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blessed it, and brake unto them. And their eyes were opened, and they knew him. And he vanished out of their sight; [that is, he retired, and went away.] And they said one to another: Did not our bearts burn within us, whilst he talked with us in the way? and whilst he opened to us the scriptures? And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them, saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared unto Simon. And they told them what things were done in the way, and how he was known unto them in breaking of bread."
Here ariseth a question, whether these two disciples did set out for Emmaus before the disciples knew of Mary Magdalene's having herself seen Jesus. You say, p. 648,
It seems that these two had left the city before any of the 'women came with the news of Christ's personal appear'ance.' And presently afterwards you say, p. 648, 649, The smallest attention will show, that Cleophas and his ' companion do not here speak of Mary Magdalene's second 'information.' Le Clerc likewise says, That these two 'disciples set out for Emmaus before Jesus had shown him'self to Mary Magdalene.' I believe this may be the opinion of many. I also may have said the same myself. But my honoured friend above mentioned thinks otherwise, as we have seen. They did,' as he says, make their re'port to the apostles, before the two went from the rest of the 'company to Emmaus. No notice is mentioned by the two in discourse with Christ of the women's having related ⚫ their interview with Jesus, because it should seem, none
of the company believed a word of what the women 'said,' Mark xvi. 11; Luke xxiv. 11. And none of the evangelists pretend to give an exact detail of all circum'stances.'
Let us now go over the particulars of ver. 21-24, “ And beside all this, to-day is the third day since these things were done. Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, who were early at the sepulchre. And when they found not his body, they came, saying, That they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive." It follows in the same discourse of the two disciples, ver. 24, "And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even as the women had said. But him they saw not." Referring to what St. John writes of
■ Cum vero duo ex discipulis Jesu, mane ejusdem diei, antequam se Mariæ Magdalenæ stitisset Jesus, profecti essent Jerosolymâ Emmaüntem. Cleric. Harm. p. 487.
Peter and John visiting the sepulchre, chap. xx. 3—10: and to what St. Luke writes of Peter, chap. xxiv. 12,
It might be expected that now, after this, these two disciples should also distinctly mention the second report of Mary Magdalene, related by St. John, xx. 11-18, provided that report had been made to the apostles before the two set out for Emmaus. This omission is accounted for by my friend in the manner above mentioned: they take no notice of this, because they paid little regard to it. And does not this appear also in what the eleven say to these two when they came to them, and told them what they had seen? Luke xxiv. 34," They said to them: The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared unto Simon." They say nothing of Mary Magdalene, though she certainly had been with them before that time, and made her second report to them," that she had seen the Lord, and that he had said these things unto her," John xx. 18.
Let me now cite some observations of your own, p. 652, 'As soon as Jesus departed, the two disciples made all the haste they could to Jerusalem, that they might have the 'pleasure of acquainting them with the agreeable news.
But they were in some measure prevented: for immedi'ately on their arrival, the eleven, with the women, accosted them, giving them the news of their Master's resurrection. "And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Je'rusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them 'that were with them, saying: The Lord is risen indeed, ' and hath appeared unto Simon." The apostles had given little credit to the reports of the women, supposing they were occasioned more by imagination than reality; but 'when a person of Simon's capacity and gravity declared 'that he had seen the Lord, they began to think that he 6 was risen indeed. Their belief therefore was not a little 'confirmed by the arrival of these two disciples, who de'clared that the Lord had appeared to them also. Ver. 35,
"And they told what things were done in the way, and 'how he was known unto them in breaking of bread,” that is, by his prayer before meat. Mark however represents the reception which their report met with somewhat differ'ently; ch. xvi. 12, " After that he appeared in another 'form," ev eτepą poppy, i. e. in another dress, the dress of a 'traveller, "unto two of them, as they walked and went ' into the country." Ver. 13, " And they went and told it ' unto the residue; neither believed they them." But there
is no inconsistency between the evangelists; for though 'the greatest part of the apostles believed that Jesus was
'risen, as Luke affirms; some who had not given credit either to the women or to Simon, continued obstinately to 'disbelieve, in spite of all that these two disciples or the 'rest could say.'
I shall add somewhat farther from your Preliminary Observations, p. 39, where you say, The male disciples being the witnesses, upon whose testimony the world was to be'lieve that our Lord arose from the dead, it concerned mankind more to be informed of his appearances to them, than to be made acquainted with his appearances to the ' women. Luke knew this; and therefore, while he has ' related the appearances to the male disciples, he has omitted the appearances to the women altogether. It seems, the brevity which he studied did not permit that both should be told. In like manner the apostle Paul, summing up 'the evidence of our Lord's resurrection, takes no notice of 'his appearances to the women, because they were not to be the witnesses of this matter to the world, 1 Cor. " xv. 1-9.'
And here from your observations just mentioned, ariseth another consideration. For you say, that St. Luke has ' omitted Christ's appearances to the women altogether.' If that be so, we are not to expect, that these two should take any notice of Mary Magdalene's second report, though it had been made to the apostles before they set out from Jerusalem. St. Luke's words are these: ch. xxiv. 1—11, "Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they [that is, the women who had come with Jesus from Galilee, ch. xxiii. 55.] came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices, which they had prepared, and certain others with them. And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre. And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus. And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold two men stood by them in shining garments. And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them: Why seek ye the living among the dead? He is not here, but is risen. Remember how he spake unto you, when he was yet in Galilee, saying: The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again. And they remembered his words. And returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things to the eleven, and to all the rest. It was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and other women that were with them, who told these things unto the apostles. And their words seemed to them as idle tales, and
they believed them not." That is the account which St. Luke has given of the testimony of the women to the resurrection of Jesus. And it is very observable. I make no question, that herein is included Mary Magdalene's second report to the apostles, mentioned by Št. John, xx. 18. And it confirms the supposition, before mentioned, that Mary Magdalene was not then alone, but that all the other women were then with her, though they are not mentioned by St. John.
These observations are sufficient to account for the two disciples not mentioning distinctly the report of Mary Magdalene, though they did not set out from Jerusalem until after it had been made to the apostles.
But there are other considerations, which may support the same persuasion. It is confirmed by the order of narration in St. Mark's gospel, ch. xvi. 9," Now when Jesus was risen, early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven demons." Ver. 10, "And she went, and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept." This is what St. John says, ch. xx. 18, " Mary Magdalene came, and told the disciples, that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her." It follows in Mark xvi. 11, “ And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not." Then, at ver. 12, "After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country." This is full proof, that these two did not set out for Emmaus, till after that Mary Magdalene had told the disciples," she had seen the Lord."
And, I pray, what is the meaning of his appearing to them in another form? You say, in another dress, that of a traveller. Which I think does not give the true meaning of the phrase. Grotius Psays, in another dress, that is, 'different from what had been used by him.' And Dr. Doddridge, to the same purpose: in a different_habit 'from what he ordinarily wore.' But neither does that, as I apprehend, fully represent the design and meaning of the evangelist's expression. I think, he refers to some appearances of Christ, which had been made before that now made to these two. What can that be, but "the appearance to Mary Magdalene," mentioned by himself, ver. 9, 10? This
Μετα δε ταυτα δυσιν εξ αυτων περιπατεσιν εφανερώθη εν έτερα μορφή, πορευομενοις εις αγρον· P Εν έτερα μορφη, in alia effigie.j Habitu alio, quam quo uti solebat. Ideo аpouоv habitantem in proximo, putabant. Grot. in Marc. xvi. 12.
seems to me to be the plain and evident meaning of St. Mark. And it fully shows, that Mary's second report to the apostles had been made, before these two set out from Jerusalem to go to Emmaus.
There is still another argument of great force, which offers to our consideration. These two disciples did not set out till eleven or twelve o'clock, according to our computation. Emmaus was little more than two hours' walk, if at all. They arrived at the village about three in the afternoon, or sooner, Luke xxiv. 29. As they were engaged in discourse, during a great part of the journey; we will suppose, that they made three hours of it. Consequently, they set out at twelve, or not much sooner. But before that, Mary had made her second report to the disciples, that" she had seen the Lord." And these two were with the disciples when that report was made. Mary and the other women went early to the sepulchre. They got to the sepulchre by the rising of the sun. When Mary came first to the apostles, as is related, John xx. 1, 2, it could not be more than six o'clock, or thereabout. After which Peter and John went in great haste to the sepulchre, and Mary with them, or after them, as fast as she could. Peter and John did not stay long at the sepulchre. But having taken a view of the state of things there," they went away again to their own home," John xx. 10. Soon after these two apostles were gone away, the Lord appeared to Mary Magdalene, and presently after that to all the other women, who had gone up early in the morning with the spices. Then Mary and the rest came down to the apostles, and let them know that they had seen the Lord," and they delivered to them the message, with which they had been entrusted, together with all the circumstances of his appearing to them. It could not be then more than seven or eight or nine in the forenoon. This is much confirmed by the circumstance observed by my friend from Matt. xxviii. 11, "Now when they [the women] were going, behold, some of the watch came into the city, and showed unto the chief priests all the things that were done." It may be well supposed, that this part of the watch, or guard, came to the priests as soon as they could have access unto them in a body, when met together. Which may be reckoned between seven and eight, or, at the farthest, between eight and nine in the morning. At that time Mary Magdalene, and the women with her, came down to the disciples, and made their report to them, that they had seen the Lord."
There can then no longer be any question made, but that