Christ-Church, where he was canon, for the covered with ivy. Algar in the mean time, following joy of Queen Mary's reign." The excellent Dr. Fell up his purpose, threatened to destroy the town of had it recast in 1680, by Christopher Hodson of Oxford, if the inhabitants did not inform him where London, with additional metal *. Frideswide was hidden; till at length, being struck Diameter of the Bell . . . . . . 7 feet 1 inch. with blindness near the north gate, for his bold im From the crown to the rim ....5 9 piety, he acknowledged the hand of Providence, im
Thickness of striking-place....0 , 6 plored and obtained the virgin's prayers, was restored Weight . .......... 18000 lbs ! to sight, and, going home, ceased to trouble her more.
Weight of Clapper . . . . . . . 342 lbs.
* For an account of the different bells in Europe, and of their “Froin which time," as the legend declares, "for divers
respective weights, see Saturday Magazine, Vol. I., p. 21. M. ages, none of our kings durst enter Oxford, lest they should have met with a like disaster!" She died in
The Love OF TRUTH is a most important habit to cultivate, 739.
and it claims an alliance with the heart as well as the Christ-Church Cathedral is supposed to have been
head. It must be grounded on a virtuous disposition, for
no vicious person can be a lover of truth. We ought built about the year 1200. It has much of the Nor
always to remember that our reasoning faculties were not man style, with a tower in the centre, surmounted by given us to exercise them as mere whim or fancy might a spire of early English architecture. The exterior dictate, but to be the active instruments of guiding us to is greatly hidden by the college-buildings with which truth, and promoting our happiness as rational and imit is surrounded; being on the east of the grand
mortal creatures. To enter into verbal or written dispusquare of Christ Church. The interior contains many
tations for the mere sake of argument, is a pernicious
practice. It will, if continued for any length of time, interesting objects of attention. The arches of the
make a person altogether insensible to truth, and will unnave, part of which have been dernolished, are in a hinge the whole fabric of his mind. Unless, therefore, a double series. The choir, which was wainscoted with love of truth occupies a conspicuous station among our oak in the time of Charles the First, is very handsome; mental excellencies, we shall make no progress in real the roof, a fine piece of stonework, put up by Wolsey,
knowledge. Our mind will present an unseemly and being richly groined and adorned with pendants. The
disorderly assemblage of contradictory systems and opinions :
it will be without order, symmetry, or grace, and the clouds pulpit is antique, and curiously carved. On the north
of prejudice will hang over the chaotic mass, just admitting of the choir are chapels of a later period than the rest as much light through the hazy medium, as to make the of the building. In the Dean's chapel are some scattered fragments of truth darkly visible.-BLAKEY.
ON THE MORAL AND PHYSICAL CONDITION | design in the operation of that first cause to which it OF MAN.
owes its being; and thus it proclaims the existence of a living and intelligent Creator.
Turning again from the contemplation of the It is not in respect to his physical nature alone, works of God in the universe, to the consideration of that man is so highly elevated in nature. In respect his own powers, man perceives that not only can he to his moral and religious nature also, man enjoys a render those powers available for the production of high privilege in the converse which it is permitted certain remote effects, but, further, that he can render him to hold with the Most High in his works. those other external powers, over whose action he has
However a knowledge of the truths of Natural no control, available to the same end. Not in any Science may offer to him the means of augmenting way modifying those powers, for that is impossible, his temporal welfare, did the study thereof produce the mode or law of their action being by the will an influence pernicious to him, in regard to that wel- of the great First Cause,-but applying them. Thus. fare which is eternal, who would not wish that it he can avail himself of the gravitating force, or should for ever be to him as a sealed book? But it is weight, of a stone, to produce either pressure or not so. The principles of physical science, if rightly impact; the action of the stone is the same, but in viewed, point directly to some of the great and most the one case, the impulses of gravitation which it important truths of REVELATION ; above all, they continually receives, are as continually destroyed, lead directly to an assured knowledge of the exist. | whilst in the other, their accumulated energy is ence and attributes of God. “For the invisible destroyed altogether. Nay, further, he has power to things of him from the creation of the world are bring about the action of these natural causes upon clearly seen, being understood by those things which one another. He can bring, for instance, matter are made, even his eternal power and GODEAD*." | under the action of force, and he can subject both to
There is a perpetual chain of cause and effect the influence of time and space. He can, further, visible through all Nature. Wherever man directs induce the operation of these combinations in every his investigation, he finds causes which are but the possible degree upon one another. effects of others, and these of others in a perpetual Now, looking into the natural world, he perceives chain. Is it wonderful, that he should look for a that there must have taken place in it some such first cause, to which this infinity of effects stands in operation as that of which he thus finds himself the same relation that he does to such as are the capable. All that now exists, might have existed consequences of his own actions.
as it does now; there might have been every atom Although his search for that first cause among the of matter, every particle of force, and the same beings whose existence is made known to him through space occupied through the same time, and these the medium of sensation, be in vain, yet, ascending subject to the same laws; and yet, had not these been through the chain of causes, he has a distinct con- | brought under the operation or influence of one sciousness that he is approximating to the first cause. another, there would have remained a state of things, The number of facts which he perceives to stand in the disorder of which it is beyond the power, or even the relation of causes to the rest, continually dimi- the province, of imagination to conceive. The whole nishes as he proceeds, until at length, he arrives at would have remained without form and void, replete certain of them, beyond which his senses refuse to with the elements of disorder, and the subject of carry him ; and these seem to him to stand next in perpetual change. order to the first cause. They may be classed under Here, then, we trace again, evidence of the operathe heads of TIME, SPACE, MATTER, and FORCE, tion of a First Cause, bringing together what we
In considering the relations of Time, Space, Mat- have termed second causes, and thus applying their ter, and Force, one of the first things that strikes us, combined action according to the laws which He has is the uniformity of those relations. Such that the himself first imposed upon them, according to a same cause shall, under the same circumstances, method of operation to which man finds something always produce the same effect. This uniformity similar, but inconceivably inferior in degree, in his constitutes a Law; and each particular relation of own power. cause and effect, thus uniform, is a LAW OF NATURE. There is yet another proof of the existence of the
With regard to such actions as are the immediate Deity, drawn from strictly scientific considerations, subjects of man's own will, every one perceives that and founded indeed in the very principles of science. he has the power of modifying and varying them, Not only, do the planets revolve round the sun, together with the sequence of cause and effect grows but about certain axes within themselves, produing out of each, in every conceivable degree; and that cing thereby the alternations of day and night; he has also the power of adjusting his effort as first and these axes are inclined at certain angles to the cause, so as to produce a certain remote effect, and planes of their revolution, thereby bringing about neither more nor less than that effect. This adap- the variety of the seasons. Now to effect all this, tation of the primary cause (and with it of all the as we find it effected, the one original impulse must intermediate causes,) to the remote effect, he calls have been made with a certain force, in a certain DESIGN. It is this power of design, or contrivance, direction, and at a certain point, on the surface of which distinguishes the relation of cause and effect, in each planet. Here, then is design. And when we living and intelligent beings, from that which exists consider that the whole of animated nature is conin the operation of inanimate agents and unintelligent trived with a view to the alternations of light and beings. Wherever we trace this relation of cause heat,—the green leaf, the bud, the blossom, and the and effect, coupled with design, we may conclude the fruit, in vegetables ; the clothing, the internal orexistence and operation of an intelligent being.. ganization, and the principle of life, in animals—do
Now this design is MANIFEST throughout Nature. we hesitate to admit that design to be the emanation Every blade of grass, every bud, every leaf, every of infinite wisdom? blossom that the wind strews around us, every one If I wished to ascend or descend a hill, or pass of those organized and living beings by which we are from one portion of it to another, with the least possurrounded, each of these, in its order, proclaims sible muscular exertion or expense of force, a slight * Romans i, 20. consideration would show me that the precise path to
be pursued, would be dependent on the form and physical nature, to the God who made him, so forinclination of the different parts of the hill, upon the cibly present to the mind as the degradation of his nature of my own muscular energies, and upon other moral nature, and its fall from that perfect image in data, of which I could scarcely by any possibility which we may reasonably conclude that it too, as acquire a knowledge, and on which, when known, well as his physical nature, was first created. my intellectual powers would be quite insufficient to
[Abridged from Moseley's Mechanics applied to the Arts.] enable me to found a conclusion. Under these circumstances, the chances are infinitely greater, that I should select the wrong than the right path. Now,
HINDOO RIDDLES. if I were to project a stone up the hill, or obliquely The Hindoos (especially their females) take great across it, or suffer it to roll down it, whatever ob- delight in riddles, apologues, and fables. By this stacles opposed its motion, whether they arose from method they convey pleasure, instructior, or reproof: friction, resistance, or any other cause, constant or see them in their marriage feasts, or in their “evencasual, still would the stone, when left to itself, ever ings at home," how pleasantly they pass their time pursue that path in which there was the least possible in thus puzzling each other, and calling forth the expenditure of its efforts ; and if its path were fixed, talents of the young. The story of Sinthā-manni then would its efforts be the least possible in that and Vera-māran is a striking instance of the impath. This extraordinary principle is called that otportance which they attach to riddles. least action; its existence and universal prevalence, The king, called Veerasoora-tvora-tān, and his admit of complete mathematical demonstration.
nobles went out with their chariots, horsemen, footEvery particle of dust blown about in the air, men, and elephants, to hunt the savage beasts of every particle of that air itself, has its motions sub- the desert. After some time the king complained of jected to it. Every ray of light that passes from one thirst, when the prime-minister took him to a deep medium into another, deflects from its rectilinear well, and whilst his majesty was looking down, his course, that it may choose for itself the path of least faithless minister pushed him in; he then returned possible action, and for a similar reason, in passing to the capital, published the death of the sovereign, and through the atmosphere, it bends itself in a parti- proclaimed himself king. The queen of the deceased cular curve down to the eye. The mighty planets too, monarch immediately went to a distant country, and that make their circuits ever within those realms of procured a living by selling fire-wood. Not long space, which we call our system; the comets, whose after her residence there, some officers, on a hunting path is beyond it; all these are alike made to move excursion, saw her, and told their sovereign of a so as best to economize the forces developed in their majestic woman they had seen selling fire-wood. progress.
The king sent for her, became enamoured with her, Now, those forces which are not developed by and determined to make her his wife ; but she, on living beings, are planted in the substances in which pretence of going out a little, departed to another they reside, by the hand of God, and subjected to country. After travelling some days she came in the laws which he from the beginning imposed upon sight of the cottage of a despised pariah, and, on them. It has pleased the Almighty then that the going near to it, he came out, and, seeing her noble works of his hands should every-where be wrought in mien, bowed to the earth. She said “I am a seller of accordance with that principle of least effort, which | fire-wood, and beg you will allow me to live near to he has also implanted as a principle of our nature in you.” The pariah replied, “ Madam, you must be of us, and which, thus impelled, we ever develop more another rank; you look like a queen. I will build or less, in our own feeble efforts. The difference lies your majesty a cottage, and supply your wants." only in this, that in Him this principle acts controlled She had not been long there before she brought forth by infinite wisdom, and therefore, its operation is a son to the late Veerasoora-toora-tān, to whom she perfect; with us, it manifests itself under the guidance gave the name of Vera-māran. The infant was of a limited knowledge and most erring judgment, anointed with oil, and rubbed with holy ashes. The and its developement partakes of their imperfections. pariah went forth, and blew the victorious chank,
In the adjustment of his efforts, so as to produce put up the triumphant flag, purchased anklets, a the required effect with the least posible expense of waist-chain, bracelets, armlets, and neck-rings, for force--it has been shown then, again, that (according the infant prince. So great was his joy, that he to a great truth of revelation) man is created in the made gifts in money, robes, and cows to the brahimage of God, and that he retains the resemblance. mins, and offerings to the gods. The principle of force lodged in each particle of In course of years, the youth became exceedingly matter, has been believed to be but a direct emana- beautiful and accomplished. In the battle or the tion of the Deity, there acting continually, and at chase he was always the hero of the field. He every moment. The scrupulous economy of force, having heard of the fascinating princess Sinthāthe wonderful store (if the expression may be used) | manni, determined to try to get her for his wife, but which Nature sets by it, points to that conclusion. I was told she would not give her hand to any one who
Man was created in the image of God. And it could not explain all her riddles, and those who failed has been shown, that, in the possession of a power, were to forfeit their lives. His soul was fixed on the almost absolute, over the material existences around attempt; and, notwithstanding many princes had him; and, in the exercise of an intellect whose re- fallen a sacrifice to the talented princess, and in sources no effort would seem to exhaust; and, in the despite of the entreaties of his friends, he took his manner in which he exercises that power and that departure for the palace of Sinthä-manni. When he intellect; he may yet be said to retain traces of that came in sight of the city, he was perfectly astonished original from which he first sprung, and that image with its splendour. Now he thought of all he had wherein he was first created.
heard of the nine hundred. and ninety-nine gates; Do not these reflections at once suggest the con- of the ponds and streams of perfumed waters ; of trast of his moral condition? What does this de- the groves ; of the fair deity of the palace, with her scription of his majestic bearing in creation, the attendants, the astronomers, the heralds, the bearers extent of his physical powers, the resources of his of incense, the beautiful footmen, the nobles, the intellect, and his resemblance, in respect to his musicians; he thought on her banners of gold, her throne of precious stones and gold; her shield, made hand for him to desist, and said, “I was your visiter of the same metal; her couch made of the nine - I am conquered. Come, sit on my throne." She precious stones : and his mind became enraptured then made obeisance to him ; the courtiers worshipwith the prospect of having her for his own. With ped him; and Veera-māran became the husband of jov he entered the fort without asking permission, the beautiful Sinthā-manni. and gallopped about the streets; after which he By this account, we gain a clearer view of the ordered his attendant to make a triumphal arch of importance attached to the riddle proposed at the fragrant flowers. He then spread his carpet on the marriage of Sampson ; of the Psalmist, who said. ground, and sate there, that he might be seen by the “ I will open my dark sayings ;" of the riddle “ put passers by. They soon began to inquire about his forth" by the Prophet Ezekiel at the Divine comcountry, and his object in coming to their city; and mand; of the skill and industry of the Queen of when they heard it, they laughed and clapped their Sheba ; and of the adroitness of Solomon who gave hands, saying, “Another madman has come to ex- | an answer “ to all her questions.” plain the riddles of the princess, and to add another
(Roberts's Oriental Illustrations of the Scriptures.] to the list of those whose lives have been sacrificed to their ambition.”
He arose, and went on till he came to the tenth gate, when the guards pushed him away, and treated THE LINNET AND THE HAWK. A FABLE. him with great contempt. He then sent a letter to
Too oft when Force and Cunning seek the Princess by a confidential person, stating his
To injure or delude the weak, object, and requesting to be allowed to come into her
They prosper in their plan of shame, presence. The next day Veera-māran stood before
Whilst Vengeance waits to take her aim; the beautiful, the splendid Sinthā-manni ; there she
For, till the cup of sin is full, was seated on her throne of diamonds and rubies ;
She walks unheard, with feet of wool!
Again, some cases I have known there were the warriors, with their shields of gold;
Of Force and Fraud at once o'erthrown there were the poets, there the players on instru
By guardian spirits, who defend ments, the tambour, the harps, and the lutes. Near
The steps of Innocence, their friend. her were females of great wisdom, and all around
Thus Una* in the wilderness were garlands of flowers; there was the precious
Was succoured in her sore distress; ointment, and there were those who sprinkled the
The lion (says the legend sweet)
Crouched harmless at the maiden's feet. guests with perfumed waters. Veera-māran looked
And so the simple may prevail, around, and then with great dignity walked up to the
When Guilt and its devices fail. Princess, and requested to have a scat by her side,
To these reflections shall be tack'd on the throne. She then commenced her riddles
A Fable, which is nearly Fact. (which in number amounted to a thousand); but
Where London spreads its precincts wide, Veera-māran, so fast as she proposed them, gave
There's many a house, whose smoky side, the most complete explanation. The Princess
In lane, or court, or alley plac'd,
Bears tokens of a rural taste, became greatly agitated, as she thought she must
And ’midst a busy town's alarms, now give her hand to this young stranger. They
Tells of the country, and its charms. sprinkled her with rose-water, all the courtiers were
Here on the window-sills are set, much excited, and one thing only remained to be
Geranium, myrtle, mignonette; done, before this wonderful transaction should come
And higher 'mongst created things, to its crisis. The Prince had to give her a riddle,
Canaries trim their golden wings, which if she failed to explain, she became his own ;
Or wrapped within his dingy coat
A goldfinch strains his little throat. but if she succeeded, his life was the forfeit. Veera
True he is caged: but what of that? māran boldly gave his riddle, and retired for the
He sings, and cares not for the cat. night. In the course of the evening, a beautiful
A LINNET, in his prime of song, female, in elegant attire, came to his lodgings, and
And happy as the day was long, said, “O) you who have beautiful arms, I have come
Though in a dark and narrow way, to touch your majestic feet, and gain your favour."
Poured forth his merry roundelay. He inquired who she was, when she replied, “I am
His bars unknown; (though bars indeed) the daughter of the Prime Minister to the Princess
His little manger full of seed;
What danger should he apprehend, Sintha-manni, to whom, I am told, you have pro
In health and tune, with man his friend ? posed a riddle, which she cannot explain. Now I
But ah! he shrinks with sudden fear, wish you to unfold it to me, that I may tell the
And feels a mortal foe is near! meaning in the morning.” The Prince then said,
Wheeling around in rapid flight “Give me the jewels and ornaments which you now
A cruel HawK has caught the sight, have on as a pledge, and I will unfold the riddle.”
Has seen the bird! but blind with rago This being done, she expresed a wish to retire for a
And fierce desire, has seen no cage. moment, but did not return.
So when to glut his ruthless maw
With the poor trembler that he saw, The morning came, and there was the Princess,
He headlong pounc'd the prize to gain, with great pomp seated on her throne. In her hand
The bars of iron stunn'd his brain ! was a large sword, and near her were the execu
Reeling he fell, with broken limb, tioners, ready to drag off the body of Veera-māran.
And no one stopp'd to pity him t. She then, with great triumph, explained the riddle
So may they fall whose base intent he had proposed the day before, and was about to
Is laid against the innocent: order him for execution, when he begged to be
So may some barrier in the way,
Betwixt the wicked and their prey allowed to relate a dream he had during the night.
Though hid at first from mortal sight, This being granted, he said, “A young female, dis
Prevent the wrong, DEFEND THE RIGHT! M. guised like a parrot of the groves, came and pledged her jewels to get the meaning of my riddle. I will
Spenser's Fairy Queen, Book I., Canto 3.
+ That a Hawk did lately fly at a Linne!, in a cage which was susshow them to you." He then began to take them
| pended against the window of a house, in a crowded neighbourhood from his waist-cloth, when the Princess waved her in the city is a fact. He was taken, and is still living.