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three are one. 8. And there are three that bear witness in
the fathers who wrote upon the Arian controversy; not in Jerome or Chrysostom; and though Novatian seven times refers to the "Ego et Pater unum sumus," he never refers to this text. From a passage in St. Augustine, contra Maximinum, lib. iii. c. 22. which is subjoined, it probably was not in the copy he used. It is not in the King's MSS. and that gives v. 8. thus: "There are three that bear witness, the Spirit, the water, and the blood," omitting" in the earth;" and "and these three "agree in one." Dr. Benson thinks it was first written as a comment in the margin, and from thence introduced into the text. It is, however, in the Vulgate and Complutensian editions, in the Latin version used by the African church; and in the fifth century, the African prelates, near 450, in their assembly, at Carthage, A. D. 484. appear to refer to it. Fulgentius, a father of the sixth century, cites it; and in the ninth century, Walafrid Strabo writes a comment upon it, and imputes its omission to unfaithful translators or transcribers. Cyprian, who wrote in the third century, (earlier than any MSS. extant,) has two passages (subjoined) which imply that it was in his copy; and there is a passage in Tertullian, (also subjoined,) which implies that it was in his also. Dr. Hammond thinks it genuine, and there are some internal arguments in its favour. The 6th ver. mentions the Spirit, 7ò Пlvɛũμá, a neutral noun, as bearing witness; and then the 7th and 8th refer to three, as bearing record in heaven, and three in earth; and the word three is in each instance expressed in the masculine gender, “pas is." The transition from the neuter to the masculine is natural, if persons were to be spoken of, not things; and if persons were spoken of in v. 7. it would lead to personify things in v. 8. and to speak of them, though neuters, in the masculine gender. The witnesses on earth too, though they might be extended to thirty, are confined to three, to correspond in number with the witnesses in heaven; and the "7 v," with the article in v. 8. (if genuine) would be improper, had not the occurred before. And if .7. be omitted, how can the masculine I be accounted for in v. 8.? It is not improbable that some very early transcriber passed from the “μαρτορείες,” in
earth, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three
v. 7. to the same word in v. 8. and that this mistake caused the omission in subsequent copies. This is the opinion of Maldonate and Dr. Hammond. Supposing, however, the verse genuine, does it in any material degree, if it all, support the doctrine of the Trinity; and if not, is it of advantage to lay any stress upon what may be doubted or questioned? That doctrine is not here in question. The point under consideration is, what foundation is there for the belief, that Jesus is the Son of God: and the apostle says, there are three who attest it in heaven, the Father," the Son, and the Holy Ghost: and three who attest it on earth, the water, the Spirit, and the blood. Of the three former, he says, they are one; of the latter, that they agree in one. But what is meant by the expression, they are one? Is more meant than that they agree-are unanimous of one mind? The former expression is, " 7peïç iv elo," the latter "% Îpeïç eiç 7ò iv hơi ;" and the "76 v," with the definite article, implies that the latter may be called one, in the sense in which the former are. The word, "," is certainly used in other passages, where nothing more can be meant than unanimity, or unity of object or design, not unity or identity of nature. In John xvii. 11. our Saviour is described as praying to the Father," that they whom God had given him might be one, (¿,) as we." So John xvii. 22. "that they may be one, as we “ are one,” ἵνα ὦσιν ἕν, καθὼς ἡμεῖς ἐν ἐσμεν. And in 1 Cor. iii. 8. he that soweth, and he that watereth, though different persons, are said to be one (v), because each has the same object and design. See very full discussions upon the genuineness of this passage, 2 Hale's Trinity, 132. to 226. and Bp. Burgess's Tract. The passage, John x. 30. "I and the Father are one," sya nai ὁ Παλὴρ ἐν ἐσμεν, seems stronger than this to prove the Son's divinity: the plural verb applicable to the plurality of persons, the neuter adjective, pointing out the unity of nature. "One," (says Cyril of Jerusalem,)" because of the dignity as to "the Godhead, since God begat God:" ἓν διὰ Τὸ κατὰ τὴν θεότητα ἀξίωμα, ἐπειδὴ Θεὸς Sedy ¿yévnoεy. Cat. 11. Oxford ed. 142. "One," says Maldonate," in nature and power; for the argument is this: No one can take them out of my hands:
agree () in one. 9. If (m) we receive the witness of men, the
"my Father, who gave them me, is greater "than all; and no one can take them out "of his hands. But I and my Father are "one; so that if no one can take them "from him, no one can take them from "me. Why? Because I have the same "nature, the same divinity, the same in"vincible power he has. And the Jews "treated it in this light, for they took up "stones to stone him, for that he being a "man made himself God." So Augustine: "Vis ire in alteram partem, et dicas, "aliud est Pater, aliud Filius-alius est, "recte dicis, aliud non recte; alius enim "est Filius, quia non est ipse qui Pater-et "alius Pater, quia non est ipse qui Filius : "non tamen aliud, sed hoc ipsum et Pater "et Filius. Cum dicit Filius " Ego et "Pater unum sumus," utrumque audi, "unum et sumus. Si unum, non ergo di"versum: si sumus, ergo et Pater et "Filius: sumus enim, non diceret de uno
— unum non diceret de diversis." 9 Aug. Tract. 36. p. 115. So again, 9 Aug. Tract. 37. "Cum audit "sumus" abscedat confusus Sabellianus: cum audit "unum," "Arrianus." So de Trin. vol. iv. lib. 1. "Ego et Pater unum sumus: scilicet na"tura; non persona." Idacius also says, "sumus," to shew they are two persons; "unum," to shew they have only one nature. See also Cyprian, Tr. 109. Chrys. de Fide in Christo. (Basil ed.) vol. iii. p. 422.3 August. de Trin. lib. iv. c. 8, 9. p. 124. et lib. vi. c. 2.-4 August. j de Trin. lib. i. 9 August. in Johannem. 36, 37.71.
witness of God is greater: for this is the witness of God, which
"Sanctum. Quis dubitat Petram et Aquam "diversas esse naturas: sed quia Christus "et Spiritus Sanctus unius sunt ejusdem66 que naturæ, ideo cum dicitur "Petra et "Aqua unum sunt," ex eâ parte recte
accipi potest, quia istæ duæ res quarum "est diversa natura, aliarum quoque signa "sunt rerum, quarum est una natura. "Tria itaque novimus de corpore Do"mini exisse cum penderet in ligno: pri"mo spiritum, unde scriptum est, "Et "inclinato capite tradidit Spiritum." De"inde quando latus ejus Lanceà perfora"tum est, sanguinem et aquam. Quæ tria, si 66 per seipsa intuemur, diversas habent singula quæque substantias: ac per hoc non "sunt unum: si vero ea, quæ his signifi"cata sunt, velimus inquirere, non ab"surde occurrit ipsa Trinitas, quæ unus "solus verus summus Deus est, Pater et "Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus, de quibus ve"rissime dici potuit, "Tres sunt Testes,
et tres unum sunt," ut nomine Spiritus "significatum accipiamus patrem Deum: "de ipso quippe adorando loquitur Domi"nus, ubi ait, Spiritus est Deus: Nomi66 ne autem sanguinis filium, quia verbum caro factum est: et nomine Aqua Spi"ritum Sanctum.
Cypr. Tr. 109. (A.D. 251.) “Dicit Do"minus, Ego et Pater unum sumus. Et " iterum de Patre et Filio et Spiritu Sancto "scriptum est, "Et hi tres unum sunt."
Cypr. Epist. 203. (A.D. 256.) In speaking of the effect of baptism upon heretics, he says, "Si templum Dei factus est, quæro, cujus Dei? Si creatoris, non "potuit qui in eum non credidit. Si "Christi, nec hujus fieri potest Templum, "qui negat Deum Christum. Si Spiritus "Sancti, cum tres unum sint, quomodo "Spiritus Sanctus placatus esse ei potest, qui aut Patris aut Filii inimicus est."
The passages in St. Augustine, Cyprian, and Tertullian, are as follow: (Contra Maximinum, lib. iii. c. 22.) "Sane falli te "nolo in Epistolâ Joannis Apostoli, ubi "ait "Tres sunt Testes, Spiritus, aqua, et "sanguis et tres unum sunt: ne forte "dicas spiritum, et aquam et sanguinem "diversas esse substantias, et tamen dic"tum esse, tres unum sunt. Propter hoc "admonui, ne fallaris. Hæc enim sacra❝menta sunt, in quibus non quid sint, "sed quid ostendant, semper attenditur: "quoniam signa sunt rerum, aliud exis"tentia, aliud significantia. Si ergo illa "quæ his significantur, intelliguntur, ipsa"laritatem." "invenientur unius esse substantiæ.
Tertullian (adversus Praxeam, c. 25.) "Cæterum de meo sumet (inquit Jesus) "sicut ipse de Patris. Ita connexus Patris "in Filio, et Filii in Paracleto, tres efficit "cohærentes, alterum ex altero. Qui tres “unum sunt; non unus, quo modo dictum "est, Ego et Pater unum sumus: ad sub"stantiæ unitatem, non ad numeri singu
() v. 8. "Agree in one," i. e. “esta
"Tanquam si dicamus, "Petra et Aquablish the same point."
(m) v. 9. "If, &c." i. e. " if in ordinary 66 cases we rely on human testimony, how
he hath testified of his Son. 10. He that believeth on the Son of God hath the (n) witness (o) in himself: he that believeth not God, hath made (p) him a liar; because he believeth not the (q) record that God gave of his Son. 11. And this (q) is the (q) record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. 12. He that hath (r) the Son, hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God, hath not life.
The Gospel. John xx. 19. THE same (s) day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the (t) doors were shut, where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, came Jesus, and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, "Peace be unto you." 20. And when he had so said, he shewed unto them his (u) hands and his (u) side. Then were the disciples glad when they saw the (r) Lord. 21. Then said Jesus to them again, "Peace be unto you:
can we resist this, the testimony of "God ?"
(n) v. 10. "The witness in himself." From the extraordinary influences conferred by the Holy Spirit.
(o) "Witness," viz. (of God.) The King's MS. reads μαρτυρίαν 15 Θεό.
(p)" Made him a liar," i. e. "him as one, by not believing him."
(q) v. 11. "This is the record, &c." i. e. "this attestation of God to our Saviour's pretensions and religion, is the proof "that he hath given us eternal life."
(r) v. 12. "Hath the Son," i. e. "be"lieves in him, professes his religion, and "follows his commandments."
(s) v. 19. "The same day;" the day of his resurrection. This is the same appearance as that mentioned, Luke xxiv. 36. (ante, 142.)
(t)" The doors, &c." or "the doors "where the disciples were assembled, were "shut for fear, &c." Not to have assembled, would have been neglect of duty,
Second Sunday after Easter.
ALMIGHTY God, who hast given
The Epistle. 1 Pet. ii. 19. THIS is thank-worthy, if a man for conscience (a) toward God
many days hence;" and it was not till the Day of Pentecost, Whitsunday, that the gift of the Holy Ghost was conferred. See Acts ii. 1. post,
(a) v. 19. "Conscience toward God," i. e. "as matter of duty, for the sake of "religion."
endure grief, suffering wrongfully. (b) 20. For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently? but if, when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with with God. 21. For even hereunto were ye (c) called: because Christ also suffered for (d) us, leaving us (d)
(b) "Wrongfully," i. e. "without cause." The contrast is between suffering when it is deserved, and suffering when it is not. In the latter case, patience, as matter of duty, has great merit.
(c) v. 21. "Called." One of the objects of Christianity was to try the constancy of its followers: they were to be tried as gold is tried. Zech. xiii. 9. See ante, 28. note on Rom. xiii. 11. The repeated and pressing exhortations to perseverance and constancy contained in the epistles, imply pretty strongly, that the first preachers and professors of Christianity met with considerable opposition and difficulties: courage would not be recommended were there nothing to put it to the test. The prevalence of Christianity, the persecution of the early converts, and the blameable nature of their lives, are noticed by Tacitus and the younger Pliny. "Abolendo Rumori (of having himself com"manded the burning of Rome) Nero sub"didit reos, et quæsitissimis pænis adfecit, "quos per flagitia invisos, vulgus Christ"ianos appellabat. Auctor nominis ejus, Christus, Tiberio imperitante, per Procuratorem Pontium Pilatum, supplicio adfectus erat. Repressaque in præ"sens exitiabilis superstitio, rursus erum"pebat, non modo per Judeam, originem "ejus mali, sed per urbem etiam. Igitur primo correpti qui fatebantur, deinde "indicio eorum multitudo ingens, haud "perinde in crimine incendii, quam odio "humani generis convicti sunt. Et per"euntibus addita ludibria, ut ferarum "tergis contecti, laniatu canum interirent: "aut crucibus affixi, aut flammandi, atque "ubi defecisset dies, in usum nocturni lu"minis urerentur. Tac. lib. xv. c. 44." In
an example, that ye should follow his steps: his steps: 22. who did (e) no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth: 23. who when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed (g) himself to him that judgeth righteously; 24. who his own self (h) bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we,
"quod essent soliti stato die ante lucem "convenire, carmenque Christo quasi Deo "dicere secum invicem : seque sacramento "non in scelus aliquod obstringere, sed ne "furta, ne latrocinia, ne adulteria com"mitterent, ne fidem fallerent, ne deposi"tum appellati abnegarent. Quibus per"actis morem discedendi fuisse, rursusque "coeundi ad capiendum cibum, promis
cuum tamen, et innoxium. Sed nihil "aliud inveni, quam superstitionem pra"vam et immodicam, ideoque dilatâ cogni❝tione ad consulendum te decucurri. Visa "est enim mihi res digna consultatione, "maxime propter periclitantium nume"rum; multi enim omnis ætatis, omnis or"dinis, utriusque sexus etiam vocantur in "periculum, et vocabuntur. Neque enim "civitates tantum, sed vicos etiam atque agros superstitionis istius contagio pervagata est." Trajan's answer was, "Conquirendi non sunt: si deferantur et "arguantur, puniendi sunt. Pliny Epist. "lib. x. ep. 97."
(d) "Us," "his," or "you:" (e) v. 22. "Who did no sin." on verse 24.
and iμv. See note
(g) v. 23. "Threatened not, but com"mitted himself, &c." St. Peter perhaps referred to the two expressions of our Saviour whilst upon the cross, recorded by St. Luke: "Father, forgive them, for "they know what they do, Luke xxiii. "34. ;" and, "Father, into thy hands I "commend my spirit, Luke xxiii. 46."
(h) v. 24. "Bare our sins, &c." St. Peter evidently had in view that prophetic chapter, (Isaiah liii.) according to which, the Messiah was to be one of whom it might be affirmed, that "he had done no "violence, neither was any deceit in his
a letter from the younger Pliny to Trajan,"mouth;" it was to be true of him, that for advice how to act against the Christians, after noticing that many of them had recanted, he says, "Affirmabant autem, hanc
"he was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth;" that "he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter,
"fuisse summam vel culpæ suæ, vel erroris," and as a sheep before his shearers is
being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed. 25. For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.
lay down my life for the sheep. "16. And other (m) sheep I have, "which are not of this fold: them "also I must bring, and they "shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd."
The Gospel. John x. 11. JESUS said, "I am the good shepherd (i) the good shep"herd giveth his life for the "sheep. 12. But he that is an "hireling, and not the shepherd, "whose own the sheep are not, "seeth the wolf coming, and "leaveth the sheep, and fleeth: "and the wolf catcheth them, and "scattereth the sheep. 13. The ried 13. The "hireling fleeth, because he is an "hireling, and careth not for the
Saint Mark's Day.
ALMIGHTY God, who hast instructed thy holy Church with the heavenly doctrine of thy Evangelist Saint Mark; Give us grace, that being not like children carried away with every blast of vain doctrine, we may be established in the truth the truth of thy holy Gospel, sheep. 14. I am the good shep-through Jesus Christ our Lord. "herd, and know my sheep, and Amen. "am known of mine. 15. As the "Father knoweth me, even so (k) "know I the Father: and I (
"dumb, so he openeth not his mouth;" and that he was wounded for our trans"gressions, he was bruised for our iniqui"ties, the chastisement of our peace was "upon him, and with his stripes we are "healed: all we like sheep have gone astray, " and the Lord hath lain on him the ini"quity of us all, and he bare the sins of "many. Isaiah liii. 7. 9. 12.”
(i) v. 11. "Shepherd." Under which character the Messiah is often spoken of in the prophets. See ante, 58. note on Matt. ii. 5.
(k) v. 15. "Even so, &c." And is not the claim of this high knowledge some proof of Christ's divinity? "The things of "God knoweth no one, but the Spirit of "God, 1 Cor. ii. 11." And who of an inferior nature can know God himself? There are other passages in St. John in which our Saviour identifies himself with the Father in a way for which, if he were not God, we could not account. "I am "in the Father, and the Father in me,' "John xiv. 11." "He that hath seen me "hath seen the Father, John xiv. 9. & "John xii. 45." "And all mine are thine, " and thine are mine." là iμà távra Oà lσTI,
The Epistle. Ephes. iv. 7. (n) UNTO every one of us is given
xai τà σà iμá; "Holy Father, keep, through "thine own name, those whom thou hast given me, that they may be one as we are. "Ev nadw's Яpeis. John xvii. 10. 11." Vaill. 29.
(2) "I lay down, &c." A prediction therefore that he should lay down his life for his followers; and an intimation also, that the laying it down was his own act; and he so explains it in the words following: "Therefore doth my Father love
me, because I lay down my life, that I "might take it again. No man (dels) "taketh it from me, but I lay it down of "myself: I have power to lay it down, and "I have power to take it again. This "commandment have I received of my "Father." See ante, 143. note on Luke xxiv. 46.
(m) v. 16. "Other sheep," i. e. "the "Gentiles." See note on Ps. lxxii. 8.
(n) The object of St. Paul in this portion of Scripture is to prevent any from overvaluing those persons on whom the higher gifts of the Spirit were conferred, or undervaluing those who had only the lower gifts, the gifts not being acquired by the merit of the person on whom they were conferred, but bestowed as might best.