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number of children in his or her class, and takes them up three at a time, until they have all said their lessons, then march the pupils back to their seats in the same order as they are represented in the plate coming to their lessons. The monitor who has finished his class first, places his stool in front of the post, and seats himself upon it, that he may watch his pupils, and when the monitors are all so seated the teachers then know that every pupil in the school have said their lesbons. They are then ready for other lessons, as described in the body of the work. By the sides of, and underneath the gallery, are pegs for the hats, bonnets, and cloaks, which have an awkward appearance if they hang up in the school. Between the windows are represented large maps, which are used to teach the pupils the elements of geography: lower down the pictorial reading lessons are represented, which are used in rotation as they are wanted. The fire must be anderstood to be opposite the gallery, at one end of the obloog room ; and it is here to be remarked, that stoves never answer, a common fireplace, with a guard round it, being the best : the table with drawers in it is in lieu of a desk, to keep the cash book, day book, and visitor's book; in front of the table there inay be seen represented a horizontal line, to which the children are brought up five at a time, when they say the object lessons. Over the gallery is a large map of the world, which is used once a week. It will be observed in the plate, that there are no pillars to intercept the view of the children, or obstruct them at their lessons, as the area of the school-room should be always quite clear, and on no account should there be any thing to obstruct the view of the gallery. The width of the gallery, at the greatest extent, shonld be never more than twenty-two feet. If it is wider, the teacher cannot keep up the attention of the children, or keep them in order. Its height may be according to the number of children proposed to be educated : a gallery of twenty-two feet wide will take twenty-two children on each seat, so that if 100 children are proposed to be educated, five seats will be sufficient; and if 200 children are to be legislated for, which is the greatest number that should ever be assembled in an infants' school, then ten seats will be required. The school-room should be swept once or twice a day, and washed out regularly every Saturday, which for this, and other reasons, should be a holiday.
The top seat of the gallery should be only five inches wide, all the rest should be eighteen inches, the top seats may be nine inches high the three bottom ones, about six inches.
When the children are receiving any other lessons except gallery lessons, they should never sit in any other position than that repre sented ; if they sit on any of the other seats of the gallery except the top and sides, the monitors cannot get regularly to them, to take them to their lessons.
CHILDREN IN GALLFRY.
This exhibits the children in the gallery, receiving a gallery lesson on geography. There is a large map before them, which is swung on two poles, and drawn up by pulleys to any height required; the poles are slight, and fixed in sockets in the ground, and when done with, they can be taken out and laid aside. A pupil is represented as pointing out certain places on the map, and to prevent confusion, any child who thinks he can answer, is to stand up and hold out the arm, and the plate represents several pupils in the act of doing so. Every child, however, must be encouraged to use its faculties, otherwise the information will be con Lued to a few of the elder scholars, who will answer all the questions; and this I have found to be the case in very many infant schools that I have visited. To prevent this, it is better to begin with the bottom row of children in the gallery, and allow no child to answer, except it sets in that row, and so on successively, until the children in every row have had a chance. If this plan be universally adopted, the children will bnow it as well as the teacher, and there will be no difficulty whatever in kccping up the attention of all. In many schools a certain number of children have learnt a certain number of set questions by heart, and certain other pupils have learnt by rote the answers to such questions, and the casual visitor who does not understand the principles of the system, will scc a child rice in his place, and ask a most important question, when another will rise with equal alacrity, and answer it off hand, to the astonishinent of the beholder, who, perhaps, is not aware, that the whole of this is a system of parrot work, which is as contrary to the genuine principles of the infant system, as light is from dark. The true principle of the infant system is, to get the
children's ideas on any subject without dictation, and also their answers, by the same rule. And, moreover, that every child from the least to the greatest shouki take a deep interest in the lesson : if these things are neglected, the essence of the system is lost. It will be seen that the master is represented as a medium between the monitor pupil, and the scholars in the gallery. He is occupied in giving them oral information acd drawing out their faculties, whilst the monitor pupil is engaged in merely pointing to the objects on which they are to be instructed. This plan is adopted with all lessons on objects, the arithmetical lessons, with the frame and balls, tablet and brass figures, and every kind of lesson which is visible to the faculties of observation. It will be seen that a piano is represented at one side of the gallery. In a Normal infant school, all the children should be taught to sing to music, and it also assists the teachers greatly, who come to learn the system. The teachers of a Normal infant school should be first rate people, and the mistress should be able to play, and also sing correctly; when the children march, they should also march to a tune, and keep the step correctly. All this is done in the school from whence this engraving was taken. It is astonishing the number of tunes the children may be taught to sing. I can produce infants under seven years of age, who can sing the Te Deum, and all the chaunts used in the parish church, together with the following Anthems: 1. “ Therefore with angels," from the communion service. 2. “ ( Domine Deus," the prayer of Mary Queen of Scots, written the night before her execution. 3. " Oh Lord our governor" (Psalm viii. 1, 2). 4. “ How long wilt thou forget me, O Lord” (Psalm xiii. 1, 3, 5). 5. “ The song of the angels,” for Christmas (St. Luke ii. 13, 14). 6. “ Hosanna” (St. Matthew xxiv. 9) for Palm Sunday. 8. 6 Gloria Patri," chorus. The above are sacred songs by the Rev. Robert Bradley, of Swinton, Lancashire. The music is published by D'Almaine and Co., London. I myself heard the infants sing the above, accompanied by the organ in the church ; and I believe that no human being could bear the like, who has proper christian feelings, without being deeply affected, and ultimately becoming an advocate for early training in all its branches.
BOYS IN CLASS-ROOM.
This represents the class room of a boys' school, and a class receive ing oral instruction on geography from the master. The monitorial sys tem being found by experience not suficient thoroughly to educate a boy (as an aid it is excellent); but every pupil to be properly taught, should be instructed by the master at least once a weck. If he take a class every day into the class room he will accomplish this object during the week The instruction given by him will depend upon the proficiency of his class, and he should be able to tell the relative proficiency of every pupil in his school.
In the plate he is repro sented as describing the course of a vessel, and illustrating his observations and proving the rotundity of the earth, by one of the globes before hiin The pupils are caresully looking over the map, and tracing the various places spoken of by the master, behind him is a case of books on geography, natural history, &c., which he refers to in case he is at a loss for information to instruct his pupils. Various inodels of machines and instruments illustrating the mechanical powers are seen in the forc, round of the picture to which the inaster refers when instructing his pupils on these subjects. And if he understands the art of teaching he will invariably find, that he will always be tired with giving information before his pupils are tired of receiving it. This is a fact of which I have had ample experience.
Where practicable, there should always be an under-master to leave in charge of the school, while the head-master is occupied as above.
The ground plan, which is for a Normal School containing the boys' school, a girls' school, and an infant school, which I have said before should be entirely separate, will explain itself. It has been designed from practical experience and possesses all the arrangements I would require as a public teacher.
Education essential for all classes Objections answered. Advantages
of general education-Necessity of commencing education in in. fancy- Neglect of heart and moral education-Inefficacy of national, parish, and Sunday schools, as they now exist-Reasons given-Early display of feelings in children-Necessity of infant education explained. Neglect of physical and moral education Infant system misunderstood Its leading objects explained. Its peculiar necessity for the children of the labouring classes--Objections answered Neglect of the legislature on the subject of infant training-Objections answered-Deficiency of teachers-Advantages of properly conducted infant schools.Advice to teachers Susceptibility of the infant mind-Advice to parents Advantages of kindness to infants-Anecdote-The infant system, to be effective, must be understood Enquiries of children for knowledge too frequently repulsed Influence of the state of the atmosphere, weather, and time, on infants Importance of ventilation-Efficacy of the play-ground in developing the propensities--Cleanliness, its importanceManner of reviving the energies of children-Advice to teachers-Moral training hitherto neglectedImportance of the play-ground-Good effects of early moral training-Example of trial by jury Beneficial results of play-ground discipline- Various devices for conveying instruction Development of the reflective powers Picture of a child on first entering an infant school-How corrected-Every infant school must have a play-ground-Opinion of an Edinburgh publication on the infant system.
This is an age of novelties. The whole ingenuity of man seems to be at work to produce something new; hence we are offered new light on phrenology-on the functions of the human brain; next geology, which goes much