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not", and an apologetical letter was prefixed, signed by Cleland,

but supposed to have been written by Pope ?. 156 After this general war upon dulness he seems to have

indulged himself awhile in tranquillity ?, but his subsequent productions prove that he was not idle. He published (1731) a poem On Taste", in which he very particularly and severely criticises the house, the furniture, the gardens, and the entertainments of Timon, a man of great wealth and little tastes. By Timon he was universally supposed, and by the Earl of Burlington, to whom the poem is addressed, was privately said, to mean the Duke of Chandos; a man perhaps too much delighted with pomp and show, but of a temper kind and beneficent, and who had consequently the voice of the publick

in his favour. 157 A violent outcry was therefore raised against the ingratitude

and treachery of Pope, who was said to have been indebted to the patronage of Chandos for a present of a thousand pounds, and who gained the opportunity of insulting him by the kindness of his invitation.

as one of the chief honours of my life,' and as 'the honest, open, beneficent man. Warburton, v. Introd. pp.


with the inscription which makes me
proudest. This 'inscription' ap-
peared in the edition of March, 1729,
and is inserted in the poem. It begins
with l. 19 of Bk, i :-
'O Thou ! whatever title please thine

Dean, Drapier, Bickerstaff, or Gul-

For Dr. Swift to Mr. Pope while he was writing. The Dunciad see Swift's Works, xiv. 198.

See Pope's letter to Warburton of Nov. 27, 1742, Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), ix. 225.

William Cleland was a Commissioner of Taxes. The letter is dated Dec. 22, 1728. • He was,' wrote Pope, 'a person of universal learning and an enlarged conversation.' Warburton added :— And yet, for all this, the public will not allow him to be the author of this letter. Warburton, v. Introd. p. 12; Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), iv. 48. See also ib. vii. 214. The letter, written as it was by Pope (see ib. iv. 48 n., vii. 444 11.; Warburton, viii. 139 n.), is as impudent as it is apologetical. He makes Cleland describe him as 'a person whose friendship I esteem

Fenton wrote to Broome on June 24, 1729:- 'The war is carried on against Pope furiously in pictures and libels. ... He told me that for the future he intended to write nothing but epistles in Horace's manner.' Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), viii. 154.

Post, POPE, 369. It was published in Dec. 1731, price one shilling. Gent. Mag. 1731, p. 545. See Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), iii. 161, 168. The title was An Epistle to the Right Honourable Richard Earl of Burlington. By Mr. Pope. The third edition has an additional title-Of False Taste. 5 Moral Essays, iv. 99.

Ante, SAVAGE, 238. 'Thus gracious Chandos is belov'd at sight.'

POPE, Moral Essays, i. 54. For The Dean and the Duke see Swift's Works, xiv. 340. (See also J. R. Robinson's The Princely Chandos, pp. 163, 177.]


The receipt of the thousand pounds Pope publickly denied'; 158 but from the reproach which the attack on a character so amiable brought upon him, he tried all means of escaping. The name of Cleland was again employed in an apology ?, by which no man was satisfied; and he was at last reduced to shelter his temerity behind dissimulation, and endeavour to make that disbelieved which he never had confidence openly to deny. He wrote an exculpatory letter to the Duke, which was answered with great magnanimity, as by a man who accepted his excuse without believing his professions. He said, that to have ridiculed his taste or his buildings had been an indifferent action in another man, but that in Pope, after the reciprocal kindness that had been exchanged between them, it had been less easily excused 3.

Pope, in one of his letters, complaining of the treatment which 159 his poem had found, 'owns that such criticks can intimidate him, nay almost persuade him to write no more, which is a compliment this age deserves.' The man who threatens the world is always ridiculous; for the world can easily go on without him, and in a short time will cease to miss him. I have heard of an idiot who used to revenge his vexations by lying all night upon the bridges. There is nothing,' says Juvenal, that a man

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vii. 444.


i In a note on Prol. Sat. l. 375, Johnson refers to a letter purportwhere the sum mentioned is £500. ing to be written to the Earl of Burl.

? In a letter entitled from Cleland ington, dated March 7, 1731, in which to Gay, but written by Pope; first Pope says :-I own that critics of 'published in the newspapers in 1731.' this sort can intimidate me, nay half Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), incline me to write no more : That

would be making the Town a compliPope wrote to Lord Oxford on ment which, I think, it deserves.' Jan. 22, 1731-2:-“The comfort is Warburton, viii. 144. that his Crace from the first assured Pope wrote to Caryll on March 29, me of his opinion of my innocence, 1732, that the report about 'an imaand confirmed it in the strongest, as ginary reflection on a worthy peer' well as most humane terms, by letter might give him such a pique to the to me.' 16. viii. 293. 'The letter,' world's malice as never to publish writes Mr. Elwin in a note, ‘has not anything.' Pope's Works (Elwin and been preserved, but from the account Courthope), vi. 331. of Johnson, who had evidently seen 5 In the proof-sheet the sentence it, we know that Pope gave a wrong had run, 'an idiot who used to enepitome of its contents. See also ib. force his demands by threatening to iii. 162-6, X. 44-6; Spence's Anec. p. beat his head against the wall.' "The 145.

bridge' was London Bridge. Johnson * The last Duke of Chandos,' writes mentions in a letter the booksellers Dr. Warton, told me his ancestor on the bridge.' Boswell's Johnson, was not perfectly satisfied with Pope's iv. 257. asseverations.' Warton, Preface,p.31.


will not believe in his own favour".' Pope had been flattered till he thought himself one of the moving powers in the system of life. When he talked of laying down his pen, those who sat round him intreated and implored, and self-love did not suffer

him to suspect that they went away and laughed. 160 The following year deprived him of Gay, a man whom he

had known early, and whom he seemed to love with more tenderness than any other of his literary friends?. Pope was now forty-four years old; an age at which the mind begins less easily to admit new confidence and the will to grow less flexible, and when therefore the departure of an old friend is very

acutely felt. 161 In the next year he lost his mother, not by an unexpected

death, for she had lasted to the age of ninety-three }; but she did not die unlamented. The filial piety of Pope was in the highest degree amiable and exemplary ; his parents had the happiness of living till he was at the summit of poetical reputation, till he was at ease in his fortune, and without a rival in his fame, and found no diminution of his respect or tenderness. Whatever was his pride, to them he was obedient; and whatever was his irritability, to them he was gentle. Life has, among its soothing and quiet comforts, few things better to give than such

a son.



'Nihil est quod credere de se 'He occasionally indulged her in Non possit, quum laudatur dis transcribing his works for the press;

aequa potestas.' Satires, iv. 70. the numerous corrections made in his • Ante, GAY, 15, 24, 26; post, hand show that her spelling gave him POPE, 428. Pope wrote to Swift on more trouble than the inaccuracy of Dec. 5, 1732:- It is not now indeed his printers.' The following extract a time to think of myself, when one from one of her letters shows how she of the nearest and longest ties I have spelt:– He will not faile to cole ever had is broken all on a sudden here on Friday morning, and take by the unexpected death of poor Mr. ceare to cearrie itt to Mr. Thomas Gay.' Pope's Works (Elwin and Doncaster (Dancaster]. Gent. Mag. Courthope), vii. 291.

1775, p. 528. See ante, POPE, 95 n. 3. DEATHS. June 8, 1733. Mrs. Swift described Pope as one Editha Pope, Mother of Alexander Whose filial piety excels Pope, Esq., the celebrated Poet, aged Whatever Grecian story tells.' 93. Gent. Mag. 1733, p. 326. Libel on Dr. Delany, Works, xiv. According to Pope's Works (Elwin

390. and Courthope), ii. 437, she died on Hearne recorded on May 29, 1734 June 7. [For her burial on June 11 (Remains, iii. 141):—Mr. Alexander see Reg. of Burials in Cobbett's Mem. Pope, who is looked upon as one of of Twickenham, p. 67.) The register the most cursed, ill-natured, proud of her baptism is dated June 18, 1642, fellows in the world, was however so that she was not quite ninety-one. very kind and dutiful to his mother.' N. & l. 2 S. i. 41.


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One of the passages of Pope's life, which seems to deserve 162 some enquiry', was a publication of letters between him and many of his friends, which falling into the hands of Curll, a rapacious bookseller of no good fame, were by him printed and sold? This volume containing some letters from noblemen, Pope incited a prosecution against him in the House of Lords for breach of privilege, and attended himself to stimulate the resentment of his friends. Curll appeared at the bar, and, knowing himself in no great danger, spoke of Pope with very little reverence. 'He has,' said Curll, ‘a knack at versifying, but in prose I think myself a match for him?' When the orders of the House were examined, none of them appeared to have been infringed ; Curll went away triumphant, and Pope was left to seek some other remedy".

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iv. 324.


* To this inquiry Mr. Elwin gave dictments for printing obscene pam122 pages (pp. 26-147) in the Intro. phlets. Hearne's Remains, ii. 242. duction to Pope's Works (Elwin and For his standing in the pillory, in Courthope). "He has exhibited a 1728, and for his being carried off patience and sagacity which place as it were in triumph by the mob,' him in the highest rank of literary who, by reason of the printed papers inquirers. He has unravelled with a he had had dispersed among them, bemerciless hand the web of artifice lieved he was punished 'for vindicatand petty intrigue which Pope wove ing the memory of Queen Anne,' see round each of his publications of his State Trials, xvii. 160, quoted in letters. ... But after all, what does Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), the story of the letters amount to?... The gratification of the little fellow's John Nichols wrote of him :small vanity, that he might see his 'Whatever were his demerits, they letters in print in his lifetime, and yet were amply atoned for by his indethat it might not be known that he fatigable industry in preserving our had published them himself!'. national remains. Atterbury Corres. PATTISON, Essays, ii. 382. See also Preface, p. 4. Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), Among Curll's notes to Pope's v. 294, for extenuating circumstance Letters are the following:--'Mr. Pope put forward by Mr. Courthope. The is the son of a trader, and so is Mr. slander on Addison has left a stain Curll-par nobile.' Mr. Pope is no too deep for cleansing. Ante, POPE, more a gentleman than Mr. Curll, 29 Th., 114.

nor more eminent as a poet than he Ante, POPE, 29, 142; post, 273. as a bookseller.' Pope's Works (Elwin For ‘Curll's chaste press' see The and Courthope), vi. 419, 432. Dunciad, i. 40. ‘Curll,' wrote Ar- Motte, the bookseller, wrote to buthnot, who is one of the new Swift :- The Letters were taken terrors of death, has been writing notice of in the House of Lords; and letters to everybody for memoirs of Curll was ruffled for them in a Gay's life.' Swift's Works, xviii. 65. manner, as to a man of less impudence (LordBrougham borrowed this saying, than his own, would have been very applying it to Lord Campbell and uneasy.' Swift's Works, xviii. 322. his Lives of the Chancellors.)

* In Pope's Works (Elwin and .Nov. 30, 1725. This day Mr. Curl, Courthope), vi. 419-end, is given the bookseller, was found guilty in Curll's reprint, with notes, of Pope's the King's Bench Court of two in- Narrative of the Method by which


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163 Curll's account was, that one evening a man in a clergyman's

gown, but with a lawyer's band', brought and offered to sale a number of printed volumes, which he found to be Pope's epistolary correspondence; that he asked no name, and was told none, but gave the price demanded, and thought himself

authorised to use his purchase to his own advantage ?. 164 That Curll gave a true account of the transaction, it is

reasonable to believe, because no falsehood was ever detected ? ; and when some years afterwards I mentioned it to Lintot, the son of Bernard, he declared his opinion to be that Pope knew better than any body else how Curll obtained the copies, because another parcel was at the same time sent to himself, for which no price had ever been demanded, as he made known his resolution not to pay a porter, and consequently not to deal with

a nameless agent. 165 Such care had been taken to make them publick, that they

were sent at once to two booksellers : to Curll, who was likely to seize them as a prey, and to Lintot, who might be expected

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Mr. Pope's

Private Letters were pro- and his nec was surrounded with a cured and published by Edmund large lawn barrister's band.' Pope's Curll. Curll had advertised the pub- Works (Elwin and Courthope), vi. lication of letters written by Pope to 442. Lords Halifax and Burlington (among 'Curll, in defending the publicaothers), with the respective answers.' tion of the correspondence between Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), Pope and Cromwell (ante, POPE, 29, vi. 428. In May, 1735, Lord Ilay 142), says :—'These letters were a brought this advertisement before the free gift; so that there was not any House, as 'contrary to the standing occasion to ask the consent of either order of Jan. 31, 1721, declaring it to of those parties. Mr. Curll purchased be a breach of privilege to print them as justly as Mr. Lintot did the Lords' works, &c. He added that copy of Mr. Pope's Homer.' 16. p. in one of the letters Lord Burlington 419. Whatever the law was in those was abused. An order was made for days, at the present time the writer 'the impression of the book' to be of a letter can get an injunction seized, and for Curll to attend the against publication. House. Curll had received the book 3 'The documents show that the in sheets from Pope's secret agent. lying and trickery rested with P. T. It contained no letter by a peer. [Pope), while the bookseller was The letter complained of, which Lord straightforward in his proceedings.' Ilay, Pope's neighbour, had really Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), read, was not printed in the copies

i. Introd. p. 54. seized, all of which had been pre- Mr. Levet this day showed me pared for seizure by Pope. They (July 18, 1763) Dr. Johnson's Library, were therefore returned to Pope, and which was contained in two garrets the matter dropped. 16. pp. 428, over his chambers (No. 1, Inner 433, 435, v. 286. See also Swift's Temple Lane), where Lintot, son of Works, xviii. 294, 299; N. & l. the celebrated bookseller of that 2 S. X. 201, 485, 505.

name, had formerly his warehouse.' :'Had on a clergyman's gown, Boswell's Johnson, i. 435.


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