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Swift should have checked a passion which he never meant to gratify, recourse must be had to that extenuation which he so much despised, 'men are but men'': perhaps, however, he did not at first know his own mind, and, as he represents himself, was undetermined. For his admission of her courtship, and his indulgence of her hopes after his marriage to Stella, no other honest plea can be found, than that he delayed a disagreeable discovery from time to time, dreading the immediate bursts of distress, and watching for a favourable moment. She thought herself neglected, and died of disappointment; having ordered by her will the poem to be published, in which Cadenus had proclaimed her excellence, and confessed his love3. The effect of the publication upon the Dean and Stella is thus related by Delany*. 73 'I have good reason to believe that they both were greatly shocked and distressed (though it may be differently) upon this occasion. The Dean made a tour to the South of Ireland, for about two months, at this time, to dissipate his thoughts, and give place to obloquy. And Stella retired (upon the earnest invitation of the owner) to the house of a cheerful, generous, good-natured friend of the Dean's, whom she also much loved and honoured. There my informer often saw her; and, I have reason to believe, used his utmost endeavours to relieve, support, and amuse her in this sad situation.

written 14 years ago at Windsor.' Works, xix. 283. This places its composition in 1712. In the poem he tells (ib. xiv. 444) how

'Vanessa, not in years a score,

Dreams of a gown of forty-four.' He was not forty-five till Nov. 30, 1712. She was of age in Aug. 1711. lb. ii. 320. In Sept. 1712, the Vanhomrighs were to join him at Windsor. Ib. xix. 317. Writing to her in 1722 he says: 'Go over the scenes of Windsor.' Ib. xix. 369. He was a good deal in that town in the late summer of 1712. Zb. iii. 41, 43, 45, 50. His letters to Stella had been interrupted by illness through April of that year; but when he recovered he wrote but little. Between July 17 and Sept. 15 he only wrote once. 1b. pp. 24, 43. It seems likely that Vanessa was the cause of this neglect. If the poem was written in 1712, it must have been revised next year, for he was not 'Decanus' till May, 1713.

[ I cannot find this 'extenuation'
in Swift's writings totidem verbis. In
his Sermon on the Testimony of
Conscience (Works, ed. by Scott,
1824, vii. 453) he says of 'men who
set up for morality without regard to
religion,... if they find themselves
disposed to pride, lust, intemperance,
or avarice they do not think their
morality concerned to check them in
any of these vices; because it is the
great rule of such men that they may
lawfully follow the dictates of nature,
wherever their safety, health and for-
tune are not injured.' It may be
worth while mentioning that the 1820
edition of Johnson's Works (xi. 23)
reads 'which IS much despised.']
2 'Cadenus, who could ne'er suspect
His lessons would have such

Or be so artfully applied,
Insensibly came on her side.'
Works, xiv. 449.

3 See Appendix E.
• Observations, p. 57.

'One little incident he told me of, on that occasion, I think I shall never forget. As her friend was an hospitable, openhearted man, well-beloved and largely acquainted, it happened one day that some gentlemen dropt in to dinner, who were strangers to Stella's situation; and as the poem of Cadenus and Vanessa was then the general topic of conversation, one of them said, "Surely that Vanessa must be an extraordinary woman, that could inspire the Dean to write so finely upon her." Mrs. Johnson smiled, and answered, "that she thought that point not quite so clear; for it was well known the Dean could write finely upon a broomstick ".""

The great acquisition of esteem and influence was made by the 75 Drapier's Letters in 17242. One Wood of Wolverhampton in Staffordshire, a man enterprising and rapacious 3, had, as is said, by a present to the Dutchess of Munster, obtained a patent,

She no doubt knew of the trick Swift had played on Lady Berkeley, when he read out to her, as one of Boyle's Meditations, A Meditation upon a Broomstick. Works, ix. 118; ed. 1803, iii. 274.

'It is to be regretted that Johnson did not write an account of his travels in France; ... he is reported to have once said that "he could write the Life of a Broomstick." Boswell's Johnson, ii. 389.

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No. 1, dated 1724. 'Published while the Committee of Inquiry was sitting in London '—i. e. between April 9 and July 24. Craik, pp. 348, 351. Works, vi. 339.

No. 2, Aug. 4, 1724. Ib. p. 353.
No. 3, Aug. 25. Ib. p. 377.
No. 4, Oct. 23. Ib. p. 409.
No. 5, Dec. 24. Ib. p. 464.
No. 6, dated Oct. 1724, and No. 7,
undated, were first printed in 1735.
Ib. vii. 5, 26.

'Johnson observed that Swift put his name to but two things (after he had a name to put), The Plan for the Improvement of the English Language [ante, SWIFT, 40], and the last Drapier's Letter: Boswell's Johnson, ii. 319. It was to No. 6 that he put his name or rather initials. Besides the Letters he published Seasonable Advice to the Grand Jury, dated Nov. 11, 1724. Works, vi. 436. For a facsimile of the titlepage of the first edition of the Letters

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see Letters to Chetwode, p. 151.

3 Swift calls him 'a mean ordinary man, a hardware dealer'; 'this little impudent hardwareman'; 'a diminutive, insignificant mechanic.' Works, vi. 341, 358. 'He was a great proprietor and renter of iron works in England. He had a lease of all the mines on the Crown lands in 39 counties. Coxe's Walpole, i. 216.

'He was the fourth in descent from François Dubois, who with his wife and only son fled after the Massacre of St. Bartholomew to Shrewsbury. By 1609 his descendants had anglicized their name to Wood. Removing to Wolverhampton they purchased coal-mines and built iron forges. He was the great-grandfather of Mary Howitt.' Mary Howitt's Auto. i. 12, 15.


Baroness de Schulemberg, mistress of George I, and Duchess of Munster and Kendal. Horace Walpole, who, in his eleventh year, saw her in 1727, writes:-'I remember that just beyond his Majesty stood a very tall, lean, ill-favoured old lady.' Letters, Preface, p. 94. In A Wicked Treasonable Libel-'the bitterest epigram,' writes Scott,' which his own or any other pen ever traced '- Swift attacked her, the King, and the Prince of Wales. Works, i. 338, xii. 453. See also ib. xii. 356. He only indirectly attacked her in the Letters. 'Mr. Wood,' he writes,

empowering him to coin one hundred and eighty thousand pounds of half-pence and farthings for the kingdom of Ireland, in which there was a very inconvenient and embarrassing scarcity of copper coin', so that it was possible to run in debt upon the credit of a piece of money; for the cook or keeper of an alehouse could not refuse to supply a man that had silver in his hand, and the buyer would not leave his money without change. 76 The project was therefore plausible. The scarcity, which was already great, Wood took care to make greater by agents who gathered up the old half-pence; and was about to turn his brass into gold by pouring the treasures of his new mint upon Ireland, when Swift, finding that the metal was debased to an enormous degree3, wrote Letters, under the name of M. B., Drapier, to shew the folly of receiving, and the mischief that must ensue, by giving gold and silver for coin worth perhaps not a third part of its nominal value.


The nation was alarmed; the new coin was universally refused; but the governors of Ireland considered resistance to the King's patent as highly criminal'; and one Whitshed, then Chief Justice, who had tried the printer of the former pamphlet, and sent out the Jury nine times, till by clamour and menaces they were frighted into a special verdict, now

'had great friends; and, it seems, knew very well where to give money to those that would speak to others that could speak to the King, and would tell a fair story.' Works, vi. 342. See also ib. p. 399.

Sunderland, when First Lord of the Treasury, had given the disposal of the patent to the Duchess, who sold it to Wood. Walpole, his successor, saw the danger; but from fear of her influence with the King, from which he had suffered, ' reluctantly submitted.' Coxe's Walpole, i. 218. See also ib. ii. 409. The patent passed on July 12, 1722. Craik, p. 347.

* See Appendix F.

2 'Wood by his emissaries-enemies to God and this kingdom-has taken care to buy up as many of our old half-pence as he could.' Works, vi. 355, 391.

3 See Appendix G.

The Chancellor Middleton's op

position to the project led to his resignation. Coxe's Walpole, i. 219, 228. (See also Swift's Works, vii. 5.) On Sept. 1, 1724. Walpole wrote that 'the Lords Justices refuse to signify his Majesty's pleasure to the people.' Coxe's Walpole, ii. 364.

5 Works, vii. 248, xvi. 338; Letters to Chetwode, pp. 129-33; ante, SWIFT, 71.

Blackstone defines a special verdict as one 'setting forth all the circumstances of the case, and praying the judgment of the Court, whether, for instance, on the facts stated, it be murder, manslaughter, or no crime at all. This is where they doubt the matter of law, and therefore choose to leave it to the determination of the Court.' Com. iv. 361. The printer escaped in the end, as the Lord Lieutenant granted a nolle prosequi. Works, vii. 249, 274, xvi. 339. Charles Stewart Parnell was descended from Whitshed's daughter,


presented the Drapier, but could not prevail on the Grand Jury to find the bill2.

Lord Carteret3 and the Privy Council published a proclama- 78 tion, offering three hundred pounds for discovering the author of The Fourth Letter. Swift had concealed himself from his printers, and trusted only his butler, who transcribed the paper 3. The man, immediately after the appearance of the proclamation, strolled from the house, and staid out all night and part of the next day. There was reason enough to fear that he had betrayed his master for the reward; but he came home, and the Dean ordered him to put off his livery and leave the house, 'for,' says he, 'I know that my life is in your power, and I will not bear, out of fear, either your insolence or negligence.' The

who married the poet's brother John. N.&Q. 6 S. viii. 510.

It is not the Judge that 'presents,' but the Grand Jury. Johnson defines present:-'To lay before a Court of Judicature as an object of enquiry,' and quotes from Swift :-'The Grand Juries were practised effectually with to present the said pamphlet, with all aggravating epithets.' [Works, xvi. 338, where it is printed "to represent."]

2 The 'bill' is the indictment. 'If the Jury are satisfied of the truth of the accusation they then endorse upon it, "a true bill"; anciently "billa vera." The indictment is then said to be found, and the party stands indicted.' Blackstone's Com. iv. 305.

Whitshed discharged the Jury in a rage. For Swift's attacks on him for this see Works, vi. 441-59. The next Grand Jury, on Nov. 28, made a presentment against Wood's halfpence. Ib. p. 460.

3 In a dispute with Swift 'he replied with a mastery and strength of reason. Swift cried out:-"What the vengeance brought you amongst us? Get you gone, get you gone; pray God Almighty send us our boobies back again.' "Delany, P. 24. Carteret wrote to him on March 6, 1734-5-'As for futurity, I know your name will be remembered, when

the names of kings, lord-lieutenants, archbishops and parliament politicians will be forgotten.' Works, xviii. 252. Swift had written to him about Wood as early as April 28, 1724. 16. xvi. 420.

Swift wrote on March 23, 17334:-'My old friend, my Lord Carteret, was forced to consent to the proclamation.' Ib. xviii. 185. A Dublin merchant told T. Sheridan that at the levee, the day after the proclamation, he heard Swift, 'with the voice of a Stentor,' upbraid Carteret for it, who replied:

'Res dura et regni novitas me talia cogunt

Moliri *.' Works, 1803, i. 292.

We find, however, Carteret on Oct. 31, 1724-seven days after the letter appeared-informing the English Secretary of State, that if he discovered the author-he suspected Swift-and if the law allowed it, he would keep him in custody without bail. Coxe's Walpole, ii. 366. See also Letters to Chetwode, p. 181.

For an earlier reward of £300 see ante, SWIFT, 59.

5 Swift makes the 'Drapier' write to the printer:-'My custom is to dictate to a prentice, who can write in a feigned hand, and what is written we send to your house by a blackguard boy.' Works, vi. 465.

* Aeneid, i. 563.
'My cruel fate
And doubts attending an unsettled state
Force me,' &c.
DRYDEN, i. 790.


man excused his fault with great submission, and begged that he might be confined in the house while it was in his power to endanger his master; but the Dean resolutely turned him out, without taking further notice of him, till the term of information had expired, and then received him again. Soon afterwards he ordered him and the rest of the servants into his presence, without telling his intentions, and bade them take notice that their fellow-servant was no longer Robert the butler, but that his integrity had made him Mr. Blakeney, verger of St. Patrick's, an officer whose income was between thirty and forty pounds a year; yet he still continued for some years to serve his old master as his butler'.

Swift was known from this time by the appellation of 'The Dean.' He was honoured by the populace as the champion, patron, and instructor of Ireland, and gained such power as, considered both in its extent and duration, scarcely any man has ever enjoyed without greater wealth or higher station ".'

80 He was from this important year the oracle of the traders and the idol of the rabble, and by consequence was feared and courted by all to whom the kindness of the traders or the populace was necessary. The Drapier was a sign; the Drapier was a health; and which way soever the eye or the ear was turned some tokens were found of the nation's gratitude to the Drapier 3.

' Johnson follows Deane Swift's version of the story (Essay, p. 190), though with slight variations. Sheridan, who had the story from his father, who was sent for by Mrs. Johnson 'to try to make up matters,' says that the Dean at once pardoned the man, on hearing that 'he was walking about the hall, shedding abundance of tears,' and chiefly grieving that 'his master should suppose him capable of betraying him for any reward whatever.' When the place of verger became vacant, Swift ordered him to strip off his livery and put on common clothes. The poor fellow begged to know what crime he had committed. "Well, do as I order you."' The story goes on as in the text. The butler's name was Blakely. Works, 1803, i. 289.

Swift, perhaps, exaggerated the danger. Bolingbroke wrote to Pope on Feb. 18, 1723-4:-'The poor dean


dreams of gibbets and halters.' Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), vii. 397. He goes on to praise a comparison of Arbuthnot's, who, in Nov. 1723, wrote to Swift :-'You are in the case of the man who held the whole night by a broom bush, and found, when daylight appeared, he was within two inches of the ground.' Works, xvi. 412.

2 'He was known over the whole kingdom by the title of THE DEAN; and when THE DEAN was mentioned, it always carried with it the idea of the first and greatest man in the kingdom.' T. SHERIDAN, Works, 1803, i. 314. See also Orrery, p. 72; ante, SWIFT, 33 n., and Pope's Imit. Hor., Epis. ii. 1. 221.


Orrery, p. 73. Swift wrote to Pope on Feb. 9, 1735-6:- My popularity is wholly confined to the common people, who are more constant than those we miscall their betters.

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