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Swift should have checked a passion which he never meant to gratify, recourse must be had to that extenuation which he so much despised, 'men are but men'': perhaps, however, he did not at first know his own mind, and, as he represents himself, was undetermined”. For his admission of her courtship, and his indulgence of her hopes after his marriage to Stella, no other honest plea can be found, than that he delayed a disagreeable discovery from time to time, dreading the immediate bursts of distress, and watching for a favourable moment. She thought herself neglected, and died of disappointment; having ordered by her will the poem to be published, in which Cadenus had proclaimed her excellence, and confessed his love?. The effect of the
publication upon the Dean and Stella is thus related by Delany. 73 'I have good reason to believe that they both were greatly
shocked and distressed (though it may be differently) upon this occasion. The Dean made a tour to the South of Ireland, for about two months, at this time, to dissipate his thoughts, and give place to obloquy. And Stella retired (upon the earnest invitation of the owner) to the house of a cheerful, generous, good-natured friend of the Dean's, whom she also much loved and honoured. There my informer often saw her; and, I have reason to believe, used his utmost endeavours to relieve, support, and amuse her in this sad situation. written 14 years ago at Windsor.' [' I cannot find this 'extenuation' Works, xix. 283. This places its in Swift's writings totidem verbis. In composition in 1712. In the poem his Sermon on the Testimony of he tells (ib. xiv. 444) how
Conscience (Works, ed. by Scott, *Vanessa, not in years a score, 1824, vii. 453) he says of 'men who
Dreams of a gown of forty-four.' for morality without regard to He was not forty-five till Nov. 30, religion, ... if they find themselves 1712. She was of age in Aug. 1711. disposed to pride, lust, intemperance, 16. ii. 320. In Sept. 1712, the Van or avarice they do not think their homrighs were to join him at Windsor. morality concerned to check them in Ib. xix. 317. Writing to her in 1722 any of these vices; because it is the he says:~'Go over the scenes of great rule of such men that they may Windsor. Ib. xix. 369. He was a lawfully follow the dictates of nature, good deal in that town in the late wherever their safety, health and forsummer of 1712. 16. iii. 41, 43, 45, tune are not injured.' It may be 50. His letters to Stella had been worth while mentioning that the 1820 interrupted by illness through April edition of Johnson's Works (xi. 23) of that year; but when he recovered reads 'which is much despised.') he wrote but little. Between July 17 • •Cadenus, who could ne'er suspect and Sept. 15 he only wrote once. His lessons would have such Ib. pp. 24, 43. It seems likely that
effect, Vanessa was the cause of this nego Or be so artfully applied, lect. If the poem was written in Insensibly came on her side.' 1712, it must have been revised next
Works, xiv. 449. year, for he was not ‘Decanus' till
3 See Appendix E. May, 1713.
Observations, p. 57.
One little incident he told me of, on that occasion, I think I shall never forget. As her friend was an hospitable, openhearted man, well-beloved and largely acquainted, it happened one day that some gentlemen dropt in to dinner, who were strangers to Stella's situation; and as the poem of Cadenus and Vanessa was then the general topic of conversation, one of them said, “Surely that Vanessa must be an extraordinary woman, that could inspire the Dean to write so finely upon her.” Mrs. Johnson smiled, and answered, " that she thought that point not quite so clear; for it was well known the Dean could write finely upon a broomstick!
The great acquisition of esteem and influence was made by the 75 Drapier's Letters in 1724" One Wood of Wolverhampton in Staffordshire, a man enterprising and rapacious ?, had, as is said, by a present to the Dutchess of Munster", obtained a patent,
She no doubt knew of the trick see Letters to Chetwo:de, p. 151. Swift had played on Lady Berkeley,
3 Swift calls him'a mean ordinary when he read out to her, as one of man, a hardware dealer'; 'this little Boyle's Meditations, A Meditation impudent hardwareman'; 'a diminuupon a Broomstick. Works, ix. 118; tive, insignificant mechanic.' Works, ed. 1803, iii. 274.
vi. 341, 358. “He was a great proIt is to be regretted that Johnson prietor and renter of iron works in did not write an account of his travels England. He had a lease of all the in France; ... he is reported to have mines on the Crown lands in 39 once said that “he could write the counties.' Coxe's Walpole, i. 216. Life of a Broomstick."! Boswell's ' He was the fourth in descent from Johnson, ii. 389.
François Dubois, who with his wife No. 1, dated 1724. "Published and only son Aled after the Massacre while the Committee of Inquiry was of St. Bartholomew to Shrewsbury. sitting in London '-i. e. between By 1609 his descendants had angliApril 9 and July 24. Craik, pp. 348, cized their name to Wood. Re351. Works, vi. 339.
moving to Wolverhampton they purNo. 2, Aug. 4, 1724. Ib. p. 353. chased coal-mines and built iron No. 3, Aug. 25. Ib. p. 377. forges. He was the great-grandfather No. 4, Oct. 23. 16. p. 409.
of Mary Howitt.' Mary Howitt's No. 5, Dec. 24. Ib. p. 464.
Auto, i. 12, 15. No. 6, dated Oct. 1724, and No.7, * Baroness de Schulemberg, misundated, were first printed in 1735. tress of George I, and Duchess of 1b. vii. 5, 26.
Munster and Kendal. Horace WalJohnson observed that Swift put pole, who, in his eleventh year, saw his name to but two things (after he her in 1727, writes:-'I remember had a name to put), The Plan for the that just beyond his Majesty stood Improvement of the English Lan a very tall, lean, ill-favoured old lady.' guage [ante, ŚwiFT, 401, and the
Letters, Preface, p. 94. In A Wicked last Drapier's Letter. Boswell's John. Treasonable Libel - 'the bitterest son, ii. 319. It was to No. 6 that he
epigram,'writes Scott,' which his own put his name-or rather initials. Be
or any other pen ever traced' - Swift sides the Letters he published Sea attacked her, the King, and the sonable Advice to the Grand Jury, Prince of Wales. Works, i. 338, dated Nov. 11, 1724. Works, vi. xii. 453.. See also ib. xii. 356. He 436. For a facsimile of the title only indirectly attacked her in the page of the first edition of the Letters Letters. •Mr. Wood,' he writes,
LIVES OF POETS. JII
empowering him to coin one hundred and eighty thousand pounds of half-pence and farthings for the kingdom of Ireland, in which there was a very inconvenient and embarrassing scarcity of copper coin', so that it was possible to run in debt upon the credit of a piece of money; for the cook or keeper of an alehouse could not refuse to supply a man that had silver in his
hand, and the buyer would not leave his money without change. 76 The project was therefore plausible. The scarcity, which was
already great, Wood took care to make greater by agents who gathered up the old half-pence?; and was about to turn his brass into gold by pouring the treasures of his new mint upon Ireland, when Swift, finding that the metal was debased to an enormous degree 3, wrote Letters, under the name of M. B., Drapier, to shew the folly of receiving, and the mischief that must ensue, by giving gold and silver for coin worth perhaps not a third part of
its nominal value. 77 The nation was alarmed; the new coin was universally re
fused; but the governors of Ireland considered resistance to the King's patent as highly criminal *; and one Whitshed, then Chief Justice, who had tried the printer of the former pamphlet, and sent out the Jury nine times, till by clamour and menaces they were frighted into a special verdict”, now
'had great friends; and, it seems, position to the project led to his knew very well where to give money
resignation. Coxe's Walpole, i. 219, to those that would speak to others 228. (See also Swift's Works, vii. 5.) that could speak to the King, and On Sept. 1, 1724. Walpole wrote that would tell a fair story.' Works, vi. 'the Lords Justices refuse to signify 342. See also ib. p. 399.
his Majesty's pleasure to the people.' Sunderland, when First Lord of Coxe's Walpole, ii. 364. the Treasury, had given the dis s Works, vii. 248, xvi. 338; Letters posal of the patent to the Duchess, to Chetwode, pp. 129-33; ante, who sold it to Wood. Walpole, SWIFT, 71. his successor, saw the danger; but Blackstone defines a special verdict from fear of her influence with the as one 'setting forth all the circumKing, from which he had suffered, stances of the case, and praying the ' reluctantly submitted.' Coxe's Wal judgment of the Court, whether, for pole, i. 218. See also ib. ii. 409. The instance, on the facts stated, it be patent passed on July 12, 1722. murder, manslaughter, or no crime at Craik, p. 347.
all. This is where they doubt the * See Appendix F.
matter of law, and therefore choose to a "Wood by his emissaries-ene leave it to the determination of the mies to God and this kingdom-has Court. Com. iv. 361. The printer taken care to buy up as many of our escaped in the end, as the Lord old half-pence as he could.' Works, Lieutenant granted a nolle prosequi. vi. 355, 391.
Works, vii. 249, 274, xvi. 339. 3 See Appendix G.
Charles Stewart Parnell was de• The Chancellor Middleton's op scended from Whitshed's daughter,
presented' the Drapier, but could not prevail on the Grand Jury to find the bill?.
Lord Carteret 3 and the Privy Council published a proclama-78 tion, offering three hundred pounds for discovering the author of The Fourth Letter + Swift had concealed himself from his printers, and trusted only his butler, who transcribed the paper". The man, immediately after the appearance of the proclamation, strolled from the house, and staid out all night and part of the next day. There was reason enough to fear that he had betrayed his master for the reward; but he came home, and the Dean ordered him to put off his livery and leave the house, ' for,' says he, ‘I know that my life is in your power, and I will not bear, out of fear, either your insolence or negligence.' The
who married the poet's brother John. the names of kings, lord-lieutenants, N. E l. 6 S. viii. 510.
archbishops and parliament politi* It is not the Judge that presents,' cians will be forgotten.' Works, but the Grand Jury. Johnson defines xviii. 252. Swift had written to him present :- 'To lay before a Court of about Wood as early as April 28, Judicature as an object of enquiry,' 1724. 16. xvi. 420. and quotes from Swift :-'The Grand * Swift wrote on March 23, 1733Juries were practised effectually with 4:—'My old friend, my Lord Carteret, to present the said pamphlet, with all was forced to consent to the proclaaggravating epithets.' (Works, xvi. mation. 16. xviii. 185. A Dublin 338, where it is printed “to repre merchant told T. Sheridan that at sent."]
the levee, the day after the proclamaThe 'bill’is the indictment. 'If tion, he heard Swift,' with the voice the Jury are satisfied of the truth of of a Stentor,' upbraid Carteret for it, the accusation they then endorse who replied :upon it, "a true bill”; anciently 'Res dura et regni novitas me talia “billa vera.” The indictment is then cogunt said to be found, and the party stands Moliri *.' Works, 1803, i, 292. indicted.' Blackstone's Com. iv. 305. We find, however, Carteret on Oct.
Whitshed discharged the Jury in a 31, 1724-seven days after the letter rage. For Swift's attacks on him for appeared--informing the English this see Works, vi. 441-59. The Secretary of State, that if he disnext Grand Jury, on Nov. 28, made covered the author-he suspected a presentment against Wood's half Swift--and if the law allowed it, he pence. 15. p. 460.
would keep him in custody without 3 In a dispute with Swift'he re bail. Coxe's Walpole, ii. 366. See plied with a mastery and strength of also Letters to Chetwode, p. 181.
Swift cried out:-“What For an earlier reward of £300 see the vengeance brought you amongst ante, SWIFT, 59. us? Get you gone, get you gone; 5 Swift makes the ‘ Drapier' write pray. God Almighty send us to the printer :- My custom is to boobies back again.' Delany, p.24.
dictate to a prentice, who can write Carteret wrote to him on March 6, in a feigned hand, and what is written 1734-5:-'As for futurity, I know we send to your house by a blackyour name will be remembered, when guard boy.' Works, vi. 465. * Aeneid, i. 563.
My cruel fate
DRYDEN, i. 790.
man excused his fault with great submission, and begged that he might be confined in the house while it was in his power to endanger his master ; but the Dean resolutely turned him out, without taking further notice of him, till the term of information had expired, and then received him again. Soon afterwards he ordered him and the rest of the servants into his presence, without telling his intentions, and bade them take notice that their fellow-servant was no longer Robert the butler, but that his integrity had made him Mr. Blakeney, verger of St. Patrick's, an officer whose income was between thirty and forty pounds a year; yet he still continued for some years to serve his old master as
his butler. 79 Swift was known from this time by the appellation of 'The
Dean.' He was honoured by the populace as the champion, patron, and instructor of Ireland, and gained such power as, considered both in its extent and duration, scarcely any man has
ever enjoyed without greater wealth or higher station?' 80 He was from this important year the oracle of the traders and
the idol of the rabble, and by consequence was feared and courted by all to whom the kindness of the traders or the populace was necessary. The Drapier was a sign; the Drapier was a health; and which way soever the eye or the ear was turned some tokens were found of the nation's gratitude to the Drapier'.
Johnson follows Deane Swift's dreams of gibbets and halters.' version of the story (Essay, p. 190), Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), though with slight variations. Sheri vii. 397. He goes on to praise a dan, who had the story from his comparison of Arbuthnot's, who, in father, who was sent for by Mrs. Nov. 1723, wrote to Swift :-'You are Johnson 'to try to make up matters,' in the case of the man who held the says that the Dean at once pardoned whole night by a broom bush, and the man, on hearing that he was found, when daylight appeared, he walking about the hall, shedding was within two inches of the ground.' abundance of tears,' and chiefly griev Works, xvi. 412. ing that his master should suppose
2 'He was known over the whole him capable of betraying him for any kingdom by the title of THE DEAN; reward whatever.' When the place of and when THE DEAN was mentioned, verger became vacant, Swift ordered it always carried with it the idea of him to strip off his livery and put on the first and greatest man in the common clothes. The poor fellow kingdom. T. SHERIDAN, Works, begged to know what crime he had 1803, i. 314. See also Orrery, p.72; committed. “Well, do as I order ante, SWIFT, 33 n., and Pope's Imit. you."' The story goes on as in the Hor., Epis. ii. 1. 221. text. The butler's name was Blakely. 3 Orrery, p. 73. Swift wrote to Works, 1803, i. 289.
Pope on Feb. 9, 1735-6:—My popuSwift, perhaps, exaggerated the larity is wholly contined to the comdanger. Bolingbroke wrote to Pope mon people, who are more constant on Feb. 18, 1723-4:The poor dean
than those we miscall their betters.