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9. ATONICS are mere breathings, modified by the or gans of speech.

10. VOWELS are the letters that usually represent the Tonic elements, and form syllables by themselves. They are a, e, i, o, Un and sometimes y.

11. A DIPHTHONG is the union of two vowels in one syllable; as, oi in oil, ou in our.

12. A DIGRAPH, or improper diphthong, is the union of two vowels in a syllable, one of which is silent; as, oa in loaf.

13. A TRIPHTHONG is the union of three vowels in one syllable; as, eau in beau, ieu in adieu.

14. CONSONANTS are the letters that usually represent either Subtonic or Atonic elements. They are of two kinds, single letters and combined, viz.: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z; th Subtonic, th Atonic, ch, sh, wh, ng.

The term Consonant, literally meaning sounding with, is applied to these letters and combinations, because they are rarely used in words without aving a vowel connected with them in the same syllable, although seir elements may be uttered separately, and without the aid of a vowel.

15. COGNATES are letters whose elements are produced by the same organs, in a similar manner: thus, f is a cognate of v; k of g, &c.

16. ALPHABETIC EQUIVALENTS are letters, or combinations of letters, that represent the same elements, or sounds; thus, i is an equivalent of e, in pique.




å, as in båre, cåre. ā or å, as in åge, àte.

8,3 åsk, glåss. ă or å åt, lànd. ē or è,

thèse. å, årt, Årm. ě or é, elk, end. å, all, båll.

her, verse. .


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· First require the pupils to utter an element by itself, then to pronounce distinctly the words that follow, uttering the element after each word—thus: áge, à; åte, : åt, å; lånd, å, &c. Exercise the class upon

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the above table, till each pupil can utter consecutively all the Oral elements. The attention of the class should be called to the fact that the first element, or sound, represented by each of the vowels, is usually indicated by a horizontal line placed over the letter, and the second sound by a curved line. After each pupil can utter correctly all the elements as arranged in the table, numerous class exercises may be formed by prefixing or affixing Subtonics or Atonics to the Tonics, in the following order: Bả, bỉ, bả, bả, bỉ, bả; bà, bỏ, bỏ; bi, bỉ; bồ, bỏ, bỏ; bà, bủ, bů; bou: åb, åb, åb, åb, &c. These exercises will be found of great value, to improve the organs of speech and the voice, as well as to familiarize the pupil with different combinations of sounds.

The fifth element, or sound, represented by a, is its first or Alphabetic sound, modified or softened by r.

The sixth element represented by a, is a sound intermediate between a, as heard in at, ash, and a, as in arm, art. * The third element represented by e, is e as heard in end, modified or

e softened by r. It is also represented by i, o, u, and y; as in bird, word, burn, myrrh.

R may be trilled before a vowel. In that case, the tip of the tongue is marle rapidly to vibrate.

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COGNATES. First require the pupil to pronounce distinctly the word containing the Atonic element, then the Subtonic Cognate, uttering the element after each word—thus: lip, p; orb, b, &c. The attention of the pupil should be called to the fact that Cognates are produced by the same organs, in a similar manner, and only differ in one being an undertone, and the other a whisper. ATONICS.

lip, p.

orb, b.
fife, f.

vase, v.
white, wh.

wise, w save, S.

zeal, 2. shade, sh.

azure, z. charm, ch.

join, j. tart, t.

did, d. thing, th.

this, th. kink, k.

gig, g.



1. TONIC ELEMENTS. For å, aa, ai, au, ay, e, ee, ea, ei, ey; as in Aaron, gain, gauge, stray, melee', great, vein, they.

For å, ai, ua; as in plaid, guaranty.

For å, au, e, ea, ua; as in haunt, sergeant, heart, guard.

For å, au, aw, eo, 0, oa, ou; as in fault, hawk, George, cork, broad, bought.

For å, ai, e, ea, ei; as in chair, there, swear, heir.

For è, ea, ee, ei, eo, ey, i, ie; as in read, deep, ceil, people, key, valise, field.

For e, a, ai, ay, ea, ei, eo, ie, u, ue; as in any, said, says, head, heifer, leopard, friend, bury, guess.

For ê, ea, i, o, ou, U, ue, y; as in earth, girl, word, scourge, burn, guerdon, myrrh.

For i, ai, ei, eye, ie, oi, ui, uy, y, ye; as in aisle, sleight, cyc, die, choir, guide, buy, my, rye.



For i, ai, e, ee, ie, 0, oi, u, ui, y; as in captain, pretty, been, sieve, women, tortoise, busy, build, hymn.

For ò, au, eau, eo, ew, oa, oe, 00, ou, ow; as in hautboy, beau, yeoman, sew, coal, foe, door, soul, blow.

For 8, a, ou, ow; as in what, hough, knowledge.

For ð, ev, oe, oo, ou, U, ui; as in grew, shoe, spoon, boup, rude, fruit.

For ů, eau, eu, ew, ieu, iew, ue, ui; as in beauty, feud, new, adieu, view, hue, juice.

For ů, o, oe, 00, ou; as in love, does, blood, young.
For ů, 0, 00, ou; wolf, book, could.
For ou, ow; as in now.
For oi (ai), oy; as in boy.

2. SUBTONIC AND ATONIC ELEMENTS. For f, gh, ph; as in cough, nymph. For j, 9; as in gem, gin. For k, c, ch, gh, q; as in cole, conch, lough, etiquette. For s, c; as in cell. For t, d, th, phth; as in danced, Thames, phthisic. For v,f, ph; as in of, Stephen. For y, i; as in pinion. For z, C, 8, 2; as in suffice, rose, webec. For z, 9, 8; as in rouge, osier. For ng, n; as in anger, bank. For ch, t; as in fustian. For sh, c, ch, s, 88, t; as in ocean, chaise, sure, assure,

, martial.

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The following words are arranged for an exercise in Spelling, by sounds. The names of the letters are not to be given; but the elements are to be produced separately, and then pronounced in connection, thus : råst, pronounced vast; år m-arm; hồst-host; m8 v-move, &c. The attention of the pupil should be especially directed to silent letters, or those that are not sounded in words where they occur. In the fol. lowing exercise they appear in italics. We would impress it especially upon the teacher, that the best way to secure a distinct and forcible articulation is to give the pupil a daily exercise of this kind.

såve, wảve, fåt, mån, årm, pårt. håll, wärm, påre, tåre, gråss, våst. scène, glèbe, těst, debt, hér, forn. pine, bide, limb, ring,


hỗst. grot, bồnd, mởve, prðve, můte, půre. důmb, hånt, füll, půsh, loud, house. bláze, blånd, glide, glimpse, bråss, brånch. drouth, grånd, grånt, skůlk, spårk,

spårk, spend stårt, ståre, flåsh, flesh, plům, slide. fråme, print, tråmp, småsh, strånd, swårm. vein, cork, heir, said, girl, word. been, beau, what, blood, wolf, prow.

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1. From the omission of one or more elements in A word; as, an' for and.

swa'm for swarm. frien's friends. wå’m

warm. fiel's fields. s'rewd

wilds. s'rill

cold ly.

kind ly.
blind ness.

be in'

sing ing raf's


chick en sof’ly softly. kitch'n

kitch en bol's bolts. trav'l

trav el. cen's

cents. nov'l ac cep's ac cepts.


learn ed. at tempts. wing'd wing ed.

posts. sto'm storm. cor p'ral

cor po ral

colly kin' ly blin' ness

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w'is per

whis per be ing.

sing in


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nov el.

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his to ry.

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