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he was well acquainted, should obtain an audience of the king, who, on his part, longed exceedingly for his return, and seemed to expect that his pre: sence would impart to him the courage to shake off the ignominious yoke of an encroaching minion. Several successive intimations were conveyed by the duke to Bristol of the dangers which awaited his return, and he was distinctly told, that if he did not remain in Spain and embrace the offers there made him, it should be worse for him. But the spirit of the earl was above intimidation; he pursued his journey through France, and when arrived at Boulogne he sent to desire that a king's ship might be ordered out for his conveyance: this customary honor was promised; but finding no prospect of performance, the earl, after waiting a week, threw himself into an open boat and was thus landed at Dover. Buckingham exerted all his influence to cause him to be immediately committed to the Tower; but on this point the king was inflexible; he consented however to send an order to Bristol not to appear at court, or quit his own house, till he should have answered certain interrogatories which would be ministered to him by some meinbers of the privy-council.

Buckingham and his friends pretended that no mischief was meant to the earl by these proceedings, and that he was only restrained to prevent a more violent attack upon him by the parliament: but an effectual contradiction was given to these assertions by the conduct of Bristol, who, after returning an


answer to the interrogatories, and addressing a letter of justification to the king, so clear and forcible that no impartial person can peruse them without receiving a strong impression of the goodness of his cause, continued openly and vehemently to charge the duke with falsehood and imposture in his narrative to the two houses, and to demand a public trial of their differences. Such justice, however, he could not at this time obtain ; and Buckingham insisted much with the king that he should be brought to submission and required to acknowledge himself in fault: James, to his honor, steadily refused, saying, "I were to be accounted a tyrant to innocent man to confess faults of which he was not guiltya.” The matter was thus spun out till the prorogation of parliament, after which the earl was permitted to come to London on his private affairs; but the interdict of Buckingham was still of force to exclude him from the presence of his master.

Some public benefit accrued from the popular counsels which James had been constrained equally against his principles and his inclination to adopt. The parliament was suffered to carry a declaratory act against monopolies, and against dispensations from the penal statutes ;-a strong bulwark against a most odious species of oppression and exaction, and an act was passed for the relief of persons exposed to vexatious prosecutions for neglects in complying with the forms of wardship. Many more

a Coke's Detection, pp. 139, 140.



grievances grievances remained to be discussed; but the house had no sooner commenced some inquiries into these matters than the king, rallying his spirits, gave them to understand that though they were to apply redress to some known grievances, they were not to go on seeking after more; and seeing no probability of their voting any further supplies for the relief of his private necessities, he prorogued them, on May 29, to the month of October; when the parliament was dissolved,


1624, 1625.

General rejoicing on the change of measures.-Disappoint

ment.Marriage treaty with France.-Feeble preparations for war.-Troops sent to serve with the Dutch.---Expedition fitted out under Mansfeldt.-Its complete failure. -Sickness and death of king James.-His works ar cha. racter.-Anécdotes of him.-His funeral sermon by Williams.- Translation of the bible under his auspices.-Conclusion.

THE signal change of measures which had ensued upon the return of the prince and Buckingham had been received with applause as general as sincere and cordial; and it was less the voice of a party than of the English people which had hailed the breach of the Spanish treaty as a great national deliverance, triumphed in the declaration of war as an important assertion of the protestant cause, and elevated the arrogant and unprincipled favorite by whose ungovernable will these acts had been forced upon his reluctant sovereign, into a patriot, a hero, a saviour of his country. A short lapse of time was sufficient to evince the folly of such premature exultation and ill-placed enthusiasm.

The dissolution of parliament, which had put a stop to any further investigation of domestic grievances, was also the signal for a relapse, on the part 2 c 2


of the government, into all that was most offensive and unpopular in the spirit of its former policy. Buckingham hastened to throw off the mask of patriotism and protestant zeal which it had suited him for a time to assume; and it soon appeared, that one catholic match had only been abandoned in favor of another, negotiated on terms equally dangerous in a religious point of view, and recommended by fewer temporal advantages; and that an inglorious peace was only exchanged for a war, with all its inseparable evils, which the want of energy and of practical wisdom inherent in the character of the monarch and his government, must render not merely inglorious, but disgraceful and calamitous.

No sooner had the prince returned from his unsuccessful journey to Spain than his views were directed towards the princess Henrietta Maria of France, daughter of Henry IV. and sister of the reigning monarch Louis XIII., as the only bride worthy of him; and before the Spanish treaty was actually broken off, Henry Rich lord Kensington, brother to the earl of Warwick, was sent to Paris to sound the dispositions of the French court. That situation of the negotiation with Spain which prevented his being furnished with credentials to Louis, did not at all diminish the cordiality of his reception; and such was the encouragement which his overtures received from the king, and especially from the queen-mother, that he was soon enabled to assure his patron the duke of Buckingham of the certainty of the prince's success whenever he should

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