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or refined sentiment; and, for images and descriptions, Satyrs and Fauns, and Naiads and Dryads, were always within call, and woods and meadows, and hills and rivers, supplied variety of matter, which, having a natural power to sooth the mind, did not quickly cloy it'.

Petrarch entertained the learned men of his age with the 14 novelty of modern Pastorals in Latin. Being not ignorant of Greek, and finding nothing in the word Eclogue of rural meaning, he supposed it to be corrupted by the copiers, and therefore called his own productions Æglogues, by which he meant to express the talk of goatherds, though it will mean only the talk of goats. This new name was adopted by subsequent writers, and amongst others by our Spenser 3.

More than a century afterwards (1498) Mantuan published his 15 Bucolicks with such success that they were soon dignified by Badius with a comment, and, as Scaliger complained, received into schools and taught as classical “; his complaint was vain,

* For pastoral poetry see ante, quotes from Warburton a note of La MILTON, 181. Burns, in his lines Monnaye's:— Il désigne le Carme On Pastoral Poetry, shows how Allan de Baptiste Mantuan, dont au comRamsay succeeded in it where modern mencement du 16 me siècle on lisait

publiquement à Paris les Poésies, si 3 "As Petrarch advanced in life the célèbres alors que, comme dit plaiattainment of the Greek language samment Farnabe dans sa préface sur was the object of his wishes rather Martial, les Pédans ne faisaient nulle than of his hopes. ... Boccace com- difficulté de préférer à l'Arma virposed and transcribed a literal prose umque cano le Fauste, precor, gelida, version of the Iliad and Odyssey, c'est-à-dire à l'Enéide de Virgile les which satisfied the thirst of his friend Eglogues de Mantuan.' Petrarch.' GIBBON, The Decline and Mantuan was included by Colet in Fall, vii. 119, 121.

the list of Christian authors' to be Johnson, in 1754, wrote to T. War- taught in St. Paul's School. Masson's ton:-—' There is an old English and Milton, i. 76. Latin book of poems by Barclay, [These are Bucolica F. Baptistae called The Ship of Fools; at the end [Spugnuoli] Mantuani . in Aeof which are a number of Eglogues; glogas divisa : Mantuae, 1498. The so he writes it, from Egloga, which are reference is to the elder Scaliger, who, probably the first in our language.' after praising Baptista Fiera, also of Boswell's Johnson, i. 277.

Mantua, as doctus valde, valde ac4 'HOLOFERNES. Fauste, precor, curatus sed durus,' continues, "Eius gelida quando pecus omne sub umbra popularis Carmelita (his fellow townsRuminat, -and so forth. Ah,good old man the Carmelite) longe diversisMantuan! I may speak of thee as simus, mollis, languidus, fluxus, inthe traveller doth of Venice;

compositus. . . . Hoc propterea dico Venetia, Venetia,

quia in nostro tyrocinio literarum Chi non ti vede non ti pretia. triviales quidam paedagogi etiam Old Mantuan, old Mantuan! who Virgilianis pastoribus huius hircos understandeth thee not, loves thee praetulere. Adeo sui quisque sequitur not. Love's Labour's Lost, iv. 2. 90. Ideam ingenii. Iul. Caesaris Scali. Johnson in his Shakespeare, ii. 160, geri Poetices, 1561, libr. vi. p. 304 D.

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and the practice, however injudicious, spread far and continued long. Mantuan was read, at least in some of the inferior schools of this kingdom, to the beginning of the present century'. The speakers of Mantuan carried their disquisitions beyond the country, to censure the corruptions of the Church”; and from him Spenser

learned to employ his swains on topicks of controversy. 16 The Italians soon transferred Pastoral Poetry into their own

language: Sannazaro wrote Arcadia in prose and verse 3; Tasso and Guarini wrote Favole Boscareccie, or Sylvan Dramas*; and all nations of Europe filled volumes with Thyrsis and Damon,

and Thestylis and Phyllis. 17

Philips thinks it'somewhat strange to conceive how, in an age so addicted to the Muses, Pastoral Poetry never comes to be so much as thought upon. His wonder seems very unseasonable ; there had never, from the time of Spenser, wanted writers to talk occasionally of Arcadia and Strephon, and half the book in which he first tried his powers consists of dialogues on queen Mary's death, between Tityrus and Corydon or Mopsus and Menalcas 6. A series or book of Pastorals, however, I know not that any one had then lately published.

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There are in the British Museum that the Italians invented and refined five English editions of Mantuan's the pastoral comedy, a romantic Bucolics printed in the sixteenth and Arcadia which violates the truth of seventeenth centuries, and they were manners and the simplicity of nature, translated into English verse by but which commands our indulgence George Turbervile in 1567 and by by the elaborate luxury of eloquence Thomas Harvey in 1656.)

and wit. The Aminta of Tasso was * Casimir's Latin poems were re

written for the amusement of Alprinted at 'Staraviesia' in 1892 (624 phonso II....Of the numerous imitapages) “ad usum alumnorum s. 1. tions the Pastor Fido of Guarini, A copy is in the British Museum. which alone can vie with the fame For Casimir see ante, COWLEY, 137. and merit of the original, is the work . So did Milton in Lycidas.

of the Duke's Secretary of State.' 3 Sannazaro introduces sea-calves GIBBON, Misc. Works, iii. 456. in the room of kids and lambs, and For Guarini see ante, WALLER, 153. presents his mistress with oysters 5 Johnson quotes Philips's Preface. instead 'of fruits and flowers. The Eng. Poets, lvii. 5. Addison wrote Guardian, No. 28. See also No. 32; of it to Philips :- I am wonderfully The Rambler, No. 36; ante, COWLEY, pleased with your little essay of 121 n. 6.

Pastoral in your last, and think you 'The Bachelor bid Don Quixote be very just in the theory as well as in of good courage, and rouse himself the practical part. Our poetry in to enter upon his pastoral exercise ; England at present runs all into telling him he had already composed lampoon, which has seldom anything an eclogue for the occasion not in- of true satire in it besides rhyme and ferior to any written by Sannazarius.' ill-nature.' Works, v. 381. Jervas's Don Quixote, iv. 411.

Ante, PHILIPS, 1. " It was in the Court of Ferrara ? For interesting remarks on pasto


Not long afterwards Pope made the first display of his powers

18 in four Pastorals, written in a very different form. Philips had taken Spenser, and Pope took Virgil for his pattern. Philips endeavoured to be natural, Pope laboured to be elegant".

Philips was now favoured by Addison, and by Addison's com- 19 panions, who were very willing to push him into reputation”. The Guardian3 gave an account of Pastoral, partly critical and partly historical, in which, when the merit of the moderns is compared, Tasso and Guarini are censured for remote thoughts and unnatural refinements; and, upon the whole, the Italians and French are all excluded from rural poetry, and the pipe of the Pastoral Muse is transmitted by lawful inheritance from Theocritus to Virgil, from Virgil to Spenser, and from Spenser to Philips *.

With this inauguration of Philips, his rival Pope was not much 20 delighted; he therefore drew a comparison of Philips's performance with his own, in which, with an unexampled and unequalled artifice of irony, though he has himself always the advantage, he gives the preference to Philips'. The design of aggrandising himself he disguised with such dexterity that, though Addison discovered it, Steele was deceived, and was afraid of displeasing Pope by publishing his paper. Published, however, it was (Guard. 40), and from that time Pope and Philips lived in a perpetual reciprocation of malevolence?


ral poetry see Pope's Works (Elwin Philips, have improved the beauties and Courthope), v. 28.

of the ancients. No. 30. (In this * Ante, GAY, 4; POPE, 68, 314. number Pope is quoted.) • Addison in The Spectator, No.

'Theocritus left his dominions to 523, praises Philips for having given Virgil, Virgil left his to his son a new life and a more natural beauty Spenser, and Spenser was succeeded to this way of writing.... Virgil and by his eldest-born Philips.' No. 32. Homer mightcompliment their heroes Tickell, in The Prospect of Peace, by interweaving the actions of deities says: with their achievements; but for a "With Philips shall the peaceful vallies Christian author to write in the Pagan ring, creed ... would be downright pueri- And Britain hear a second Spenser lity, and unpardonable in a poet that sing. Eng. Poets, xxxix. 171. is past sixteen. In this last line a Ante, GAY, 4; POPE, 68, 285. stroke seems aimed at Pope, who Heyne mistook this irony, as apgave out that his Pastorals were pears by p. 202, vol. i of his Virgil written at the age of sixteen. Addi- (ed. 1767, Preface, p. 202).' Warton's son praises Philips's Pastorals also Pope's Works, iv. 28. See also Pope's in The Guardian, No. 119, and Steele Works (Elwin and Courthope), i. quotes them in The Spectator, No. 251 400.

Johnson's authority is a note by 3 Nos. 15, 22, 23, 28, 30, 32, March Warburton in his Pope's Works, vii. and April, 1713.

203. * 'Our countrymen, Spenser and Post, PHILIPS, 35. Pope, in The




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21 In poetical powers, of either praise or satire, there was no pro

portion between the combatants; but Philips, though he could not prevail by wit, hoped to hurt Pope with another weapon, and charged him, as Pope thought, with Addison's approbation, as

disaffected to the government'. 22 Even with this he was not satisfied; for, indeed, there is no

appearance that any regard was paid to his clamours. He proceeded to grosser insults, and hung up a rod at Button's, with which he threatened to chastise Pope', who appears to have been extremely exasperated, for in the first edition of his Letters he calls Philips ‘rascal,' and in the last still charges him with detaining in his hands the subscriptions for Homer delivered to him by

the Hanover Club 3. 23 I suppose it was never suspected that he meant to appropriate

the money; he only delayed, and with sufficient meanness, the

gratification of him by whose prosperity he was pained. 24 Men sometimes suffer by injudicious kindness; Philips became

ridiculous, without his own fault, by the absurd admiration of his

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Art of Sinking, ch, vi, places Philips among the Tortoises, who are slow and chill, and, like pastoral writers, delight much in gardens: they have for the most part a fine embroidered shell, and underneath it a heavy lump.' Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), x 362. He attacks him also in A Farewell to London: The Dunciad, i. 105, 258, iii. 326; The Three Gentle Shepherds, Macer; Prol. Sat. Il. 100, 179; Imit. Hor., Epis. ii. 1. 417.

1 'His constant cry was that Mr.P. was an Enemy to the Government.' The Dunciad, iii. 326 n.; Ruffhead's Pope, p. 186.

Pope in a letter (probably spurious, ante, POPE, 106 n. 3) dated June 8, 1714, wrote that Philips 'one evening at Button's, as I was told, said that I was entered into a cabal with Dean Swift and others to write against the Whig interest. . . . Mr. Addison ... assured me of his disbelief of what had been said.' Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), vi. 209. Pope says nothing here of Addison's approbation' of Philips's charge.

· Broome wrote of Pope to Fenton on May 3, 1728:— I wonder he is

not thrashed; but his littleness is his
protection ; no man shoots a wren.
He should rather be wbipped ; and
it was pleasant enough in Mr. Am-
brose Philips to hang up a rod at
Button's in terrorem, which scared
away the little bard. 16. viji. 147.

Pope had this report in mind when,
in the letter quoted in the last note,
he wrote :- Though I was almost
every night in the same room with
Mr. Philips he never offered me any

Philips, as Pope says, was Secretary to the Club. For a note of excuse of Addison's to Philips, beginning ‘Dear Mr. Secretary,' see Addison's Works, v. 428. It was not rascal but scoundrel that Pope called him. He wrote:-'Upon the terms I ought to be with a man whom I think a scoundrel I would not ask him for this money, but commissioned one of the players, his equals, to receive it.' Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), vi. 210. In the reprint of the letter in Warburton's Pope, vii. 203, the passage runs:— Upon the terms I ought to be with such a

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man,' &c.

friends, who decorated him with honorary garlands which the first breath of contradiction blasted?.

When upon the succession of the House of Hanover every 25 Whig expected to be happy, Philips seems to have obtained too little notice: he caught few drops of the golden shower, though he did not omit what flattery could perform?. He was only made a Commissioner of the Lottery (1717) 3, and, what did not much elevate his character, a Justice of the Peace *.

The success of his first play must naturally dispose him to turn 26 his hopes towards the stage: he did not, however, soon commit himself to the mercy of an audience, but contented himself with the fame already acquired, till after nine years he produced (1721) The Briton, a tragedy which, whatever was its reception, is now neglected, though one of the scenes, between Vanoc the British Prince and Valens the Roman General, is confessed to be written with great dramatick skill, animated by spirit truly poetical.

He had not been idle though he had been silent, for he exhibited 27 another tragedy the same year, on the story of Humphry. Duke of Gloucester. This tragedy is only remembered by its title 6.

son, iv. 81.

* Johnson said to Mrs. Thrale :- duced an income of about £500 a I know nobody who blasts by praise year of the dirtiest money upon earth as you do; for whenever there is

to little more than £300; a considera exaggerated praise everybody is set able proportion of which remained against a character. Boswell's John- with my clerk.' Voyage to Lisbon,

Introduction. • He flattered Halifax, Craggs, Whitehead's anecdote is perhaps Carteret, and Walpole. Eng. Poets, not true. In 1710 Addison told Philips lvii. 48, 50, 56, 75.

he had recommended him to Somers; 3 He was made Paymaster of the he ended his letter :— Farewell, dear Lottery in Jan. 1714-15' with a salary Philips, and believe me to be, more of £500, for the service of himself, than I am able to express, Your most clerks and others.' Cunningham's affectionate ... servant.' Addison's Lives of the Poets, iii. 265.

Works, v. 384. 4. Paul Whitehead relates that Swift ridiculed Philips in Sandys's when Addison became Secretary of Ghost (Works, xiii. 295): State, Philips applied to him for some * If Justice Philips' costive head preferment, but was coolly answered Some frigid rhymes disburses; that it was thought he was already They shall like Persian tales be read, provided for, by being made a Justice And glad both babes and nurses.' for Westminster. To this Philips re- 5 Act iii. sc. 8. There is not a plied :-“Though poetry was a trade quotable line in it. he could not live by, yet he scorned • It was produced on Feb. 15, to owe subsistence to another which 1722-3, and ran nine nights. Cunhe ought not to live by."' Addison's ningham's Lives of the Poets, iii. 266. Works, v. 428 n.

'It met with great applause.' Biog. Fielding, who would not, as Justice Dram. ii. 314. A third edition apfor Westminster, like his predecessor peared in 1725. [The Briton had been plunder the poor, writes : -- I had re- produced the previous year.]


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