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been generally suppressed in the Turkish Dominions. As the Romans were indebted to the Grecians for the Arts and Sciences, so were they likewise for the Improvement of their Wines ; the best of which were produced in the Country of Capua, and were called the Mollic, Calenian, Formian, Cæcuban, and Falernian, so much celebrated by Horace. Domitian passed an Edict for destroying all the Vines, and that no more fhould be planted throughout the greatest Part of the West; which continued almost two hundred Years afterwards, when the Emperor Probus employed his Soldiers in planting Vines in Europe, in the fame Manner as Hannibal had formerly employed his Troops in planting Olive-trees in Africa. Some of the Ancients have endeavoured to prove, that the Cultivation of Vines is more beneficial than any other Kind of Huibandry: But, if this was thought fo in the Time of Columella, it is very different at present; nor were all the Ancients of his Opinion, for several gave the Preference to pasture Lands.

The Breeding of Cattle has always been considered as an important Part of Agriculture. The Riches of Abraham, Laban, and Job, consisted in their Flocks and Herds. We also find from Latinus in Virgil, and Ulyflės in Homer, that the Wealth of those Princes consisted in Cattle. It was likewise the fame among the Romans, till the Introduction of Money, which put a Value upon Commodities, and etablithed a new Kind of Barter. Varro has not disdained to give an extensive Account of all the Beasts that are of any Use to the Country, either for Tillage, Breed, Carriage, or other Conveniencies of Man. And Cato, the Censor, was of Opinion, that the Feeding of Cattle was the most certain and fpeedy Method of enriching a Country.

Luxury, Avarice, Injustice, Violence, and Am. bition, take up their ordinary Residence in populous Cities: While the hard and laborious Life of the

Husbandman

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Husbandman will not admit of these Vices. The honest Farmer lives in a wise and happy State, which inclines him to Justice, Temperance, Sobriety, Sincerity, and every Virtue that can dignify the liuman Nature. This gave Room for the Poets to feign, that Astrea, the Goddess of Justice, had her last Relidence among Husbandmen, before she quitted the farth. Hesiod and Virgil have brought the Aflistance of the Muses in Praise of Agriculture. Kings, Generals, and Philosophers, have not thought it unworthy their Birth, Rank, and Genius, to leave Precepts to Pofterity upon the Utility of the Hufbandman's Profeslion. Hiero, Attalus, and Archelaus, Kings of Syracuse, Pergamus, and Cappadocia, have composed Books for supporting and augmenting the Fertility of their different Countries. The Carthaginian General, Nago, wrote twenty-eight Volumes upon this Subject; and Cate, the Censor, followed his Example. Nor have Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle, omitted this Article, which makes an eilential Part of their Politicks. And Cicero, fpeaking of the Writings of Xenophon, says, “How fully and s excellently does he, in that Book called his Oeconoo'mics, set out the Advantages of Husbandry, and a • country Life?

When Britain was subject to the Romasis, she annually supplied them with great Quantities of Corn ; and the Isle of Anglesea was then looked upon as the Grainary for the Western Provinces : But the Britons, both under the Romans and Saxons, were eniployed like Slaves at the Plough. On the Intermixture of the Danes and Noronans, Poffessions were better regulated, and the State of Vaffalage gradually declined, till it was entirely wore off under the Reigns of Henry VII. and Edward VI, for they hurt the old Nobility by favouring the Commons, who grew rich by Trade, and purchased Estates.

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its great mprovement Kingdom: forfae

The Wines of France, Portugal, and Spain, are now the best; while Italy can only boast of the Wine made in Tuscany. The Breeding of Cattle is now chiefly confined to Denmark and Ireland. The Corn of Sicily is still in great Esteem, as well as what is produced in the Northern Countries : But England is the happiest Spot in the Universe for all the principal Kinds of Agriculture, and especially its great Produce of Corn.

The Improvement of our landed Estatęs, is the Enrichment of the Kingdom: For, without this, how could we carry on our Manufactures, or profecute our Commerce? We should look upon the English Farmer as the most useful Member of so. ciety. His arable Grounds not only supply his Fel. low-fubjects with all kinds of the best Grain, but his Industry enables him to Export great Quantities to other Kingdoms, which might otherwise starve ; particularly Spain and Portugal : For, in one Year, there have been exported 51,520 Quarters of Barley, 219,781 of Malt, 1920 of Oatmeal, 1329 of Rye, and 153,343 of Wheat ; the Bounty on which amounted to 72,433 Pounds. What a Fund of Treasure arises from his pasture Lands, which breed such innumerable Flocks of Sheep, and afford such fine Herds of Cattle, to feed Britons, and cloath Mankind ? He rears Flax and Hemp for the making of Linen ; while his Plantations of Apples and Hops supply him with generous Kinds of Liquors.

The Land-tax, when at four Shillings in the Pound, produces 2,000,000 Pounds a Year. This arises from the Labour of the Husbandman : It is a great Sum : But how greatly is it increased by the Means it furnishes for Trade? Without the Industry of the Farmer, the Manufacturer could have no Goods to supply the Merchant, nor the Merchant find any Employment for the Mariners : Trade

would

would be stagnated ; Riches whould be of no Advantage to the Great ; and Labour of no Service to the Poor,

The Romans, as Historians all allow,
Sought, in extreme Distress, the rural Plough;
lo Triumphe ! for the village Swain
Retir'd to be a * Nobleman again.

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INTRODUCTION

TO THE WORLD DISPLAYED,

ATAVIGATION, like other Arts, has been I perfected by Degrees. It is not easy to conceive that any Age or Nation was without some Versel, in which Rivers might be passed by Travellers, or Lakes frequented by Fishermen ; but we have no Knowledge of any Ship that could endure the Violence of the Ocean, before the Ark of Noah.

As the Tradition of the Deluge has been transmitted to almost all the Nations of the Earth ; it must be supposed that the Memory of the Means þy which Noah and his Family were preserved, would be continued long among their Descendants, and that the Possibility of passing the Seas could never be doubted.

What Men know to be practicable, a thousand Motives will incite them to try; and there is Reason to believe, that from the Time that the Generations of the postdiluvian Race spread to the Sea Shores, there were always Navigators 'that ventured upon the Sea, though, perhaps, not willing!y beyond the Sight of Land.

Of the ancient Voyages little certain is known, and it is not necessary to lay before the Reader such Conjectures as learned Men have offered to the World. The Romans by conquering Carthage, put a Stop to a great Part of the Trade of distant Nations with one another, and because they thought only on War and Conquest, as their Empire en

creased,

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