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can be clearer than that in Scripture, no Pagans are charged with it.” The fact is the Jews knew nothing about the devil until they went to Babylon. The words, daimon and daimonion in the New Testament, are also rendered by the term devil, and in the plural devils; and we find them spoken of as numerous. One man was possessed with a legion of them. These were demons, not devils as Christians commonly understand the term. Concerning this distinction Dr. Campbell says-“What the precise idea of the demons, to whom possessions were ascribed, then was, it would perhaps be impossible for us with any certainty to affirm; but as it is evident that the two words diabolos and daimonion, are not once confounded, though the first occurs in the New Testament upwards of thirty times, and the second above sixty, they can, by no just rule of interpretation, be rendered by the same term. Possessions are never attributed to the being termed o diabolos.” Dissert. 6. Dr. Campbell says __The word diabolos in its ordinary acceptation signifies calumniator, traducer, false accuser, from the verb diaballein, to calumniate."" This is also its meaning as given by Parkhurst and other lexicographers, which need not be quoted. Its extraordinary acceptation, with them and others is, that it designates a fallen angel, who is the implacable enemy of God and man.

But the three first passages which I shall quote, show, that our translators understood the word diabolos in the way Dr. Campbell explains it, which he says, is its ordinary acceptation. The first is,

1 Tim. iii. 11. 6. Even so must their wives be grave, not slanderers (diabolous,) sober, faithful in all things. Here pious women are exhorted not to be slanderers ; literally, “not to be devils.” The very same word is used verses 6, 7. in the singular number and is rendered devil. "Again, it is said verses 2, 3. “ The aged women likewise, that they be in be

havior as becometh holiness, not false accusers" (diabolous.) Here the word again occurs in the plural, and is rendered false accusers. Aged pious women are exhorted not to be devils! Again, 2 Tim. iii. 3. speaking of those who in the last days should have a form of godliness but denying the power of it, they are said to be without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers" (diaboloi.) Literally, devils. Suffer me now to ask, why in these three texts the word was not rendered devils? The reason is obvious; it would appear very strange to our ears to exhort Christian women not to be devils, for we have associated the idea of a fallen angel with this word, as we have with the term satan. It would have been just a similar impropriety, had the angel of the Lord, David, and others been called satan. But to avoid this impropriety, satan is rendered adversary in the Old Testament, and in the above texts, the term diabolos is rendered slanderer and false accuser. These three texts however, show us, both how it was understood by the apostle and also by our translators. Let the reader keep these remarks in view, while we consider all the other texts, where the term diabolos occurs in the New Testament.

John vi. 70. “Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil ?” Dr. Campbell renders the term diabolos here spy, and Newcome and Wakefield, render it accuser. This is in agreement with the preceding texts, and further remark is unnecessary.

John xiii. 2. “ And supper being ended, (the devil having now put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son to betray him”). See on Luke xxii. 3. and John xiii. 27. in the last Section, as a sufficient explanation of this passage. What is said to be done by satan in one, is said to be done by the devil in the other, which shows that they are only two names for the same thing. Suffer me here to ask, When one

man betrays another in our day, is the plea sustained in court or any where else, that the devil urged him on to it? And, would any man hang himself, if he believed he was the tool of such a powerful and malicious being ? Judas' crime is wholly imputed to himself, Acts i. 17, 18. And every man is conscious when he sins, that he did not need the assistance of such a being. The Scriptures, in plain language, refer sin to ourselves and not to the devil. See James i. 14. and Mark vii. 21, 22.

1 Peter v. 8, 9. "Be sober, be vigilant, because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh. : about, seeking whom he may devour: whom resist

steadfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brethren that are in the world.” As this is one of the principal texts quoted in proof of the existence of an evil being, called the devil I shall consider it particularly. We have then, 1st. An exhortation, “be sober, be vigilant.” This was addressed to Christians scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, &c. chap. i. 1. It is so plain, that they were suffering persecution from the enemies of the gospel, that it would be loss of time to give any proof of it. 2d. We have next the reason assigned why this exhortation should be obeyed. Why be sober and vigilant ? “ Because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour." It is confidently believed by many good people, that this devil who walketh about like a roaring lion, is a fallen angel or malignant spirit. But I ask, how is such a belief to be reconciled with his having his abode in hell, with some in the air, and others, his tempting men in all parts of the earth at the same time? Such a belief is contrary to all facts and experience. Did ever any person see the devil in the shape of a lion, hear him roar, or is an instance on record in the history of mankind of one

being devoured by him? Such idle, childish stories have been told of the devil, but what man in our day gives the least credit to them. I find human beings are frequently compared to lions.-Numb. xxiii. 24. xxiv. 8, 9. Jer. l. 17. 2 Tim. iv. 17. also to roaring lions, Psalm xxii. 13. Prov. xix. 12. xx. 2. Jer. ii. 15. Isai. v. 29. They are also compared to a de. vouring lion, Psalm xvii. 12. xxii. 21. Jer. ii. 30. iv. 7. Ezek. xix. 1-6. xxii. 25. On examination I also find that God is compared to a lion and a roaring lion, Isai. xxxi. 4. Hosea xi. 10. xii. 7, 8. Amos iii. 4-8. Such is the result of my examination of the Scripture usage of the word lion. Not one instance can I find where the devil is compared to a lion. If he is so in this passage, it is a solitary instance, which is presumptive evidence that this was not the apostle's meaning. Who then was this roaring lion ? Peter answers by saying, “your adversary the devil as a roaring lion walketh about seeking whom he may

devour.” The word here rendered adversary is antidikos. It only occurs in this and the following texts in the New Testament, Matth. v. 25. Luke xij. 58. xviii. 3. It is uniformly rendered adversary, but has no reference to a fallen angel. In the texts referred to, Parkhurst says it means "an adversary or opponent in a law-suit,” and quotes Herodian in proof of it. The text under consideration, is the only one in which he considers this word to mean a fallen angel or the devil. He desires us to compare Rev. xii. 10. Jobi. 9. ii. 3. and Zach. iii. 1. in proof that antidikos in this text means such a wicked spirit. It is very plain that he considered adversary and devil to mean the same thing. We have not only compared, but have considered the passages, and our readers may judge from the evidence we have adduced if they teach such a doctrine. In short, to say that the word devil, or the word adversary here used as its ex

planation, refers to a fallen angel, is taking for granted the very question at issue. Who then was this adversary, the devil who went about like a roaring lion?. By recurring to the New Testament usage of antikeimai, also rendered adversary, we shall see this.

1st. It is rendered adversary and applied to men who were the adversaries of Christ and of Christianity, particularly the persecuting Jews. Thus, when our Lord had refuted the Jews who had found fault with him for healing a person on their Sabbath, it is said "all his adversaries were ashamed,” Luke xiii. 17. He also said to his disciples—“I will give you a mouth and wisdom which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist,” Luke sxi. 15. Again, Paul says, 1 Cor. xvi. 9. For a great door and effectual is opened unto me, and there are many adversaries.” And Philip. i. 28. he says--"And in nothing terrified by your adversaries : which is to them an evident token of perdition.” And in 1 Tim. v. 14. he exhorteth young women to conduct themselves as to give “none occasion to the adversary to speak reproachfully." In all these texts the adversaries of the gospel, particularly the Jews are referred to by the term adversary.

2d. It is rendered opposeth and contrary, and applied to the following things. To the man of sin. " Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God," 2 Thess. ii. 4. To the opposition between flesh and spirit. “For the flesh lusteth against the spirit and the spirit against the flesh, and these are contrary the one to the other,” Gal. v. 17. And in 1 Tim. i. 10. it is used to express whatever is opposed to the truth. “And if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine." It is then beyond all fair debate, that untikeimai, adversary, is not once used in reference to the devil or satan, though most people say he is the greatest adversary of both

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