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28 His happiest undertaking was of a paper called The Freethinker',

in conjunction with associates, of whom one was Dr. Boulter, who, then only minister of a parish in Southwark, was of so much consequence to the government that he was made first bishop of Bristol, and afterwards primate of Ireland, where his piety and his

charity will be long honoured ? 29 It may easily be imagined that what was printed under the

direction of Boulter would have nothing in it indecent or licentious: its title is to be understood as implying only freedom from unreasonable prejudice? It has been reprinted in volumes, but is little read; nor can impartial criticism recommend it as worthy

of revival. 80

Boulter was not well qualified to write diurnal essays, but he knew how to practise the liberality of greatness and the fidelity of friendship". When he was advanced to the height of ecclesiastical dignity he did not forget the companion of his labours. Knowing Philips to be slenderly supported he took him to Ireland as partaker of his fortune; and, making him his secretary, added such preferments as enabled him to represent the county

of Armagh in the Irish Parliament 5. 31 In December, 1726, he was made secretary to the Lord Chan

cellor, and in August, 1733, became judge of the Prerogative Court

? It came out twice a week from Cast wits and cast beaux have a March 24, 1718, to Sept. 30, 1720. proper sanctuary in the Church. Yet See Cibber's Lives, v. 132.

we think it a severe judgment that a · Ante, SWIFT, 81. He was made fine gentleman, and so much the finer Bishop in 1719 and Archbishop in for hating ecclesiastics, should be a 1724

domestic humble retainer to an Irish 3 It is so explained in the first prelate. He is neither secretary nor number. This use of freethinker is gentleman-usher, yet serves in both not noticed either in Johnson's Dict. capacities.' 16. p. 62. or in the New Eng. Dict.

On July 8, 1726, Swift wrote to • Does not one table Bavius still Sheridan:-“There is not so despised admit?

a creature here as your friend with Still to one bishop Philips seem a the soft verses on children. I heartily

wit?' POPE, Prol. Sat. l. 99. pity him. Swift's Works, xvii. 38. s Cibber's Lives, v. 133. Swift Nevertheless in Apollo's Edict he wrote to Pope on Sept. 29, 1725:I have not seen Philips, though "Simplicity alone can grace formerly we were so intimate (ante, The manners of the rural race. PHILIPS, 4 n. 3)!' Pope's Works .

Theocritus and Philips be (Elwin and Courthope), vii. 55. On Your guides to true simplicity.' Nov. 26 he wrote :- Mr. Philips is

Ib. xiv. 129. fort chancelant whether he shall turn o In Gent. Mag. Sept. 1734, p. 512, parson or no. But all employments is his appointment as Register (not here are engaged or in reversion. Judge) of the Prerogative Court at


After the death of his patron' he continued some years in 32 Ireland ; but at last longing as it seems for his native country, he returned (1748) to London, having doubtless survived most of his friends and enemies?, and among them his dreaded antagonist Pope. He found, however, the duke of Newcastle still living ?, and to him he dedicated his poems collected into a volume.

Having purchased an annuity of four hundred pounds“, he now 33 certainly hoped to pass some years of life in plenty and tranquillitys; but his hope deceived him: he was struck with a palsy, and died June 18, 1749, in his seventy-eighth year 6.

Of his personal character all that I have heard is that he was 34 eminent for bravery and skill in the sword, and that in conversation he was solemn and pompous?. He had great sensibility of censure, if judgement may be made by a single story which I heard long ago from Mr. Ing, a gentleman of great eminence in Staffordshire 8. Philips,' said he, 'was once at table when I asked him, How came thy king of Epirus to drive oxen, and to

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Dublin. Macaulay, repeating John- who had purchased of the duke an son's mistake, adds to it by making estate as for Mr. Heneage Finch, but Philips's appointment one of the in truth for himself, at £2,000 less splendid rewards of literary merit than he would have sold it for to which ceased with Walpole's admini- anybody but Mr. Finch.' stration. Johnson,' he says, 'came Gent. Mag. 1749, p. 284. He up to London' in 'a dark night be- was seventy-four. Ante, PHILIPS, In. tween two sunny days.' Essays, i. ? Dr. Young reported how 'in a 394. Walpole had been first minister conversation Philips asked what sort thirteen years when the appointment of person they supposed Julius Caesar was made, and Philips had held office

He was answered that from but three years when Johnson came medals, &c., it appeared that he was up to London.

a small man, and thin-faced. “Now • Boulter died on Sept. 28, 1742. for my part,” said Ambrose, “I should Gent. Mag. 1742, p. 499. For his take him to have been of a lean character see ib. p. 547.

make, pale complexion, extremely ? In the notice of his death the fol- neat in his dress, and five feet seven lowing year he is described as 'the inches high"-an exact description last survivor of the excellent authors of Philips himself.' Spence's Anec. of the Spectators. Tatlers, and p. 375. Guardians. Gent. Mag. 1749, p. 284. Pope calls him ‘lean Philips,' and 3 The Duke lived twenty years

describes him under the character of longer. For the Dedication see Eng. Macer. Pope's Works (Elwin and Poets, lvji. 3.

Courthope), iv. 467, 482; Cunning• Cibher's Lives, v, 142.

ham's Lives of the Poets, iii. 269. He 5 Hawkins (Life of Johnson, p. 429) and Prior (ante, PRIOR, 45 n.) were mentions finding in the Life of the perhaps the only lean men among Lord Kveper Guilford (ed. 1742, p. the 'wits' of the age. 226) 'the case of the Duke of Buck- 8 There is a bare mention of him in

: inghamshire and Ambrose Philips, John. Letters, i. 325.


say 'I'm goaded on by love'?? After which question he never

spoke again.' 35 Of The Distrest Mother not much is pretended to be his own,

and therefore it is no subject of criticism : his other two tragedies, I believe, are not below mediocrity, nor above it. Among the Poems comprised in the late collection, the Letter from Denmark* may be justly praised; the Pastorals, which by the writer of The Guardian were ranked as one of the four genuine productions of the rustick Muse, cannot surely be despicables. That they exhibit a mode of life which does not exist, nor ever existed, is not to be objected; the supposition of such a state is allowed to Pastoral. In his other poems he cannot be denied the praise of lines sometimes elegant; but he has seldom much force or much comprehension. The pieces that please best are those which, from Pope and Pope's adherents, procured him the name of Namby Pamby, the poems of short lines by which he paid his court to all ages and characters, from Walpole the steerer of the realm?,' to miss Pulteney in the nursery 8. The numbers are smooth and spritely, and the diction is seldom faulty. They are not loaded with much thought, yet if they had been written by Addison they would have had admirers : little things are not valued but when they are done by those who can do

greater 36 In his translations from Pindar he found the art of reaching all the obscurity of the Theban bard, however he may fall below

* It is not Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, "The trial of skill between the but Orestes who says:

musician and the nightingale, which Goaded on by love forms the subject of the fifth Pastoral, I canvass'd all the suffrages of is narrated with singular sweetness.

Greece.' The Distrest Mother, In true poetic feeling it is much beAct i. sc. I.

yond anything in the Pastorals of There is nothing in the play as his scoffing critic.' ELWIN, Pope's printed about driving oxen.

Works (Elwin and Courthope), i. 253. · Ante, PHILIPS, 6.

o See Appendix R. 3 The English Poets.

? "Steerer of a mighty realm, Ante, PHILIPS, 3.

Pilot waking o'er the helm.' s Ante, PHILIPS, 19. "His Pas

Eng. Poets, lvii. 76. torals, if the reader can so far lay 8 She is addressed as aside all common sense as to forget * Dimply damsel, sweetly smiling, the inherent absurdity of Pastorals, All caressing, none beguiling.' deserve much of the commendation

Ib. p. 73 which theyonce received.' SOUTHEY,

! I have restored the reading of Specimens, ii. 112.

the first edition. In that of 1783, eviThackeray calls him 'a serious and dently by a blunder, can is changed dreary idyllic cockney.' English into cannot. Humourists, ed. Phelps, p. 164.

10 Eng. Poets, lvii. 89.



his sublimity: he will be allowed, if he has less fire, to have more smoke.

He has added nothing to English poetry, yet at least half his 37 book deserves to be read': perhaps he valued most himself that part which the critick would reject.


It was of Hacket Addison wrote :

-It was the motto of a Bishop very eminent for his piety and good works in King Charles the Second's reign, Inservi Deo et laetare-Serve God and be cheerful.' The Freeholder, No. 45.

He died in 1670. His Life of Williams, under the title of Scrinia Reserata, was published in folio in 1693; Philips's abridgment, a small quarto, in 1700. The following is an instance of the two styles :

HACKET (p. 17). "As the Greek Adagy goes, Nil sine Theseo, Theseus made one in every Master-piece of chivalry: Such was our Theseus to the Athens where he lived. And he was considerately lookt upon for such service, for he well understood anything he went about, he had a fineness to be Gracious with them to whom he was sent, and no man could deliver a Tale more smoothly, or wrinkle it less with digressions or Parentheses. To say much in brief, he had the Policy and Gravity of a Statesman before he had a Hair upon his Chin.'

PHILIPS (p. 19). 'He began to grow into considerable Repute and Esteem in his College. For, by that time he was 25 years old, or thereabout, he had the Honour to be imploy'd by his Society in some concerns of theirs.'

Coleridge said of the Life :-You learn more from it of that which is valuable towards an insight into the times preceding the Civil War than from all the ponderous histories and memoirs now composed about that period.' Table Talk, 1884, p. 229.



Q Addison used to speak often very slightingly of Budgell, "One that calls me cousin,” “the man that stamped himself into my acquaintance." POPE, Spence's Anec. p. 161. Spence adds that 'Budgell lodged in the

* His poems fill little more than 100 pages of Eng. Poets, lvii. Pope calls him the bard who

*Just writes to make his barrenness appear,
And strains from hard-bound brains eight lines a-year.'

Prol. Sat. I. 181. See also Pope's Macer, l. 9. For ‘Philips' costive head' see ante, PHILIPS, 25 n. 4. (Gray's poems fill only 61 pages of Eng. Poets, lxiv.]

room over Addison's. He walked much, and was troublesome to him. One night Addison was so tired of the noise that he invited him down to sup with him, and that began their acquaintance.'

[The second part of the anecdote can scarcely be true, for they were cousins, Addison's mother being a sister of William Gulston, Bishop of Bristol, while Budgell's was the Bishop's only daughter. N. & Q. 5 S. vi. 350 and Dict. Nat. Biog. i. 131, vii. 224.]

Perhaps Budgell was provincial in using the word 'cousin.' R. Polwhele, who was born in 1760, wrote in 1822 of Devonshire :—' Among the little gentry there are many affected people who think it vulgar to call their kinsmen, cousins. But not many years ago the Courtenays and the Fortescues had not dismissed the word from their vocabulary.' Traditions and Recollections, p. 722. Budgell was a Devonshire man.

He drowned himself on May 4, 1737, by jumping out of a boat at London Bridge. The Coroner's Jury brought him in lunatick. Gent. Mag. 1737, p. 315. He was accused of forging a will. See Boswell's

a Johnson, ii. 229, v. 54; Pope's Prol. Sat. 1. 378; ante, ADDISON, 44, 115.


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[In 1729 Carey, the author of Sally in our Alley, published with other poems one entitled Namby Pamby, intended as a parody on Philips's Ode To the Honourable Miss Carteret the infant daughter of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (Eng. Poets, lvii. 61). Carey, in ridicule of its 'infantine sentiments' and adopting the same metre, wrote this parody ' in which all the songs of children at play are wittily introduced, and called it by a name which children might be supposed to call the author whose name was Ambrose (Philips), Namby Pamby Hawkins's Hist. of Music, v. 185. See also Cibber's Lives, v. 139. The following lines will serve as a specimen :

. Let your little verses flow
Gently sweetly, row by row;
Let the verse the subject fit,
Little subject, little wit.
Namby Pamby is your guide,
Albion's joy, Hiburnia's pride.
Now methinks I hear him say
Boys and girls come out to play,
Moon does shine as bright as day.
Now my Namby Pamby's found
Sitting on the Friar's ground
Picking silver, picking gold;

Namby Pamby's never old.'
Namby Pamby; or, a Panegyric on the New Versification, appended
to Carey's Chrononhotonthologos, ed. 1777.)
In The Dunciad, ed. 1729, 1. 322 in Bk. iii runs :-

'And Namby Pamby be preferr'd for wit.'

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