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gave to his enemies, made such mercy in a small treatise Against an impression on his mind as re- the Celestial Prophete ; which, quired all the affection and elo- under the appearance of conquence of Melancthon to re- demning the new fanatics, seems move.*

to have had little other object Amid the fatal commotions in than to reproach Carlostadt, and 1525 and 1526, occasioned by refute the iconoclasts. In it, he the revolt of the peasants in argued for the continuation of the Germany, who rose against their term mass, for which Carlostadt masters, and with a frenzy im- had substituted the word supper ; pregnated in some minds by fa- for the elevation of the host, naticism, and in others by li- though he acknowledged it was centiousness, endeavoured to not practised by Christ; and for subvert the distinctions of rank the real presence, which he exand property, and equalize the plained by affirming that the bowhole mass of the people, Lu• dy of our Saviour is united to the ther was firm in the cause of or- elements, as fire with red hot der, and exerted himself to re- iron. Carlostadt was anxious for establish tranquillity on the reconciliation, offered to retract, principles of truth. The pre- declared his abhorrence of Muntext of Christian liberty, by cer's sentiments, and at length which some of the revolutionists effected an accommodation with justified their conduct, he suc- his adversaries. But the concessfully refuted'; and on the troversy with Zuinglius imone hand besought the people to mediately succeeded, and continconsider, that they were not im- ued for a long series of years ; partial judges in their own cause; during which Luther often had that they could not authorize conferences with the Sacramentafrom the gospel a spirit directly rians of Switzerland, and maniopposite to its precepts, which fested a spirit of intemperance enjoin obedience to magistrates, which led him more than once to even though capricious and un- forget the precepts of Chrisjust; that patience, not resist- tianity, and to oppose the prosance, was the duty of Christians, pects of tranquillity which were and that they ought to seek re-enjoyed. In the life of Zuinglidress by lawful means only : and us, we shall have occasion to on the other, censured the consider more fully the reasonprinces as the cause of these ings and conduct of his antagonist disturbances, and exhorted them on this point. to remove that iron rod of op- During 1526, Luther was enpression, which they had so long gaged chiefly in reforming the lifted up against the rights and mode of conducting the worship happiness of their subjects. and ceremonies of the church.

The unfortunate Carlostadt He established the use of catewas still in Germany, despised chisms, in which the creed, the by some, and hated by others. decalogue, and the Lord's prayLuther had treated him without er were explained ; the reading

and exposition of Scripture from • Seck. lib. 1. 9178. lib. ii. 95. † Ib. lib. i. p. 1-14.

Seckend. 59, and ad.

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the pulpit ; and to obviate the In consequence of the edict of
want of pastors capable of in- Spires in June, 1526, by which
structing the people, composed the states of the empire were
a liturgy and homilies, which permitted to regulate the affairs
were adopted with success. He of religion, in each province,
advised the Elector John, who according as the princes judged
succeeded his brother Frederic most expedient, till a general
the preceding year, and who, council should be held, the Ro-
from the commencement of his manists, enraged at their ineffec-
reign, openly espoused the cause tual efforts to procure the con-
of the reformation, to write to demnation of Lutheranism, en-
the bishops, requiring them to tered into an alliance to attack
provide for the religious instruc- the Landgrave of Hesse, and the
tion of the people under their Elector of Saxony. These two
charge, informing them, that if princes received information in
they were negligent, he was de- 1528 of a treaty to this purpose,
termined to take steps to enforce said to have been made at Bres-
their diligence.* Towards the law, in May, 1527, and immedi-
close of the year, he was at ately united for the defence of
times seized with a depression their territories and religion, and
of spirits, which he imagined took steps to prevent or to resist
was a temptation of the devil, the designs of their enemies.
while it was only the effect of By the remonstrances of Luther
his incessant labours, intense and Melancthon, however, the
meditations, and anxious cares, Elector was convinced of the
which disordered his body, and precipitancy of his conduct; and
injured his health ; for by the the confederated Catholics unan-
use of medicines, he was re- imously disavowing the treaty
stored to his former tranquillity; which they were said to have
though his illness continued formed, the fear of war was re-
during the whole of 1527. He moved. This year Luther pub-
did not, however, discontinue lished a number of sermons on
his pulpit instructions ; though Genesis, remarkable for sim-
he was incapable of exerting his plicity of language, temperance
mind in any long or connected towards those who differed from
train of thinking. He accord- him, and fidelity in their applica-
ingly wrote scarcely any thing tion to the consciences of men ;
this year, but a short treatise on a commentary on Zechariah, in
the Lawfulness of Christians which he censured the allego-
making War ; in which he re- ries of mystics, and the dreams
stricts its lawfulness to the case of the German fanatics ; a trea-
of defensive operations, and tise on Communion in one kind,
denies the right of subjects to against the archbishop of Misnia;
fight against their rulers, how- and a letter against the Anabap-
ever tyrannical, if they do not tists, in which, to avoid one of
impose restraints on their con- their arguments against infant
science. I

baptism, he supposes infants to

be capable of exercising faith ;
• Seckend. 5 20, & ad.
$ Ib. 5 29 & 30, p. 80, 81.

$ Seck. $ 35, et. ad.


a novel opinion, and of which was every day becoming more nothing but the design with and more enslaved by the counwhich it was broached can be de- cils of the Pope, and thought of fended.*

meeting him in arms; but A diet was assembled at Spires through Luther's persuasion, in March, 1529, by order of the they laid aside their intention, Emperor, at which every art was and assembled in peace at the used by the Romish party to di- appointed time. Yet anxious as vide the friends of the reforma- this reformer was to have tion, by reviving the disputes another opportunity to speak the about the sacrament. Though truth before the Emperor and this was prevented, Luther, his court, he was too obnoxious whose mind was inflamed with to be openly protected by the prejudice against the Zuinglians, Protestants, and was accordingly so far forgot his usual principles, left in the castle of Cobourg, at as to advise the Elector to leave a little distance from Augsburg, them to the cruelty of their per, that his advice might be obtain. secutors, a condition on which ed, if necessary. In this retreat, the Lutherans were promised a he gave himself to meditation more favourable treatment. The and prayer, translated the proph. advice was rejected ; and on the ets, wrote his commentary on prevalence of the Romanists in the Psalms ; and published, be. the diet, who confirmed the for- fore the opening of the diet, An mer decree of Spires, the Lu- Address to the Clergy assembled theran princes and the represen- at Augsburg, justifying his doctatives of fourteen cities joined trine, and exhorting them to acin a formal protest, which they knowledge that truth, to sup afterwards strengthened by a press which, all their art or pow. solemn appeal to the Emperor, er would be altogether ineffec. or a future council, either univer- tual. I He re-animated the sal or national, in behalf of them- drooping spirits, and laboured to selves, their subjects, and their strengthen the faith of Melanc. successors, and all who should thon, whose fortitude was shaka embrace the same doctrines, en by the number and power of From this circumstance the Ger- his enemies, and his efforts were man Lutherans received the not unsuccessful. The follow, name of PROTESTANTS, a name ing extracts from his letters will by which all who embraced the shew the greatness of his mind, reformation from popery have and the extent of his views : "I long been distinguished.

am much weaker than you in When the Elector of Saxony, private conflicts : but in public

, and the other Protestant princes, you are like me in private. You were summoned to attend anoth- are not afraid of your own life, er diet at Augsburg in June, but you are afraid of the public 1530, they understood that they cause. I, on the contrary, look had nothing but injustice to ex. on this cause with tranquillity pect from the Emperor, who and fortitude, because I am con

* Seck. 55 38, 39, 40. $ Ib. 44.

ļh. 5 44. Beausubre, tom. iv. p.

250, et seq.

fident it is just and true, the and Defender is also great ; for cause of Christ and of God, it is not ours only. Why then which has no reason to blush do you constantly distress yourand tremble, as I, an individual self? If the cause is false, let sinner have. On this account, I us withdraw from it; if it is contemplate with security, and true, why should we make God almost with indifference, these a liar by disbelieving his promfierce and menacing Papists; ises ? - What more can the dev. for if we fall, Christ, the ruler of il do, than take away our life? the world, must fall with us; For myself, whether it be the and though it were so, I had effect of insensibility, or of the rather fall with Christ, than Spirit of God, I know not, but I stand with Cæsar. Nor are you feel little uneasiness as to the alone in this conflict, I am pres- event; nay, I have more hope ent with you in groans and than I could have believed. If prayers; and would to God I we are not worthy to carry it could be with you in person, forward, others will be raised for it is my cause also, and more up. In fine, if the danger inmine than yours; a cause un

crease, I will fly to your supdertaken neither rashly, nor port, and look these formidable through motives of avarice or emissaries of Satan full in the vain glory, as I take God to wit- teeth."* Dess, and as the event has al- Against the decree of this diready testified, and will testify et, which prohibited all changes more fully hereafter. I beseech or innovations in the faith or you, therefore, in the name of worship of the church, and exChrist, not to forget the prom- cluded from the imperial chamises and consolations contained ber all, who should disobey it, in the words, Cast your care on

Luther in 1531 published a the Lord, for he careth for you ; small treatise, in which he prowait on the Lord ; act a manly tested that his object was to cenpart; and let your heart be sure not the Emperor and good strengthened. Be of good cour. princes, but the bad, whether age, I have overcome the world, princes or bishops, and especialsays Jesus. Why then should ly Pope Clement, and Cardinal we fear a conquered world, as if Campegius his legate ; that the it were the conqueror? To hear pretended refutation of the Prosuch a truth, it were little to go testant confession was unworthy on our knees to Rome, or even of any man of common underto Jerusalem. But we are ac- standing or probity ; that the customed to hear it, and this di- church by refusing the cup to minishes its impression.” Again, the laity, opposed the authority in another letter, “ The cares, of Scripture, and instead of bewhich consume you, highly dis- ing the spouse of Christ, was please me ; they arise not from the whore of Satan ; that solitaany important cause, but from my masses were dangerous and the greatness of your unbelief. unscriptural ; and that justificaWas the danger less in the days tion, by faith only, is a doctrine of Huss, and other good men ? Great as the cause is, its Author • Seckend. $ 69, p. 181, 182.

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according to godliness. “This tend the knowledge aud influarticle," says he, “shall never ence of the truth ; in exhorting be overthrown, neither by em- princes, and universities, and perors, nor by the Turks, nor provinces not to retard the prothe Tartars, nor the Persians; gress of the reformation, but to nor by the Pope and all his car- confirm it; in writing commendinals, bishops, priests, monks, taries on the Scripture ; and in and nuns ; nor by kings, princes, publishing, from time to time, or governors; nor by the whole treatises of admonition, reproof, world, though joined by all the and consolation, according to the devils in hell ; and all, who con- particular circumstances in which trovert it, shall meet the reward the church, or individuals, were of iniquity. Thus I, Doctor placed. Nor did his enemies Luther, by the teaching of the escape the lash of his pen. His Holy Spirit, believe : and this severity seemed to increase with is the true gospel." Then he his years ; more than once he quotes the creed, I believe in was commanded by his steady Jesus Christ crucified, dead, and friend the Elector of Saxony, to buried; and adds, “ If none but moderate his language, and reChrist died for sin, if no other strain his vehemence; but the taketh away sin, all men with inveteracy of the errors, which all their works are, by conge- he combated, continually suppliquence, excluded from any ed new fuel for his indignation share in meriting the remission and violence. of sins, and justification before In consequence of the decree God; and as it is impossible to of the diet of Spires, and the embrace Christ but by faith, how proceedings of the Emperor and can works avail ? If then faith, the court of Rome subsequent before works follow it, alone em- to it, the Protestants met at braces Christ, it must be true Smalkalde in Dec. 1530, conthat his redemption is applied to cluded a league of mutual de sinners, i.e. they are justified fence against all, who should opby faith only. After faith, how- pose them, and renewed it the ever, good works follow as its following year in an assembly at fruit. This is the doctrine I the same place. In 1535, they teach, and this the Holy Spirit, again met, insisted on their and the true church of Christ original demand of a council to have always taught. To this, be held in Germany, and agreed by the grace of God, I will con- to unite in supporting the league stantly adhere. Amen."* of Smalkalde for ten years.

After this period, Luther was When this period expired, they chiefly employed in raising that found considerable difficulty superstructure of reformation, arising froin the jealousies of the foundation of which he had particular princes, to prolong laid amid such opposition and their confederacy, and saw the dangers. His life was spent in tempest, which had been so long labouring to strengthen the gathering, and which was now minds of the faithful, and to ex- greatly thickened by the pro

ceedings of the council of Trent, * Seckend. lib. iii, $ 3, p. 7.

ready to burst on them with av.

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