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ncluding a valuable casket formerly belonging to the un. France, he settled them, with other premises, as part of her ortunate Anne Boleyn, several ancient stone cannon-balls, dower. She survived the king, her husband, who died in and a very curious key.
1307; and in the fifth year of the next reign, namely, that of Concerning the history of this interesting structure, we Edward II., by the recommendation of the crown, appointed learn from Hasted, and other Kentish historians, that Leeds Bartholomew de Badlesmere, a nobleman of considerable was part of the possessions given by William the Conqueror power and eminence, and steward of the king's household, to Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, by whom it was subsequently as governor of this castle. Upon her demise, five years confiscated to the crown. The family of the Crevequers, or later, the estates again reverted to the crown, when the Crevecoeur, soon afterwards had a grant of Leeds from the manor of Leeds, together with the advowson of the priory, Conqueror; and by one Robert of that name, the castle were granted to Lord Badlesmere, in fee, in exchange for the appears to have been erected. In conjunction with Adam, manor of Adderley, in Shropshire. The ambition of this his son, he founded a priory dedicated to St. Mary and St. nobleman, combined with his immense wealth—for he was Nicholas, at a short distance west of the castle.' He had possessed of great estates, more especially in Kent, from previously fitted up a chapel in the fortress, and in it had which circumstance he was invariably styled the “rich Lord
placed three priests, whom he removed thither upon his Badlesmere of Leeds '-led him to forget his allegiance, and founding the priory. Leeds continued in the possession of he joined with the Earl of Lancaster and the discontented the Crevequers until the fifty-second year on the reign of barons who had taken up arms against the king's great Henry III., when the manor was exchanged with Roger de favourite, Piers de Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall. Upon this, Leyburne for the manors of Trottesclyve and Flete. the king resolved, if possible, to gain possession of this At his death, Roger left a son and heir, William de strong fortress, and in 1321 a somewhat curious stratagem is Leyburne, who, in the reign of Edward I., had possession said to have been adopted to effect that purpose, for it is granted him of the manor of Leeds; as well as of the rest of recorded how, under the pretence of the queen's performing the inberitalice of which his step-mother, Eleanor, Countess a pilgrimage to Canterbury, she set forward, accompanied by of Winchester, was not endowed. However, it is said that, a large train of attendants, and, with the secret intention of finding the king regarded the strength of this fortress with surprising the castle, sent her marshal, with others of her great jealousy, William de Leyburne reinstated the Crown suite, to order lodgings for herself and her servants. Lady in the possession of both the manor and castle ; and on the Badlesmere, her son, and four daughters, were at that time king's marriage with Margaret, sister of Philip, King of in the fortress under the care of Sir Thomas Colepeper, the
castellan, who was directed to refuse the queen's servants land during the civil wars. The castle remained in the admittance, which, upon the arrival of the queen in person, Fairfax family until the death of Robert, last Lord Fairfax, he still peremptorily persisted in, without having received in 1793, when it devolved on his nephew, the Rev. Denny express orders to that effect. Force was thereupon resorted Martin, D.D., who, before his uncle's death, had taken the to, and in the skirmish which ensued several of the queen's name and arms of Fairfax. On the death of Dr. Martin-Fairattendants were slain, and, being thus repulsed, she re- fax the estate passed to his brother, General Philip Martin, linquished her design, and was compelled to seek a lodging R.A. It subsequently passed by bequest to Fiennes Wyke. elsewhere.* To resent the indignity thus offered to the ham, Esq., grandfather of the present owner, who, in 1821, queen, a force was despatched, under the Earls of Pembroke assumed, by royal licence, the additional surname of Martin. and Richmond, to take the castle by storm ; when those He died in 1840, and was succeeded by his eldest son within, finding no hopes of relief, were soon compelled to Charles, some time M.P. for West Kent and for Newsurrender. A scene of great confusion quickly followed : port, in the Isle of Wight, and who died in 1870, Lady Badlesmere, with her children, were sent as prisoners leaving by his first wife, Lady Jemima Isabella, daughter of to the Tower of London ; Sir Thomas Colepeper, the castel- the fifth and last Earl of Cornwallis, a son and heir, Philip, lan, was hanged on the chain of the drawbridge, and the king M.P. for Rochester, who has inherited the estate of Leeds took possession of the castle and all the treasures it con- Castle, and other property belonging to this ancient family. tained. Lord Badlesmere was subsequently taken prisoner Within the last fifty years, in fact, since the accession of in Yorkshire, and being sent to Canterbury, was there Mr. Fiennes Wykeham-Martin, great care has been taken executed, and his head set on a pole on Burgate in that to preserve, as far as possible, all that remains of the original city.
fabric from the unavoidable ravages of time ; and thus to Leeds Castle was now suffered to fall into a most ruinous hand down to posterity one of the most perfect examples of condition, continuing, meantime, in the possession of the the military architecture of our ancestors to be met with in Crown till 1359, when Edward III. constituted that eminent this kingdom. architect, William de Wykeham (afterwards Bishop of Win.
W. D. chester), its chief warden and surveyor, and invested him with power to appoint workmen, provide materials, and order everything requisite for building and reparations. ANCIENT NEEDLEWORK AT THE SOUTH Under his direction the castle is said to have been restored
KENSINGTON MUSEUM. in a very skilful manner. Richard II. was induced to visit the place on several occasions, more particularly in his nine
from page 47.) teenth year, at which period many of his public documents The most ancient specimens of embroidery in this extensive were dated from his castle of Leeds.". The building was collection are the two small pieces contained in frame şi, also the residence of Henry IV. during the month of April, and dating from the ninth century. One of these has in the second year of his reign (1406), when he retired thither indeed a pedigree of sanctity, as it is said to be a portion of on account of the plague which was then raging in London. the cushion-cover upon which was laid the finger of St. Towards the close of the fourteenth century, Archbishop Luke, presented by Charlemagne to Archbishop Magnus Arundel procured a grant of Leeds Castle ; he frequently of Sens. It is a small square of red silk, embroidered with resided there, and on his death, in 1413, it again reverted to heraldic lions in gold. The other is also an embroidery of the crown. From this date many of the principal gentry gold on red silk, and represents St. Martin sharing his cloak of Kent have been at different periods entrusted with its with a beggar. These examples are marked as probably custody.
French, and are lent by Mons. Henry Esminger. The In the seventh year of Henry V., Joan of Navarre, the astonishing age of these relics of antiquity is indeed a fit second queen of his predecessor, was committed as a prisoner subject for wonderment, and it could only be the purity of to Leeds Castle for having conspired against the life of the the gold used in their fabrication, which has enabled it to king, but was afterwards delivered into the custody of Sir stand the test of thousand years and retain much of its John Pelham, and was by him conveyed to Pevensey Castle, brilliancy even in the present day. The gold used anciently in Sussex. In 1440, Archbishop Chichele presided at Leeds in instances of this kind was the genuine metal beaten out Castle over the process instituted against Eleanor, Duchess into thin strips, which were then worked into the material of Gloucester, for alleged sorcery and witchcraft. During the with which the precious substance was to be combined. reign of Henry VIII. a great portion of the fortress was re. The work next most remarkable in point of antiquity is a built at the king's expense, by Sir Henry Guldeford, who "Band of Linen,” embroidered in silk by the Countess at that time held the office of constable of Leeds Castle and Ghilsa, wife of Guifred, Comte de Cerdagne. It is, accordranger of the park. The manor and castle remained in the ing to Mons. Jubinal's description, French, and dates from possession of the Crown till the reign of Edward VI., when the 17th century. But there is nothing in its style in the they were granted to Sir Anthony St. Leger, lord deputy least approaching French art; and not only the arabesque of Ireland, to hold in capite by knight's service. The castle inscriptions, but the remainder of the design denotes equally was subsequently alienated to Sir Richard Smyth, who a Moorish or Oriental origin. Either the Countess had rebuilt the southern portion of the edifice, and died possessed borrowed her pattern from an Arab or Moorish source, or of it in 1628, and on the death of his son and successor in she was possibly herself of such extraction. It is so rich and 1632, it passed by sale into the hands of Sir Thomas Cole- beautiful in its gem-like kaleidoscope effect, so different peper, of Hollingbourne. During the exile of Charles II., from, and superior to the European handicraft of the kind, Leeds Castle seems to have been in the possession of the that the Prophet must enlist the gratitude of all lovers of usurping powers, and to have been used by them for as true art in design for having, by his religious ordinances, sembling the committee men and sequestrators, and also as instituted regulations which have had so admirable an a prison for the ejected ministers. From the Colepepers the effect upon the artistic productions of his followers. It was estate passed, by marriage, to Thomas, fifth Lord Fairfax, a with a view to prevent the possibility of a recurrence to relative of the famous general of that name so noted in Eng. idolatry that the founder of Islam forbade the representa
tion of animated beings. Thus, in most Oriental ornamenta.
tions, we are spared the hideous attempts at the portraiture During the alterations which were made at the castle in 1822, the of living things by the art of the needle. In no Turkish of skeletons of several of the soldiers slain in this condict were dug up: Moorish divan is there any danger of walking into the open sal proportions, for it measured no less than six feet two inches, not jaws of a lion or tiger; no fear of an uneasy seat upon gar. merely without its shoes, but without its feet.
lands of fruit or flowers. Natural objects are submitted to
scientific rules of decoration, and the results are beauty, either "net-work” or what ladies understand under the title moderation, and adaption to the uses intended ; while por- of needlework, except such as was patiently constructed by traiture, whether of animated or still life, is left to the the good old-fashioned knitting-needles of our grandprofessed picture-maker or sculptor. This special example, mothers, a specimen of which sort of industry the jacket we are told, belonged to the Abbaye de St. Martin de undoubtedly is, with the gold knitted into the fabric in the Canigon, and a fragment of an altar-cloth, the other part, ordinary fashion when silk or thread of two or more different has been offered to the Musée de Cluny by Mons. Achille colours is employed. A gallant Indian officer, whom we Jubinal, the lender of that exhibited in the present instance. once knew, and boasting the manly stature of six feet with
There is no example of the embroidery of the twelfth breadth to correspond, would have detected the inaccuracy century, and the only one given of the thirteenth is eccle- of description with a glance as sharp as that of even a siastical, and in a state of great dilapidation. It consists of feminine critic, for having been taught as a child to knit, by a velvet chasuble with orphreys, nine panels complete, and his mother, a lady of title, but of exceptionally domestic apparently represents Biblical scenes. The Marquis of habits, when a storm, on one of his voyages to the Peninsula, Bute, Baron Davillier, Mons. Spitzer, the Fishmongers' carried away his woollen vest, he immediately set to work Company, and Mr. Frederick Leighton, R.A., appear to be and knitted a new one, to the immense entertainment and the only contributors of needlework of the fourteenth edification of his brother officers, who expected nothing less century. The example belonging to Lord Bute is an than such an accomplishment from the military Adonis of orphrey recently mounted on a church vestment of white their regiment. The jaunty little jacket from which we have satin and bearing the “arms of John Grandison, who died digressed, is certainly picturesque and artistic, but it is not Bishop of Exeter, in 1369." The embroidery, which is possessed of any specially distinguishing characteristics of specified as English, has been partially restored, and is en- the fourteenth century, and might have been produced in closed in a series of medallions, containing portraits of holy the Germany of to-day, or any day since the quaint art was personages worked in silk and gold. The faces of these invented. Otherwise is it with the works involving more figures are executed in a similar manner to the other ex- deliberate consideration and preparation, and where the real amples of the fourteenth century, but they display consider- embroidery needle has essayed to imitate the results of the ably less skill. Part of an ecclesiastical vestment, lent by painter's brush, or draughtsman's pencil. In such cases, the Baron Davillier, represents eight saints, and is particularized style indicative of each age may be distinctly traced. as a rare specimen. It is of German nationality, as indeed, from its strongly marked Teutonic style, would be at once inferred. Apparently, the work is executed upon coarse linen or canvas, covered over with crimson silk, or possibly upon the silk itself; but being in a very ruinous state,
Queries. patches of the ground or lining are everywhere visible through the embroidery. Monsieur Spitzer's rich and
SIR WILLIAM HAWKSWORTH.-The following singular elaborate cover for a cloister desk, in embroidery on red story was quoted by Dr. Kenealy, towards the close of his
address for the Tichborne defence : velvet, displays on one side a large “ mystical bird with out. spread wings, the Trinity worked in silk on its chest, and “ There is a singular thing related by Lord Chief Justice the inscription In principio erat verbum, &c," on scrolls at Hale in the records of the Crown. He relates the case of each side. A border of gold and silk, ornamented with Sir William Hawksworth, who being weary of his life, small convex metal studs in imitation of pearls, encloses the wanted to get rid of it by another hand. He blamed his work and the central portion of crimson velvet and gold park-keeper for losing his deer, and told him to shoot the filagree. On the other side is the representation of an man who refused to stand and speak. Sir William came in apostle, worked in gold and coloured silks, and holding a the park at night, and refusing to stand or speak, was shot scroll upon which the same inscription is traced, while a and killed. That is about as astonishing a thing as ever vision of the and Child appears in part of the picture. happened in the course of human life.” (Vide Daily The faces are executed in the finest silk embroidery, the Telegraph, August 22.) original tracing of the lineaments being in some instances In Foss's “ Judges of England" (Vol. iv. 325) I find the apparent beneath the subsequently-added needlework. This following related of Chief Justice Sir William Hankford embroidery is stated to be French, and was a present from (the successor of Sir William Gascoigne) who died DeCharles V. to the Monastery of Yuste, in which he passed cember 20. 1422 :the latter days of his life.
“A very improbable account of his death is given by his The interesting antique pall belonging to the Fishmongers' biographer. He is stated to have become weary of his life, *Company, and illustrating English work of the fourteenth and, with an intention of getting out of it, to have given century, consists of embroidery in silk and gold on coarse strict orders to his keeper to shoot any person found at linen. We learn that it was used at the funeral of Sir night in his park who would not stand when challenged; William Walworth, in the time of Richard II., 1381. The and then to have thrown himself in his keeper's way, and to head and foot of the covering are ornamented with a design have been shot dead in pursuance of his own commands. representing St. Peter on a throne; an angel with the tradi- The cause of this suicidal conduct is represented to have tional, fair, gold-coloured hair assigned to feminine saints, been his direful apprehensions of dangerous approaching and with wings of peacock’s plumage, kneels at each side. evils ;' which could only have arisen from a diseased The faces of these groups possess considerable expression imagination, as there was nothing at that time in the and are treated in the same manner as the last example, the political horizon to portend the disasters of thirty years' use of gold being very profuse. The sides of the pall are distance. Holinshed introduces this event as happening in decorated with scriptural subjects alternating with the arms 1470, very nearly fifty years after the death of the Chief of the Fishmongers' Company.
Justice. The story, however, was long believed in the · The remaining example of the industry of the fourteenth neighbourhood of his seat at Annery, in Monkleigh, and an century is in a very different style of needlework from that of old oak bearing his name was shown in the park, where it the grand and stately ecclesiastical robes. It is a girl's was said he had fallen." jacket, such as some Esmeralda or Preciosa might be I assume " Sir William Hawksworth" to be identical imagined to have worn, and is specified as of "green silk with Sir William Hankford.” If not, who was the former? network, golden embroideries worked into it in arabesques.” Is this "astounding" and improbable story related of any. This designation, however, upon nearer examination, ap- one else besides the Chief Justice ? pears to be a misnomer, for the work is not by any means
OLIVER CROMWELL.— I have often seen engravings repre- and general aspect of this remarkable man to the Spencer senting “Cromwell at Marston Moor,” in which Oliver is and the medallic portraits, and the various engraved renderdepicted as making a sword cut at a royalist cuirassier, who ings of these ? is levelling a pistol at Cromwell's head. Is there any account
H. ECROYD SMITH. of this incident, or does it only originate in the imagination of the artist. There is also a painting, which has been en.
ADMIRAL BLAKE.--Is there any authentic portrait of the graved, called the “ Battle of Worcester.” It represents an gallant Admiral Blake? The one at Greenwich represents old, bareheaded, mounted cavalier, making a sword-thrust him with lightish brown hair, but I have doubts as to its at a Roundhead cornet, who carries, in his right hand, a authenticity, as it differs entirely from the one engraved in Commonwealth standard (charged with the St. George's Hepworth Dixon's memoir of the naval hero. In the latter cross and harp), and, with his left hand, is covering the he has a full plump face, and, apparently, black, or, at least, cavalier with a pistol. Is this scene historical or imaginary ? | very dark hair. The latter portrait resembles one I saw for
sale some years ago, asserted to be that of the renowned
“ Admiral and General at Sea." It was a half-length, the KEELINGE FAMILY.— I wish to obtain information rela- figure being attired in a suit of black armour, with gilt tive to this family, which was formerly seated at Sedgley rivets. The face was close slaven, and very plump, or Park, co. Stafford. Lord Chief Justice Keelinge was a rather, I may say, fat, with a double chin, and pleasant, member. Who is the male representative, and is there a jovial expression. The mouth was feminine in its smallness, pedigree anywhere extant ? In the seventeenth century a and its short pouting upper lip. The eyes were large and certain Lady Foster married into this family, I believe ; is black, and the long hair dark as a raven's wing; but the anything known of her ladyship's family?' The arms of singularity of the portrait lay in the complexion, which was Keelinge are—Gules, between two lions rampant or, a bend of a creamy whiteness, without the slightest flush on the engrailed of the second, charged with three scaling ladders jolly cheeks. As it is always interesting to know how a of the field.
departed hero looked, when walking the earth, I should be F. glad to know whether there is any undoubted portrait of the
Admiral extant, and if so, whether it has the hair and eyes COLONEL JOHN LILBURNE.-Doubting whether any full
, and death-pale face of the one I have described ? to say nothing of true and particular, account of the extant
C. HUME, portraits of "Free-born John" has ever been supplied to the public, I append a list kindly furnished by a friend as THE KIMBERS OF GLOUCESTERSHIRE.—Is anything a nucleus, conceiving that, ere the subject drops, a suitable known of a Gloucestersbire family named Kimber? Burke, in opportunity occurs for enquiry.
his “General Armoury,” gives the arms of Kimber as,1, Portrait. 8vo, Holler.
Argent, three Cornish choughs, sable, beaked and legged 2. Whole length with names of jury. 4to.
gules; on a chief of the second, as many mullets of the 3. From Earl Spencer's drawing, by Bullfinch ; engraved flectas." Are these the arms of the Kimbers of Gloucester
first. Crest, a bull's head affronté. Motto, “ Franzas non by Cooper.
shire, and, if not, to what branch of the family do they be4. Æt. 23, 1641 ; altered when in prison. 8vo, G. Glover. long? 5. A small oval with account of his sufferings. Holler.
FRASER. 6. Standing at the Bar; prefixed to his Trial,” 1649 4to.
ARMORIAL.-I have a carved oak panel, date about 1650, 7. 8vo. Vander Gucht, &c.
consisting of a coat of arms, surrounded by border of
flowers, and scrolls cut in a very bold style (I am told it 8. Full length ; a woodcut in Knight's “England,” iii. came from the old church at Tooting, Surrey, which was 302.
pulled down some few years since). On the shield are cut of the above only numbers 4, 5, and 6 appear in Bromley's ihe following arms :-) chevron, between what appears to catalogue. I possess a copper plate, originally, probably, in be three wolves' heads erased, crowned, impaling a talbot 8vo, which, in common with numbers 3 and 7, may have (or hound) in fess, between three fleurs-de-lis. Could any of been engraved from the Spencer portrait, although the face, your correspondents inform me by whom these arms were in my print, is at least one-fourth longer in proportion to borne ? the size, whilst the features are infinitely older than the
R. G. RICE. smooth-faced portrait as produced by Cooper; the dress and cut of the hair is, however, identical. The only signature to ANCIENT Jewel.-Is the jewel alluded to in the my print is “Benoist Sculp,” and it certainly ought to have following extract, still in existence, and if so in whose posses. been known to Bromley, who also is in default through sion does it remain ? making no mention of the various medals and medallets “ An ancient medal, or coin, ornamented with jewe Is struck under the auspices of Simon, and, perhaps, other was purchased, a few years since, of one of the decendants artists. Two, at least, of Simon's were engraved by Vertue of Penderell, to whom it was presented by Charles II., as a in his illustrations of this clever die-sinker's productions, viz. : valuable token of his gratitude for certain protection afforded -Circular Medal-06. Bust of Lilburne, to left circumscrip- by him to that prince, when endeavouring to effect his tion in three lines.
'fo JOHN LILBORNE SAVED BY THE escape in disguise from England, in the year 1648. It con, POWER OF THE LORD AND THE INTEGRITY OF His Ivry sists of a gold coin of Ferdinand II., dated 1638, surrounded WHO ARE IvDGES OF LAW AS WELL AS FACT, OCT. 26, by a row of sixteen brilliants, enchased in silver, enriched 1649." Rev. an expanded rose, circumscribed with a list of with blue enamel, and bearing the motto, Usque ad aris the jurors, viz. :-"MYLES PETTY; STE. ILES ; ALR. SMITH; fidelis.' The reverse is also enamelled, and the jewel ION. KING; MIC. MVRIN ; THO. DAINTY ; EDM. KEYSAR; is intended to be worn as an ornament to the person.” EDW. PARKINS; PACKMAN; WM. COMINS ;
S. CROWDER. WHEELDON ; HEN. TOWLEY ; Oct. 26, 1649.” The second is a small oval medallet, looped on top for suspension to the HILL FAMILY.-Is anything known of a branch of this person-ob. Bust of Lilburne to the left, “ IOHN LILBORN." family, which was anciently located at Barton-cum-Ogbeer, Rev. shield of the family arms upon an oval shaded ground, in one of the South-western counties? Some member is “OCT. 26, 1649." Is any original oil painting, or other said to have received a grant of lands at Barton from John medal or drawing known than those specified? In other of Gaunt. The name was originally De la Hill. words, are we dependent or our knowledge of the features
scaffold, was found nestled up under her royal robes, beReplies.
tween the bloody head and trunk of his dead mistress; and
(saith an account from an eye-witness, printed at Antwerp, MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS (Vol. iii. 93).-Your corres
1588), when the blood began to flow, he licked the hideous pondent's query is not quite accurately stated. This poor wounds of her who had caressed him in life. Afterwards, Queen, who deeply earned the title of “unfortunate," was, he would never be induced to taste meat or drink, but died it is true, clumsily struck by the executioner's axe, but I am for grief.” No such love, and no such friend, was near the not aware that any historian, or contemporary account of deathbed of Elizabeth, when her time came. the execution, states that Mary" afterwards covered her head
H. WRIGHT. with a veil, &c." The most trustworthy account of the incidents of her heroic death will be found in Jebb's history CROMWELL'S GRAVE (Vol. iv. 32, 82).— I cannot agree of her life ; A French account of her martyrdom ; and espe, with your correspondents in believing that there would be cially in Mignet's late "History of Mary Queen of Scots," 1863. The Queen, who received, when ill in bed in the place on the field of Naseby. There are many idle stories
any probability of discovering the Protector Oliver's burial. afternoon, the news that she was to be executed next morn- about his interment, but the following passage in Cunninging at 8 o'clock, dressed herself in her widow's garb, putting ham's "Handbook of London” (2nd edit., pp. 516-7) deon the handsomest she had (but which, from Elizabeth's scribes accurately, as I believe, the real facts of the case :mean vindictiveness, was poor at best). It was a gown of dark crimson velvet, with black satin corsage, from which Oliver Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw, were hung, on the
“On the three wooden stilts of Tyburn, the bodies of chaplets and scapularies were suspended ; over which was a first anniversary (Jan. 30th, 1660-1) of the execution of cloak of black figured satin, a long train, lined with sable, a Charles I. after the Restoration. Their bodies were dragged standing up collar, and hanging sleeves. A white veil was from their graves in Henry VII.'s Chapel, in Westminster thrown over her, reaching from her head to her feet. She wore besides a skirt of taffety, drawers of white fustian, Abbey, and removed at night to the Red Lion Inn, in stockings of blue silk, garters of silk, and morocco pumps. Sledges to Tyburn, and there, in their shrouds and cere
Holborn, from whence they were carried next morning in She took with her a handkerchief, with a fringe of gold, as a bandage for her eyes on the scaffold. After being com-cloths, suspended till sunset, at the several angles of the pelled to listen to a long harangue by the English parson, Bodies buried beneath the gallows, and their heads set upon
gallows. They were then taken down and beheaded, their wherein he insulted her and her faith, at length she got to the scaffold. Here the executioners offered to assist her to poles on the top of Westminster Hall.” undress, but she declined their service, saying she never had
That it was the real body of Cromwell that was thus such “ valets de chambre," and received assistance from her treated can admit of no reasonable doubt. It was carefully weeping maids. She put off cloak, veil, &c., retaining only embalmed, and could not be mistaken by the persons who a petticoat of red taffety, flowered with velvet. Her eyes carried out the barbarous order of the House of Lords. being bandaged, and her neck laid on the block, one of the This of course disposes of the argument that he was not executioners holding her straightly with one of his hands, originally buried in Westminster Abbey, even if we do not the chief executioner himself was moved, and aimed with an believe the mass of historical evidence proving his original unsteady hand. The axe, instead of falling on the neck, interment there. See an article entitled “Observations struck the back of the head, and wounded her; yet her upon the Disposal of Oliver the Protector's Body,' pp. courage was such that she made no complaint, nor heaved 288-291, vol. i. of Rev. Mark Noble's “ Memoirs of the even a sigh. At the next blow the head was cut off from the Protectoral House of Cromwell,” 3rd edit., 8vo, London, body, " except a little gristle left behind," and the tragedy 1787.
A black cloth was thrown over her remains. I have a curious pamphlet entitled “Narrative relating to The two Earls (Kent and Shrewsbury-executioners-in-chief the real Embalmed Head of Oliver Cromwell, now exunder the executioner-general, Queen Elizabeth) did nothibiting in Mead-court, in Old Bond-street, 1799.” It leave to the executioners, according to custom, the golden gives a long account of the head, stating that it was sup: cross around her neck, the chaplets which hung from her posed to have been blown off the top of Westminster Hall girdle, nor the clothes she wore at her death, lest these on a stormy night in the latter end of the reign of Charles dear and venerated spoils would be purchased from him by II. or the beginning of that of James II., and afterwards her loving servants, and be treasured up as relics. They preserved in the Russell family, &c. This head or skull therefore burned them. They also took great pains to pre- of Oliver Cromwell is probably that now in the possession vent anything being preserved that had been stained with of Mr. W. A. Wilkinson, of Beckenham, Kent. poor Mary's blood, all traces of which they caused to be My conclusions are that the body most probably reimmediately removed, The body was embalmed, very mained buried at Tyburn, but that the head seems to have carelessly, and with very little respect; was wrapped in been preserved to the present time. wax-cloth, and enclosed in a leaden-coffin, and put aside
HENRY W. HENFREY, F.R.Hist.S., &c. until the wishes of Mary's great enemy were known. The English, perceiving that the Queen's poor servants went to A CHILD'S CAUL (Vol. iv. 77).--The “caul” is regarded the room where the body of their friend and mistress was with great superstition, even in these days of enlightenment, lying, and looked through the keyhole (for the room was amongst mariners and sea-faring men in general. Many kept carefully locked), caused the keyhole to be stopped up, take these membranes with them believing they act as charms to prevent them this small sad consolation.
When the against foul weather, while others believe they serve as talisnews of Mary's murder reached London all the bells in the mans against shipwreck. Sometimes a very strange intercity were set a-ringing, and bonfires lighted in every street, pretation is attached to them. A seaman obtains a child's so delighted and sycophantish were the people with an act caul shortly after the child is born. This he guards with which has stained with blood the name of Elizabeth for all great watchfulness, under the idea that as long as the caultime. As for “the crocodile of iniquity (Elizabeth), to born child lives he will be secure from misfortune. The paliate her dissimulation the more, she wept most bitterly, charm of these cauls many people are of opinion dies with put on mourning, and laid the whole blame on Davisoni." the persons with whom they are born. I have heard it -Freebairn's “Life of Mary,” Edinburgh, 1725.
stated that as long as the child enjoys good health the caul An affecting instance of the love and fidelity of the dog experiences the same, and is dry, flexible, and healthy; but was observed at poor Mary's death. Her little dog, "whom on the caul-born person suffering from any sickness or dethey could never separate from her without doing violence to clining in health, the membrane also undergoes a change, Her Majesty, as they were lifting her dead body off the I which becomes daily more apparent, either becoming totally