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fixth he fows five falls more with the produce of the first, and twentyfive with the produce of the second ; in all chirty falls. The seventh year he rows with the first and second, as above, thirty falls, and with the third twenty-five more : in all ffty-five. The eighth, with the produce of the frit, second, and third, fifty-five ; and with that of the fourth, a hundred and fifty : in all two hondred and five. It will be necessary that he save the seeds of this last one year more, before he can have enough for carrying on his experiments properly : so that about the tenth year he may be in a condition to begin his experiments upon that particular kind of grass. How few private experimenters would have patience for this?
· The next discouraging circumstance that would occur to a prie ) vate person in this walk, would be the unavoidable trouble and expence attending these experiments. For every one of those plots in which the grass-seeds are sown, must be weeded with greater care than is neceflary for the borders of the best kept flower-garden ; as the least falk of other grasses coming up among them would mar. the, experiment: nor is it possible for a private person to obtain operators in almost any case, who will have accuracy for performing this talk, even if the expence should not be grudged.
• But let us suppose all these difficulties overcome. It next be. comes neceffary to inclose, in the most perfect manner, the several plots of grass intended for the particular experiments, so as to make the experimenter quite certain that no animal he wishes, to exclude from it can get access to it without his knowledge. This must likewife be effected by means of wooden rails, or some other fort of dead fence; because any hedge or tree near it would greatly affect the experiment.
! This done, it would be necessary to fet apart some plots to be cut and consumed green by each kind of domeftic animal : the number of these plots, therefore, must be proportioned to the number of classes of animals that could be reared by the farmer in this country, and the extent of each plot should be suficient to afford food for a whole season to a considerable number of each class of animals, ta guard against the errors that might arise from particular temperaments. Other plots require to be cut and made into hay, in such quantities as to admit of feeding a sufficient number of animals of each species for such a length of time as would give a certainty of the effects produced. Other plots must be allotted for pasturage to different classes of animals to feed together, or succeed one another in an infinite number of varied rotations. Others must be appropriated for trying the effects of mixing this kind of grass-seed with other plants that can be employed as food to animals, through all the variations that these will admit of;' while others must be fet apart for making a comparative trial of all these various experiments with each of the plants separately that admits of being reared by the farmer, But I begin to lose myself in the immenfity of objects that croud upon me. To conclude, therefore, I hope the reader, who reflects on these objects, will be satisfied, that if, at the end of a hundred years continued attention and unwearied care, with a perfect command of money, and unlimited extent of soil, a satisfactory answer could be given to the above query, as much would be done. as can ever be expected from any human power, even with all the
advantages we have above supposed. How vain is it, then, to hope that ever this can be effected by she zcal or ainduity of any private experimenter?
* For these reasons, although it is certain that a national experi. mental farm would not be capable of answerirg every purpose that may be required; yet it seems to be equally indisputable, that with. out some public inllitution of this nature, either in Britain or some other nation, it will be altogether imposible ever to bring the art of agriculture to its ultimate degree of perfection. I cannot, there.. fore, 10o warmiy recommend this matter to the attention of those in power. What glory would it be for Britain to be the first nation that had ever adopted a proper plan for giving certainty to this most useful of all arts: an advantage which it never haih yet attained ! What lasting honour would it reflect upon the memory of that person who had put that plan in execution ! And at how small an expence might this be effected! A sum of money not greater than might be necessary to force a triling país, or destroy a paltry town, and reduce a few hundreds of innocent persons to misery,.might be sufficient to accomplish this great work, which would promote the ease and felicity of millions who are yet unborn, and render Britain re: nowned among all nations to the latest ages of pofterity.'.
The experiments of the second class, as well as those of the fourth, he observes, naturally come within the sphere of private persons; but those of the second, which are almost the only experiments in agriculture that have been hitherto attended to, can be of little ule, as had been before shewn, until the mode of classification which falls under the third general head shall be attended to with effect.
The experiments referable to this third head, he observes, do not come within the sphere of an experimental farm, nor of private individuals considered as detached from others. For,
" As this set of experiments, he proceeds, is merely intended to discover the particulars by which different varieties of the same class of bodies may be distinguished from each other, and as these varieties are often met with at a great distance from other varieties of the same class, it becomes impoffible for individuals to compare there with one another, or to have an opportunity of discovering those peculiarities which might serve to distinguish each from the others. Hence, therefore, it is only by collecting together and comparing the experiments of many farmers in different parts of the country, that a knowledge of those particulars referable to the chird general class above named can ever be obtained. It therefore behoves 03 now to enquire what is the most proper method of obtaining the neceffary information from so many individuals, who are ac present scattered through all the provinces of the kingdom, or even through all the kingdoms of the earth, and totally unconnected with and unknown to one another.
• It will readily occur that no method can be so proper for collecting detached observations, the result of actual experience in many different parts of the country, and of communicating these to the public, as a periodical performance judiciously contrived, and exe. "
cuted with becoming spirit, caution, and fidelity. For, if such a work were written and could be afforded at a moderate price, so as to come within the reach of farmers of every denomination, it would become the mean of uniting into one grand society all the farmers of every district of the country, or even of every country in Europe, if proper means were adopted for securing correspondents, and establishing an extensive circulation.'
The benefits that would result from such a periodical per. formance he describes in the following animated strain:
It is perhaps impollible for the mind of man to contemplate any sublunary object that would be more agreeable than the prospect of such a society, composed of innumerable multitudes of people of all seats, and nations, and languages, conferring together for the sole purpose of improving one another in useful knowledge ; who, forgetting those little diftinctions of rank, opinion, and party prejudice, which so incessantly tend to tear from us those few enjoyments that might naturally have fallen to our mare, should strive with the most cordial sympathy and brotherly affection to promote those peaceful arts which may contribuie to the happiness of millions yet. unborn. For, in this grand republic of farmers, every individual might freely communicate the knowledge which he had acquired, and might propose his doubts and receive instructions concerning those things in which he found himself deficient, without disclosing either his rank in life, his country, or his party connections. If any erroneous opinion should be there advanced, without regard to extraneous circumllances, which have such a tendency to influence the mind in general, it would quickly be refuted. What was doubta ful would be elucidated by the discusiions that would naturally refule from contradictory opinions. Facts that seemed to oppose one another would not be haltily abandoned as fictions, but would be lifted to the bottom by inquisitive men. Judicious questions would be proposed to the opposing experimenters, while both were alive and capable of answering every query that could be proposed ; by which mcans thore effential circumstances that had been omitted in any one experiment, and from which the variation had proceeded, might orien be discovered without waiting for a repetition of it. Or, if that could not in all cases be done at once, a few experiments pro: posed for elucidating the subject might perhaps be tried by thousands in one season ; from which numerous experiments, when compared together, a degree of certainty would arise, which no single person would have obtained during the course of many years.
On the other hand, when any new experiment should be proposed for elucidating a doubtful point, and the benefits that would result from it were clearly pointed out, many persons would be in. duced to try it at once in different dillricts, and on a vast variety of foils; the result of all which experiments could be laid before the Public about the same time, without almost any trouble to the seve. ral experimenters. Other persons, who had formerly made similar experiments, would in the mean time communicate the result of . them to the Public ; and the reasoning that would occur in consequence of this would put the new experimenters on their guard, and
make them-attend to those particulars that are of capital importance. And when the whole of these experiments were produced and compared with one another, many important observations would be suggested, which would lead to fill more useful enquiries. Thus, in the course of a few years, a greater number of decisive experiments might be obtained than could have been accumulated in many ages by folitary individuals.
Nor could any circumstance of importance be allowed to escape such a respectable society unobserved. For, as the attention of thousands would be directed towards each fingle experiment, it is not to be supposed that any matter of consequence would escape them all, The hints suggested by some correspondents would raise new ideas in the minds of others, and these in their turn would produce new re. flections from ochers still. The omissions of one would be supplied by another : even the errors of correspondents would lead to important truths, by inducing others to refute chem, who would also in their turn be corrected if they should fall into any mistakes.
“ A periodical performance of this nature would not only be better calculated for collecting the detached observations of practical farmers than any other mode of publication that could be devised, but it would also have a more powerful tendency to awaken a spirit of ob. servation among all the inhabitants of the country. At present, farmers are in a great measure excluded from the literary world. Few of them read much: and they so feldom meet with instruction in books of agriculture, that these are perhaps less read by practical farmers than books of any other kind whatever. From this cause practical farmers seldom hear of the improvements that are from iime to time mentioned in books. They lose the taste for writing themselves. They even, for the most part, despise those who write on the subject of their own profellion as idle visionaries. They thus lose the habit of arranging their ideas with precision, and their minds have no delight in investigation, and of course fall into a vacant kind of torpor; in which state few important discoveries or vigorous exertions are to be expected.
• But if they should be induced to become members of a Gcorgical Society on the liberal plan above alluded to, they would at once be introduced into a society of men like themselves, with whom they would freely communicate their ideas on subjects that they mutually onderstood, and would frequently find themselves qualified to take an interesting part in the discussion. This would naturally beget an attachment to that society, and a fondness for those subjects that were investigated in it: for man never deserts society, or loses relish for conversation, but when he feels that he is an object of less importance in his own eyes when in company than when alone. Society expands the heart, and softens the rougher affections. Emulation whers the talents. Opposition rouses the faculties of the foul, and draws forth every latent spark of genius. Sometimes they would be able to correct mistakes, to answer queries, or to solve doubis; and at other times they would liften in their turn to useful instructions from others. By these means a habit of accurate observation would be established among farmers in general, which would enable them to discriminate every important circumstance; and a spirit of enter
prise prise thus created could not fail to be productive of che happiest consequences.'
Other advantages that would be derived from a publication of the kind here proposed are pointed out; but our limits forbid us to enlarge. · The heads of a plan for such a work are afterwards sketched out at length; for which we must refer the curious Reader to the treatise itself, after declaring our entire concurrence with the Author's views in the concluding paragraph:
i Such, says he, are the outlines of a plan of a work, which, if executed by a person of knowledge, experience, and integrity, properly supported by the Public, would (I have no hesitation in affirming it) form a memorable epoch in the history of literature and of civil society.'
The plan appears indeed to be thoroughly digested, and we are sorry that the Author should chalk it out for another, as he feems to have no view of executing ic himself; for those who can form a plan of a capital work are usually best qualified to execute it themselves. It should be conducted, he observes, by a man of known abilities and integrity, in whom the Public could place entire confidence, who should honestly acknowledge the work for his own, and risk his reputation with the Public on the fidelity with which it should be executed.' This precaution we think absolutely necessary, ' in order to raise it in the public opinion far above the swarms of ephemeric [anonymous) productions that are daily issuing from the press. Perhaps there are few men in whom the Public would be disposed to place greater confidence than in the Author of the essay bimfelt; and we must still regret that he does not seem to have in view the accomplifbing such an undertaking. At any rate, the Public is much indebted to him for the extensive views he has pointed out towards the improvement of agriculture, by which the nation will probably be much benefited long after the hand that wrote them shall be buried in the dust; for time will gradually bring to perfection those feeds of knowledge disseminated in the writings of this rural Philosopher, which are at prelent scattered abroad as seemingly of little value.
Arr. X. Travels through Spain in the Years 1775 and 1776; in
which several Monument of Roman and Moorith Architecture are , illustrated by accuraie Drawings taken on the spot. By Henry Swinburne, Esq; 410. 11. is. Buards. Emily. 1779. T HE Author of this performance says of bimself, in his
preface, that he is as free from prejudices of all kinds as most men ; which taken literally, is saying but little, as most men are strongly tainted with prejudices : but if he means to inlinuate (of which there is little doubt) that he is distinguished .