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whether stealth or violence, was so much resented, that the commerce of the two families, before very friendly, was interrupted. Mr. Caryl, a gentleman who, being secretary to King James's Queen, had followed his Mistress into France, and who being the author of Sir Solomon Single, a comedy, and some translations, was entitled to the notice of a wit, solicited Pope to endeavour a reconciliation by a ludicrous poem, which might bring both the parties to a better temper'. In compliance with Caryl's request, though his name was for a long time marked only by the first and last letter, C-1', a poem of two cantos was written (1711), as is said, in a fortnight, and sent to the offended lady, who liked it well enough to shew it ; and, with the usual process of literary transactions, the author, dreading a surreptitious

edition, was forced to publish it*. 54. The event is said to have been such as was desired; the

pacification and diversion of all to whom it related, except Sir George Brown, who complained with some bitterness that, in the character of Sir Plame, he was made to talk nonsenses. Whether

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· Warburton, i. 167. 'It was not p. 141); Pope's Works (Elwin and Mr. Secretary (John) Caryll, but his Courthope), ii

. 115. "The things,' nephew, the Sussex squire, for years said Pope, that I have written fastest the correspondent of Pope, who soli- have always pleased the most. I cited him. Pope's Works (Elwin wrote the Essay on Criticism fast. and Courthope), ii. 120. 'The uncle ... The Rape of the Lock was written followed James II into exile, became fast.' Spence's Anec. p. 142. his Secretary of State, and was created Pope, in dedicating the second a peer. The nephew, as next in suc- edition to Mrs. Fermor, wrote:cession, was styled Honourable by An imperfect copy having been the Jacobites.' 16. vi. 136. He is the offered to a bookseller, you had the 'Hon. J. C.' of the correspondence good-nature, for my sake, to consent published by Pope. Warton's Pope, to the publication of one more corvii. 223. A few months after his death rect. Pope's Works (Elwin and Pope slandered him. Pope's Works Courthope), ii. 143. Mr. Elwin de(Elwin and Courthope), vi. 299. The scribes Pope's proceeding as uncle published Sir Solomon Single miserable farce. Ib. p. 121. For in 1671. See also post, POPE, 395 n. the verses on Addison 'getting out' Macaulay falls therefore into John- see post, POPE, 116 n.; and for Pope's

n son's mistake, when, speaking of the letters 'getting out' see post, POPE, uncle, he says:– Half a line in The 166. Rape of the Lock [i. 3) has made his s The Rape of the Lock, iv. 121–30. name immortal.' Hist. of Eng. ii. 'He was the only one of the party 331.

who took the thing seriously. He • It was marked C- or C-1 in was angry that the poet should make all the impressions in Pope's lifetime. him talk nothing but nonsense.' Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), Warburton, i. 199. See also Spence's

Anec. p. 194. Pope wrote to Caryll: 3* The first sketch of this poem —“Sir Plume blusters, I hear.' Pope's was written in less than a fortnight's Works (Elwin and Courthope), vi. time.' (POPE, Works, ed. 1736, vol. i. 162. See also ib. p. 173.


ji. 145.


all this be true, I have some doubt; for at Paris, a few years ago, a niece of Mrs. Fermor, who presided in an English Convent, mentioned Pope's work with very little gratitude, rather as an insult than an honour ; and she may be supposed to have inherited the opinion of her family'.

At its first appearance it was termed by Addison' merum sal. 55 Pope, however, saw that it was capable of improvement; and, having luckily contrived to borrow his machinery from the Rosicrucians?, imparted the scheme with which his head was teeming to Addison, who told him that his work, as it stood, was 'a delicious little thing,' and gave him no encouragement to retouch it.

This has been too hastily considered as an instance of Addison's 56 jealousy s; for as he could not guess the conduct of the new design, or the possibilities of pleasure comprised in a fiction of which there had been no examples, he might very reasonably and kindly persuade the author to acquiesce in his own prosperity, and forbear an attempt which he considered as an unnecessary hazard 6

Addison's counsel was happily rejected. Pope foresaw the 57 future efflorescence of imagery then budding in his mind, and resolved to spare no art or industry of cultivation. The soft

* Johnson recorded at Paris on his friend receive it coldly; and even Oct. 16, 1775:- Austin Nuns, Grate, to advise him against any alteration, Mrs. Fermor, Abbess. She knew for that the poem in its original state Pope, and thought him disagreeable.' was a delicious little thing, and as Boswell's Johnson, ii. 392. She told he expressed it, merum sal. Mr. Mrs. Piozzi in 1784 that “ Mr. Pope's Pope was shocked for his friend, and praise made her aunt very trouble- then first began to open his eyes to some and conceited.' Piozzi's

Journey, his character. Warburton, iv. 28. i. 20. See post, POPE, 260 n.

For merum sal, see Lucretius, iv. The keen eye of scandal detected 1162. one or two passages with a double 5 Dr. Warton, in his Essay on meaning, which passed the bounds Pope, i. 155, adopts as certain all of decency. Pope's Works (Elwin the slanders of Pope exposed by Mr. and Courthope), v. 94.

Elwin. Pope's Works (Elwin and

. * Ante, MILTON, 222; DRYDEN, Courthope), ii. 122.

Tacitus (Annal. i. 11), speaking of For the Rosicrucian doctrine the advice of Augustus to his successor of spirits' see the Dedication, Pope's not to extend the boundaries of the Works (Elwin and Courthope), ii. empire, adds, 'incertum metu an

per invidiam.' Why,' asks Gibbon, 'Full,' says Warburton, of this must rational advice be imputed to noble conception he communicated a base or foolish motive?' Decline it to Mr. Addison, who, he imagined, and Fall, Introd. p. xxxv. would have been equally delighted Macaulay supports Johnson's with the improvement. On the con- views. Essays, 1874, iv. 238. trary, he had the mortification to see

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luxuriance of his fancy was already shooting, and all the gay varieties of diction were ready at his hand to colour and

embellish it. 58 His attempt was justified by its success. The Rape of the

Lock stands forward, in the classes of literature, as the most exquisite example of ludicrous poetry. Berkeley congratulated him upon the display of powers more truly poetical than he had shewn before; with elegance of description and justness of

precepts, he had now exhibited boundless fertility of invention! 59 He always considered the intermixture of the machinery with

the action as his most successful exertion of poetical art?. He indeed could never afterwards produce any thing of such unexampled excellence. Those performances, which strike with wonder, are combinations of skilful genius with happy casualty; and it is not likely that any felicity, like the discovery of a new race of preternatural agents, should happen twice to the same

man. 60 Of this poem the author was, I think, allowed to enjoy the

praise for a long time without disturbance. Many years afterwards Dennis published some remarks upon it, with very little force, and with no effect 3; for the opinion of the publick was

already settled, and it was no longer at the mercy of criticism. 61 About this time he published The Temple of Fame, which, as

he tells Steele in their correspondence, he had written two years before ; that is, when he was only twenty-two years old, an early time of life for so much learning and so much observation as that work exhibits.



· Berkeley wrote from Leghorn Anec. p. 142. See also Warburton, on May 1, 1714:-Style, painting, i. 169, and post, ROPE, 336. judgment, spirit, I had already ad- In 1777 Dennis published Remired in other of your writings; but marks upon Mr. Pope's Translation in this I am charmed with the magic of Homer, with Two Letters conof your invention, with all those cerning Windsor Forest and The images, illusions and inexplicable Temple of Fame; and in 1728, Rebeauties which you raise so marks on Mr. Pope's Rape of the prisingly, and at the same time so Lock, written in letters, the first naturally out of a trifle.' Pope's dated May 1, 1714. This last book Works (Elwin and Courthope), he had, he said, kept back in terix. 1.

rorem, with so good a result that for All the machinery,' Pope said, a time the poet counterfeited a sincere was added afterwards; and the repentance. Now, however, he was making that, and what was published like a mad Indian that runs amuck.' before, hit so well together is, I think, Preface, p. 4. See ante, ADDISON, one of the greatest proofs of judg- 65 n. 5 ; post, POPE, 152. ment of anything I ever did.' Spence's Pope wrote to Steele on Nov. 16, On this poem Dennis afterwards published some remarks, of 62 which the most reasonable is, that some of the lines represent motion as exhibited by sculpture'.

Of the Epistle from Eloisa to Abelard, I do not know the 63 date? His first inclination to attempt a composition of that tender kind arose, as Mr. Savage told me, from his perusal of Prior's Nut-brown Maid?. How much he has surpassed Prior's work it is not necessary to mention, when perhaps it may be said with justice, that he has excelled every composition of the same kind. The mixture of religious hope and resignation gives an elevation and dignity to disappointed love, which images merely natural cannot bestow. The gloom of a convent strikes the imagination with far greater force than the solitude of a grove.

This piece was, however, not much his favourite in his latter 64 years, though I never heard upon what principle he slighted it.

In the next year (1713) he published Windsor Forest“; of 65 which part was, as he relates, written at sixteen, about the same time as his Pastorals, and the latter part was added afterwards: where the addition begins, we are not tolds. The lines relating to the Peace confess their own date 6. It is dedicated to Lord




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1712:—'I was really so diffident of Ante, PRIOR, 18. Prior, in Alma, it as to let it lie by me these two ii. 289, addressing Abelard, says:years, just as you now see it.' Pope's But well I weet thy cruel wrong Works (Elwin and Courthope), vi. Adorns a nobler poet's song.' 395. He published it in 1715, when Post, POPE, 315. Swift wrote he was twenty-six, having carefully on March 9, 1712–13:— Mr. Pope revised it. Ib. i. 199.. Lintot gave has published a fine poem called £32 55. for the copyright. 16. i. 186. Windsor Forest.' Swift's Works, See post, POPE, 317.

iii. 124. This is the earliest mention "Neither painting nor sculpture of Pope by Swift. can show local motion. Remarks s In a note on l. 11 in the edition on Pope's Homer, p. 56. The lines of 1736 Pope says :-'The first part criticized are 83-92. Dante makes was written in 1704, at the same time sculpture exhibit motion in the Pur- with the Pastorals; the latter part gatorio:

was not added till 1710.' In a note Là precedeva al benedetto vaso on l. 288 he says:— All the lines Trescando alzato, l'umile Sal- that follow were not added till 1710.' mista.

Mr. Elwin points out that in the

first note Warburton changed 1710 Intorno a lui parea calcato e to 1713, but left the second unpieno

corrected. He adds that there is Di cavalieri, e l'aquile nell'oro no evidence to confirm the statement Sopr' esso in vista al vento si that the larger portion was produced movièno.'

as early as 1704. Pope's Works Canto x, 11. 64-5, 79-81. (Elwin and Courthope), i: 324; War. • It was published in 1717. Pope's burton, i. 49, 63. Works (Elwin and Courthope), ii. o The Peace of Utrecht was rati218. Post, POPE, 342.

fied in April, 1713. The negotiations

Lansdowne', who was then high in reputation and influence among the Tories; and it is said that the conclusion of the poem gave great pain to Addison, both as a poet and a politician”. Reports like this are often spread with boldness very disproportionate to their evidence. Why should Addison receive any particular disturbance from the last lines of Windsor Forest? If contrariety of opinion could poison a politician, he would not live a day; and, as a poet, he must have felt Pope's force of

genius much more from many other parts of his works. 66 The pain that Addison might feel it is not likely that he would

confess; and it is certain that he so well suppressed his discontent, that Pope now thought himself his favourite; for having been consulted in the revisal of Cato}, he introduced it by a Prologue*; and, when Dennis published his Remarks, undertook not indeed to vindicate but to revenge his friend, by A Narrative

of the Frenzy of Fohn Dennis s. 67 There is reason to believe that Addison gave no encouragement

to this disingenuous hostility; for, says Pope, in a letter to him, 'indeed your opinion, that 'tis entirely to be neglected, would be my own in my own case ; but I felt more warmth here than I did when I first saw his book against myself (though indeed in two minutes it made me heartily merry)? Addison was not a man on whom such cant of sensibility could make much impression.

had begun at Utrecht on Jan. I, (ante, ADDISON, 130], contained no 1711-12. Ante, PRIOR, 28. Pope's strokes of such genuine and sublime letters to Caryll of Nov. 29 and Dec. poetry as the conclusion before us.' 21, 1712, show that the addition had WARTON, Essay on Pope, i. 29. been made by that time. Pope's Addison, in The Freeholder, No. Works (Elwin and Courthope), vi. 41, said that it was 'surprising how 168, 175.

so bad a treaty came to be made at Ante, GRANVILLE, 17. 'Lord the end of a glorious and successful Lansdowne insisted on my publishing war.' For the Peace, see ante, Swift, my Windsor Forest, and the motto 45; (non iniussa cano [VIRGIL, Ecl. vi. There is only Pope's authority 9]) shows it.' POPE, Spence's Anec. for the statement, and that is worthp. 202.

less. Ante, ADDISON, 54, 113, 137 ; ''A person of no small rank has post, POPE, 104. informed me that Mr. Addison was Ante, ADDISON, 58. inexpressibly chagrined ... both as Ante, ADDISON, 64. a politician and as a poet. As a • Johnson quotes Pope's forged politician, because it so highly cele- letter to Addison, dated July 20, brated that treaty of peace which he 1713, made out of one to Caryll, deemed so pernicious to the liberties dated Nov. 19, 1712. Pope's Works of Europe, and as a poet, because (Elwin and Courthope), vi. 164, he was deeply conscious that his own 398. Campaign, that Gazette in rhyme


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