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III. PRELIMINARY BREATHING EXERCISES. Concert drill exercises in articulation and pronunciation should be preceded by short breathing exercises. These may be conducted in a great variety of ways, of which only a few are here indicated. The length of time in inhaling or exhaling may be regulated by the rise or fall of the teacher's hand.

1. Stand erect; feet firm; body braced; shoulders well back; arms akimbo.

2. Inhale slowly through the nostrils for five seconds; exhale slowly through the nostrils for five seconds. Repeat five times. Regulate the inhaling and exhaling by the rise and fall of the hand. In inhaling, fill the lower part of the lungs and do not elevate the shoulders.

3. Take a similar exercise, prolonging the time, first to ten seconds, next to fifteen seconds, and finally to twenty seconds.

4. Inhale; exhale slowly, giving, in a soft whisper, the sound of “Ah!” prolonged for five seconds; ten seconds; as long as possible.

5. Inhale; exhale slowly, giving the sound of long 0, in pure tone, prolonged for five seconds; next for ten seconds; then for fifteen seconds; and finally, as long as possible.

6. Inhale; exhale slowly, giving for ten seconds the sound of long e; of Italian a; of long oo.

7. Inhale ; repeat, in monotone, the long vowels, a, e, i, 0, U, until the breath is exhausted.

8. Inhale; count, with one breath, to 10; next, to 20; then, to 30.

9. Repeat, in one breath, the letters of the alphabet.

10. Inhale slowly; exhale slowly, giving the sound of liquid l prolonged for five seconds; ten seconds; fifteen seconds; twenty seconds; next, the sound of m; of n;

of r.

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II. ILLUSTRATIONS OF VOCALS.

I. The long sound of a. Marked with a macron, thus—ā. The equivalents of long a are also included. Avoid prolonging the vanishing e sound, thus-mā-eed for māde. āge dāy break

greāt

gāuge pāle gay

steāk

strāight yeā āid

māy deign weight neigh pāid way reign freight sleigh

WORDS OFTEN MISPRONOUNCED.
rā'dix

prāi'rie ā'pri cot
rā'tion eāis'son
pā’tron glā'mour māel'strom
pāstry hein'ous

pā tri ot'ic sā'cbem

pā’tri ot

ā're a nā'ked māy'or mā'tron ma'cron

ap pa rā'tus

vā'ri e gat ed

II.

Italian or open a. Marked with two dots over it, thus-ä. Avoid the provincialism of hăf for hälf, lăf for läugh, etc. ärt eälf pälm

äh!

gäunt läunch äre hälf psalm bäh! häunt stäunch ärm

hälves sälve päths jäunt läugh älms eälves läth äunt täunt quälms bälm bath gape däunt cräunch zouäve eälm päth

wrath fläunt häunch hearth

däunt'less

guä'va

WORDS OFTEN MISPRONOUNCED.

jäun'dice säun'ter
läun'dry jäunt'y
läugh'ter
llä'mà

so prä'no
plä'ză

fi nä'le

pi ä'no

gua'no gäunt'let häunt'ed

Col o rä'do
Ne väldå
Mon tä'na
Tu lä're
So lä'no

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The broad sound of a. Marked with two dots under it, thusa. Avoid the two extremes: (1) That of giving a the sound of short o, as õll for awl, etc. (2) That of making a equal to two syllables, as awủl for all, caw'úl for call, etc. ball taught chalk alder fau'çet tall Ôught talk al'ways

eal'dron drawl brôught

stalk
au'ger

fal'çhion erawl thôught gauze

pal'try sprawl groat bąul sau'çer

ôr' der

eau'eus

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Marked with a breve, thus—ă. Avoid giving short a, as in åt, the sound of intermediate a, as in åsk, or of Italian a, as in älms. Say ănd, not ånd; ăn'swer, not än'swer, etc. ănd ăn’swer păt'ent

ră'tion al băde bărrel păg'eant

răil'le ry eătch hărrow

răth'er

săt'ir ist plănt măr'ry

nă'tion al plăid năr row păt'ron age

tăp'est ry

suăv'i ty

V. Sound of a as in câre. Marked with a circumflex, thus—à. Avoid the two extremes : (1) That of giving it the sound of Italian a, as chär for chair, thär for thêre, etc. (2) That of long a, as ea'er for eâre, thā'er for thêre, ā'er for air, etc. âir

sweâr thêre pâre pâr'ent dâre square where

pâir

fair' y râre wear

their
fâre

châr'y fâir hâre

hair
lâir

searcely bear pear

heir
prayer

seâr'çi ty

VI. Intermediate a, as in åsk. Marked with a dot over it, thus—à. This is a medium sound between Italian a and short a. Avoid the two extremes: (1) That of Italian a, as färst for fast, därnce for dance, etc. (2) That of short a, as ăsk for åsk, dănce for dance, after for af'ter, etc. åsk chant dance

graft

lance quaff ånt ehåff daft grånt mass råft åft ehånce draft

måst

råsp båsk east draught gåsp måsk shaft bàsque elass fäst gråsp påss staff brass eraft flåsk hásp

påst slånt blást elasp glass häft pånt tåsk eåsque eask grass låst

prance tránce

glånce

1. WORDS OFTEN MISPRONOUNCED. In all these words be careful to give a its intermediate sound as in ask, not the short sound as in ånd. after fåst'er

más'ter påss'port bås'ket fåst'est

mås tiff räft'er eas'ket glass'y

slånting elass'es gråss'y

task'work eraft'y làst'ing

pås'time pås'tor plås'ter

vast'ness erafts'man massive

påst'ure waft'ed

II. WORDS OFTEN MISPRONOUNCED.

a slånt
a máss'
a las'
a vást

com månd'
dis måst'
de månd'
en hånce
en chànt'
per chance

ad vån'tage
ad vånce'ment
com månd'ment
en chånt'ment
en hånce'ment
re månd'ed

ad vånce

a båft'

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