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the populace”, he is to be understood of the time when, after the Queen's death, he became a settled resident.

The Archbishop of Dublin gave him at first some disturbance 64 in the exercise of his jurisdiction ; but it was soon discovered, that between prudence and integrity he was seldom in the wrong; and that, when he was right, his spirit did not easily yield to opposition ?.

Having so lately quitted the tumults of a party and the 65 intrigues of a court, they still kept his thoughts in agitation, as the sea fluctuates a while when the storm has ceased. He therefore filled his hours with some historical attempts, relating to the Change of the Ministers' and 'the Conduct of the Ministry *' He likewise is said to have written a History of the Four last Years of Queen Anne, which he began in her lifetime, and afterwards laboured with great attention, but never published. It was after his death in the hands of Lord Orrery and Dr. Kings. A book under that title was published, with Swift's

''The common people were taught wisdom and love of his country.' to look upon him as a Jacobite; and Works, vi. 439. they threw stones and dirt at him as 3 16. iii. 161. It was written in he passed through the streets.' Or- Oct. 1714. Works, 1803, vi. 261. rery, p. 48.

• Written in June, 1715. Works, 'For some years after the Queen's

V. 260. death his politics were despised and 5 Dr. King was ‘Dr. King of Oxhis person was detested. Deane ford.' Ante, DRYDEN, 187. Swift Swift, p. 29.

in 1737 said he wrote it at Windsor, Delany, p. 88. Swift wrote on above a year before the Queen's June 28, 1715:-'My amusements death.' Works, xix. 72, 90. He was are defending my small dominions there a good deal in July, Aug. and against the archbishop (King], and Sept. 1712-about two years before endeavouring to reduce my rebellious her death. Ib. iii. 39, 43, 45, 50. choir,' Works, xvi. 226. He thus Bolingbroke and Oxford, he said, described his 'dominions' on July 8, 'could not agree about printing it.' 1733:-'I am lord mayor of 120 1b. xix. 73. See also ib. v. 13. In houses; I am absolute lord of the Jan. 1720-21 he was 'digesting these greatest cathedral in the kingdom ; papers into order.' Ib. xvi. 338. See am at peace with the neighbouring also ib. v. 17. According to Warprinces, the Lord Mayor of the City, burton, he took it to England some and the Archbishop of Dublin; only years after' it was written-in 1726 the latter, like the King of France, or 1727 ; but Bolingbroke dissuaded sometimes attempts encroachments him from publishing it. 'Swift told on my dominions, as old Lewis did a common friend that since L. B. did upon Lorraine.' 16. xviii. 123. See not approve his History, he would also ib. xvi. 244, 263, xvii. 105, 112, cast it into the fire, though it was the 117.

best work he had ever written.' The Archbishop,' he said, was Warburton's Pope, ix. 12. The second a wit and a scholar, but I hate him Earl of Oxford read it at that time. as I hate garlick.' Craik, p. 125. Works, xix. 88. In 1736 Dr. King In the Drapier Letters he describes undertook to get it printed ; but in him as 'renowned fc. his piety and 1738 pointed out that it might 'in


name, by Dr. Lucas"; of which I can only say that it seemed by no means to correspond with the notions that I had formed of it, from a conversation which I once heard between the Earl

of Orrery and old Mr. Lewis?. 66 Swift now, much against his will, commenced Irishman for

life, and was to contrive how he might be best accommodated in a country where he considered himself as in a state of exile 3. It seems that his first recourse was to piety. The thoughts of

xix. 230.

volve every one concerned in a certain ‘Burke,' writes Mr. E. J. Payne, ruin. Works, xix. 10, 20, 134. Eras- 'had remarked the peculiarities of the mus Lewis gave the same warning style, though he never thought of 16. p. 131. Orrery id it in MS. Re- pronouncing it a forgery.' Burke's marks, p. 308. In 1740 Mrs. White- Select Works, i. Intro. p. 43. [The way wrote of it to Pope: 'If I am reference is to The Annual Register, rightly informed, it is the only piece 1758, p. 256, where extracts from the of his, except Gulliver, which he ever History are given, with remarks eviproposed making money by.' Works, dently, as Nr. Payne says (Select

Works, i. 277), by Burke.] ' In 1749 Lucas fled from an Irish Macaulay, in a MS. marginal note, prison, to which he was committed by has described it as wretched stuff, the House of Commons for seditious and I firmly believe not Swift's.' writings. In 1756 Johnson defended Craik, p. 523. See ib. p. 518, for him as 'the friend of his country.' a convincing argument of its authenBoswell's Johnson, i. 311. Lucas ticity.

ticity. The characters of Somers, prefixed to the first edition of the Marlborough, Godolphin, Sunderbook (1758) an 'Advertisement' be- land, Wharton, Cowper, Nottingham, ginning Thus the long-wished-for and Harley (Works, v. 23-32, 109History, &c., is at length brought to 112) are surely in Swift's inimitable light, in spite of all attempts to sup- style. The History itself, party press it.' Swift's Works, v. 3. pamphlet as it was, dealing also

* For Lewis (not Erasmus Lewis) with the negotiations of a Peace, see ante, FENTON, 4 n. Johnson in must soon have become unreadable. The Idler, No. 65, says 'this History It ends moreover fifteen months had perished, had not a straggling before the Queen's death, so that it transcript fallen into busy hands. tells nothing of the struggle between Chesterfield describes it as a party Bolingbroke and Oxford. pamphlet founded on the lie of the 3 Ante, SWIFT, 2; post, 96, 136. day, which, as Lord Bolingbroke, who In 1731 he wrote of himself :had read it, often assured me, was 'In exile, with a steady heart, coined and delivered out to him to He spent his life's declining part.' write Examiners and other political

Works, xiv. 334. papers upon.' Misc. Works, iv. 276. In 1735 he spoke of himself as an One of these ‘lies' thus incorporated obscure exile in a most obscure and was that, on Prince Eugene's sug- enslaved country.' 16. xviii. 308. 'I gestion that Harley should be taken am condemned for ever to another off à la négligence, a crew of obscure country,' he wrote in 1723. Ib.xvi. 389. ruffians were accordingly employed.' Pope (Dunciad, i.25) and Gay (Pope's Works, v. 51.

Works (Elwin and Courthope), v. 175) •Can one wonder that Lord Boling- described him as being in Boeotia. broke and Pope always tried to pre- I know nothing in his letters that vent Swift from exposing himself by shows this except his statement on publishing this wretched ignorant Sept. 14, 1714, that he goes 'every libel!' HORACE WALPOLE, Works, day once to prayers.' Works, xvi.

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i. 430.

death rushed upon him at this time with such incessant importunity, that they took possession of his mind when he first waked for many years together".

He opened his house by a publick table two days a week ?, 67 and found his entertainments gradually frequented by more and more visitants of learning among the men, and of elegance among the women. Mrs. Johnson had left the country, and lived in lodgings not far from the deanery. On his publick days she regulated the table, but appeared at it as a mere guest, like other ladies 3.

On other days he often dined, at a stated price, with Mr. 68 Worral, a clergyman of his cathedral, whose house was recommended by the peculiar neatness and pleasantry of his wife *. To this frugal mode of living he was first disposed by care to pay some debts which he had contracted, and he continued it for the pleasure of accumulating money. His avarice, however, was not suffered to obstruct the claims of his dignity; he was served in plate, and used to say that he was the poorest gentleman in Ireland that eat upon plate, and the richest that lived without a coach 6.


• Swift wrote to Bolingbroke in had a bishopric in prospect, says: 1729:—' I was forty-seven years old "There would be a better table and when I began to think of death; public days to be kept.' See also and the reflections upon it now begin Birch's Life of Tillotson, 1752, p. when I wake in the morning, and end 283, for the Archbishop's account of when I am going to sleep.' Works, the temperance and self-denial he xvii. 260. He was forty-seven four can exercise at his public table. months after the Queen's death. He

3 Deane Swift, p. 91. wrote to Pope in 1733:—' As to (Worrall was a minor canon of mortality it has never been out of St. Patrick's, dean's vicar and master my head eighteen minutes these of song in both cathedrals. Swift eighteen years. Pope's Works (Elwin called him Melchisedec because he and Courthope), vii. 300. The Queen was a foundling. The Dean and he had been dead eighteen years. See were nearly of the same standing at also Works, xvii. 234, xviii. 107. the University. Worrall had, how

“The whole of life,' said Johnson, ever, one special qualification for inti‘is but keeping away the thoughts macy with Swift - he was a good of death. Boswell's Johnson, ii. walker. After walking from church 93.

they would dine either at Swift's By 1729 he seems to have opened house or at Worrall's as Johnson his house only one day a week. In describes. Delany, p. 91. Deane that year he wrote :-On Sunday Swift (p. 294) says that Swift 'never evenings it costs me six bottles of had any esteem for the husband or wine to people whom I cannot keep the wife.' See also Mason's Hist. out.' Works, xvii. 221. See also of the Cathedral of St. Patrick, p. ib. xviii. 223. For 'a publick table' 294 n.] see Boswell's Johnson, iv. 367 n. Dr. 5 Ante, SWIFT, 54 n. Newton (Works, 1782, i. 62), justi- A list of his plate, with the value fying his taking a third wife as he of each article, is given in his Works,



69 How he spent the rest of his time, and how he employed his

hours of study, has been enquired with hopeless curiosity. For who can give an account of another's studies ? Swift was not likely to admit any to his privacies, or to impart a minute

account of his business or his leisure ! 70 Soon after (1716), in his forty-ninth year, he was privately

married to Mrs. Johnson by Dr. Ashe, Bishop of Clogher’, as Dr. Madden ? told me, in the garden". The marriage made no change in their mode of life; they lived in different houses, as before 5: nor did she ever lodge in the deanery but when Swift was seized with a fit of giddiness'. 'It would be difficult,' says Lord Orrery, 'to prove that they were ever afterwards together

without a third person ?' 71 The Dean of St. Patrick's lived in a private manner, known

and regarded only by his friends 8, till, about the year 1720, he, by a pamphlet, recommended to the Irish the use, and consequently the improvement, of their manufacture'. For a man to


xix. 223. The total value was over ante, ADDISON, 134. £360. He had 24 plates, but only * See Appendix D. 6 teaspoons. On a save-all he had 5'She never came to his house had engraved, 'For Ireland.' For his but upon very particular invitation.' providing 'tridents’-three-pronged Delany, p. 129. forks—for £30, see ib. xvii. 301. 'The Deane Swift, p. 92. It seems ill-management of forks,' he wrote, that she sometimes lodged there when ‘is not to be helped when they are he was in England. He wrote from only bidental, which happens in all London on July 7, 1726:-'I find poor houses, especially those of poets, the ladies made the Deanery their upon which account a knife was ab: villa. Works, xix. 283. solutely necessary at Mr. Pope's.' ? 'It would be difficult, if not imThere are no forks in the list. For possible, to prove they had ever been his setting up a coach on the news together without some third person.' coming of Walpole's fall see ib. i. Orrery, p. 25. See ante, SWIFT, 397 n.

Delany (p. 101) gives some ac- July 18, 1717. I am in a hopecount of his studies. For his regu- ful situation, torn to pieces by pamlarity in all his actions see post, phleteers and libellers on that side SWIFT, 133 n.

the water, and by the whole body of Ante, PARNELL, 4. He had been the ruling party on this; against Swift's tutor at Trinity College. which all the obscurity I live in will Forster, p. 28. On Jan. 15, 1710-11, not defend me.' Works, xvi. 287. Swift_got Harley to promise that See also Letters to Chetwode, p. 72. 'the Bishop shall not be removed 9 A Proposal for the Universal from the Council. I know he has Use of Irish Manufactures. enemies, and they shall not be grati- Utterly rejecting and renouncing fied. Works, ii. 147.

everything wearable that comes from 3 For Johnson's castigation' of England. 1720. Works, vi. 252. Madden's Boulter's Monument see Swift quotes ' a pleasant observation Boswell's Johnson, i. 318. See also that Ireland would never be happy ib. ii. 321 ; John. Misc. ii. 211, 267; till a law were made for burning


use the productions of his own labour is surely a natural right, and to like best what he makes himself is a natural passion. But to excite this passion, and enforce this right, appeared so :criminal to those who had an interest in the English trade, that the printer was imprisoned'; and, as Hawkesworth justly observes, the attention of the publick being by this outrageous resentment turned upon the proposal, the author was by consequence made popular ?

In 1723 died Mrs. Van Homrigh", a woman made unhappy 72 by her admiration of wit, and ignominiously distinguished by the name of Vanessa, whose conduct has been already sufficiently discussed", and whose history is too well known to be minutely repeated. She was a young woman fond of literature, whom Decanus, the Dean, called Cadenus by transposition of the letters, took pleasure in directing and instructing ; till, from being proud of his praise, she grew fond of his person?. Swift was then about forty-seven, at an age when vanity is strongly excited by the amorous attention of a young woman. If it be said that

everything that came from England, her sister, as well as her mother, had except their people and their coals. predeceased her. One of her broWorks, vi. p. 257. He described his thers had left his share to a Mr. pamphlet as 'a weak, hasty scribble.' Partinton, provided he took the name Hanmer Corres. p. 191.

of Vanhomrigh, a condition he comI'The printer,' wrote Swift, was plied with.' F. ELRINGTON BALL, seized, and forced to give great bail.' Journal of the Cork Hist. Soc., 2 S. Works, xvi. 339. For the trial see iii. 264. post, SWIFT, 77.

Vanessa had The Dublin Newgate was a dread- 'Five thousand guineas in her purse.' ful den. Exemption from the felons' Cadenus and Vanessa, Works, xiv. room was got by daily fees. 'Those 447 who refused to pay were stripped of Orrery, p. 102; Delany, p. 111. their clothes by the common execu- 5 Vanessa says to Decanus :tioner, beaten, and in some instances "Your lessons found the weakest chained. Many died from want.'

part; The Keeper's salary was £10 a Aim'd at the head, but reach'd the year. A parliamentary document heart.'

Works, xiv. 446. shows that in 1729 he made £1,163 6 The first mention of her by Swift by his place. He was dismissed. is in his Journal to Stella, Feb. 2, T. T. Gilbert's Hist. of Dublin, i. 1710-11, when he was forty-three. 268.

Works, 'ii. 161. He became ac? [Hawkesworth's Life of Swift, quainted with the family two or three

years earlier. Forster, pp. 230, 269. 'The name is pronounced Van- Cadenus and Vanessa, if we can trust numery.' Orrery, p. 103.


the title-page, was written at Windsor father, Bartholomew Vanhomrigh,

On April 19, 1726, he was Lord Mayor of Dublin in 1697-8. wrote it was written at Windsor His large fortune he bequeathed to near 14 years ago, and dated.' Letters his wife and four children in equal to Chetwode, p. 189. On July 7 of shares. Vanessa's two brothers and the same year he wrote: -' It was

1755, p. 42.]

in 1713

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