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This Postscript will consist of three sections. In the first shall be an argument, showing the several acceptations of the words, the Spirit, and the Holy Spirit. In the second section such texts will be considered, as may be supposed to afford objections. In the third divers other texts will be explained.
AN ARGUMENT. In showing the several acceptations of these words in scripture, I begin with a passage of Maimonides, generally reckoned as learned and judicions a writer as any of the Jewish Rabbins.
• The word Spirit,' says he, has several senses. 1. It • signifies the air, that is, one of the four elements.
66 And * the spirit of the Lord moved upon the face of the waters," . Gen. i. 2.
2. It signifies wind. “ And the east-wind brought the locusts," Ex. x. 13. Afterwards, ver. 19, “ And the Lord “ turned a mighty strong west-wind, which took away the 6 locusts." And in like manner very
often. 3. • It is taken for the vital breath. “ He remembered
* Ruach vox est homonyma. Significat enim, primo, Aërem, hoc est, unum ex quatuor elementis: ut “Veruach, et Spiritus Domini incubabat super aquas," Gen. i. 2. Deinde, significat spiritum flantem, i. e. ventum. Ut “ Veruach, et spiritus (ventus) orientalis attulit locustas," Ex. X. 13. Item, “ Ruach, spiritus occidentalis," ib. ver. 19. Et sic sæpissime, Tertio, sumitur pro spiritu vitali. Ut “ Ruach, spiritus vitæ," Gen. vi. 17. Quarto, sumitur de parte illâ hominis incorruptibili, quæ surperstes remanet post mortem. Ut “ Veruach, et spiritus hominis redit ad Deum, qui dedit eum," Ecc. xii. 7. Quinto, significat influentiam divinam, a Deo prophetis instillatam, cujus virtute prophetabant, quemadmodum explicaturi sumus, quando de prophetiâ agemus; cujus ratio quoque in hoc libro pertractanda. separabo," min ruach,“ de spiritu, qui est in te, et ponam in eis," Numb. xi. 17. “ Et fuit, cum quievisset super eos” haruach“ spiritus," ver. 26. Item, Ruach, spiritus loquutus est in me,” 2 Sam. xxiii. 2. Sexto, significat quoque propositum, et voluntatem. Ut Kol rucho, “omnem spiritum suum profert stultus,” Pr. xxix. 11, hoc est, omnem intentionem, voluntatem suam. Sic, Et “ exhaurietur” ruach “ spiritus Ægypti in medio ejus, et consilium ejus absorbebo,” Is. xix. 3, i. e. dissipabitur propositum ipsius, et gubernatio ipsius abscondetur. Sic, “ Quis direxit ruach Domini, et quis vir consilii ejus, ut indicare possit eum,” Is. xl. 13; hoc est, Quis est, qui sciat ordinem voluntatis ejus, aut qui apprehendat et assequatur, quâ ratione hanc rerum universitatem gubernet, et qui eum indicare posset. Vides ergo, quod hæc vox, “ ruach," quando Deo attribuitur, ubique sumatur partim in quintà, partim in sextà et ultima significatione, quatenus voluntatem significat. Exponatur in quoque loco pro ratione rerum et circumstantiarum. Rabbi Mosis Maimonidis liber More Nevochim. Part I.
cap. Veritas et quidditas prophetiæ nihil aliud est, quam influentia a Deo Opt. Max. mediante intellectu, agens super facultatem rationalem primo, deinde super facultatem imaginariam influens. Id. More Nevochim, P. II. cap. 36.
• that they were but flesh, a wind [a spirit] that passeth away, and cometh not again," Ps. lxxviii. 39. And," all flesh, wherein is the breath of life," Gen. vi. 17.
4. It is taken for the incorruptible part of men, which • survives after death. “ And the spirit shall return to God • who gave it,” Ecc. xii, 7. 5. • It signifies the Divine Influence, inspiring the pro
is pbets, by virtue of which they prophesied. “I will • take of the spirit that is in thee, and will put it upon them,” Numb. xi. 17. “ And the spirit rested upon them,” ver. 27.
“ The spirit of the Lord spake by me, and his 'word was in my tongue,” 2 Sam. xxiii. 2.
6. It also signifies design, will, purpose. “A fool utter. Il • eth all his mind,” literally, spirit, Prov. xxix. 11, “ And • the spirit of Egypt shall fail in the midst thereof, and I • will destroy the council thereof,” Is. xix. 3. " Who has • directed the Spirit of the Lord, or being his counsellor has * taught him?" Is. xl. 13.
• It is evident therefore,' says he, ó that the word spirit, when spoken of God, is to be always understood, either in • the fifth, or the sixth and last acceptation of the word, according as the coherence and circumstances of things • direct.'
This passage of Maimonides, wbich I have here transcribed at length, has been taken notice of by divers learned christian writers.b
My design leads me to observe those texts only of the Old and New Testament, where the word spirit is spoken of God, or such other, as may tend to explain those texts.
And, first of all, I think, that in many places the Spirit, or the Spirit of God, or the Holy Ghost, is equivalent to God himself.
The spirit of a man is the same as man. So the Spirit of God must be the same as God himself. 1 Cor. ii. 11, “ What man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man, that is in him ? Even so the things of God knoweth no man, [or no one,] but the Spirit of God.”.
1 Cor. xvi. 17, 18, “ I am glad of the coming of Stephanas, and Fortunatus, and Achaicus-For they have refreshed my spirit, and yours:" that is, me and you. Or, as Mr. Locke paraphraseth the place. For by the account, which * they have given me of you, they have quieted my mind, , and
your spirit:" that is, with you. 2 Tim. iv. 22, “ The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit,” or with thee.
Ps. cxxxix, “ Whither shall I go from thy Spirit ?” that is, from Thee. “ Or whither shall I flee from thy presence?” In like manner it is said, with regard to Moses, Ps. cvi. 33, “ because they provoked his spirit,” meaning him.
Is. lxiii. 10, “ But they rebelled, and vexed his Holy Spirit.” Which in other texts is expressed in this manner, Numb. xix. 11, “ And the Lord said unto Moses : How long will this people provoke me!” Ps lxxviii. 56, “ Yet they tempted, and provoked the most high God, and kept not his testimonies.” Ps. xcv, " When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my work.”
Soul is a word resembling spirit, and often signifies man, or person. Lev. iv, 2, " If a soul shall sin through ignorance.”-Acts ïi. 41, “ And the same day were added to them three thousand souls.” So likewise ch. vii, 14, and in
very many other places.
And my soul is the same as I or myself. Gen. xii. 13, “ And my soul shall live because of thee," ch. xix. 10, " that my soul may bless thee, before I die.” 2 Sam. iv. 9, “ As the Lord liveth, wbo has redeemed my soul out of all adversity.” Job x. 1, “ My soul is weary of my life.” See also ch. vii. 15. Ps. xxxv. 9, “ And my soul shall be joyful in the Lord.” Is. Ixi. 10, “ I will greatly rejoice in the Lord: my soul shall be joyful in my God." Matt. xxvi. 38, “ My soul is exceeding sorrowful unto death."
The Divine Being himself sometimes adopts this form of speech. Is. i. 14, “ Your new moons and your appointed feasts, my soul hateth. They are a trouble unto me. weary to bear them.” Where, my soul is the same as I, which is in the following clause.
Is. xlii. 1, " My elect, in whom my soul delighteth," or, in whom I delight. Compare Matt. xii. 18. And see Jer. v. 9, ch. vi. 8, and other places.
Secondly, By the Spirit of God, or the Spirit, or the Holy Ghost, is often meant the power, or wisdom of God, or his will and command.
Ps. xxxiii. 6, “ By the word of the Lord were the heavens made: and all the host of them by the breath (or spirit] of his mouth.” Where the word of the Lord, and the breath of his mouth, are all one. All things came into being, and were disposed by his will, at his word and command,
In like manner, Job xxvi. 13, “By his spirit he has gar
wished the heavens : his hand has formed the crooked serpent:" that is, the winding constellation in the heavens, which we call the milky-way, or the galaxy. The spirit, or the hand of God, which are both one, has formed ali those things.
Micah ii. 7,“ O thou that art named the house of Jacob, is the spirit of the Lord straitened ?" A part of Mr. Lowth's note upon which words is thus: • Is God's hand or power • shortened ? Comp. Is. lix. 1, “ Behold, the Lord's hand is not shortened, that it cannot save."
Zach. iv. 6, “ Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the Lord of hosts." Here Mr. Lowth's note is to this purpose. Zerubbabel and Joshua, with the Jews . under their conduct, shall finish the temple, and re-estab• lish the Jewish state, not by force of arms, or of buman • power, but by the secret assistance of my providence.'
Luke i. 35, " And the angel answered, and said unto her : The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall over-shadow thee." The latter words explain the former. And the Holy Ghost is said to be the same as the power of God. Where likewise it follows: “ Therefore also that holy thing, which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God."
Matt. xii. 28, " But if I cast out dæmons by the Spirit of God, then is the kingdom of God come unto you.” Luke xi. 20, “ But if I with the finger of God cast out dæmons, no doubt the kingdom of God is come upon you."
So that the finger of God, or the Spirit of God, is the same as the
power of God, or God himself. As St. Peter says, Acts ii. 22, “ Ye men of Israel, hear these words : Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles, and wonders, and signs, which God did by him, in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know.”
To which two texts of St. Matthew and St. Luke, just alleged, may be added, as very similar, if not exactly parallel, some others. 2 Cor. iii. 3, “ Forasmuch as ye are manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ, ministered by us, written not with ink, but with the spirit of the liv
c • Again, Matt. xii. 28, “If I cast out devils by the spirit of God, then • the kingdom of God is come unto you.” Here the spirit of God does not
signify the Holy Ghost, or the third person of the Holy Trinity, but the * power of God; as appears from the parallel passage in St. Luke xi. 20, where
instead of the spirit of God, we read the finger of God. By this power the • man Christ was enabled to cast out devils. For he speaks of himself here in his • human, not in his divine nature, according to the notion which the pharisees
had of him; as is plain from his styling himself the Son of man, in the sequel • of his discourse to them.' Abraham Le Moine's Treatise on Miracles, p. 50.
ing God: not in tables of stone, but in fleshly tables of the
Thirdly, by the Spirit, or the Spirit of God, or the Holy
power, wisdom, knowledge and understanding.
Sometimes hereby is intended courage, or wisdom, or some one particular advantage only. At other times hereby is intended a plentiful effusion of a variety of spiritual gifts.
For which reason it will be needful to allege, under this article, many texts both from the Old and the New Testament.
Ex, xxxi, 1–7, “ And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, See I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship, to devise cunning work in gold, and in silver, and in brass. — And behold, I have given with him Aholiab, and in the hearts of all that are wise-hearted, I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded thee.” See also ch. xxxv. 30–35, and xxxiv. 1, 2.
Numb. xi. 16, 17," And the Lord said unto Moses, Gather to me seventy men of the elders of the people: and I will take of the spirit which is upon thee, and will put it upon them." No one understands hereby that God intended to take from Moses a spiritual being, or part of a spiritual being : but that he determined to bestow
those elders qualifications of wisdom and understanding, resembling those in Moses, by which he was so eminent and distinguished.
Afterwards it is said, ver. 25, 26, “ And the Lord came down in a cloud, and spake unto him, and took of the spirit that was upon him, and gave it unto the seventy elders. And it came to pass, that when the spirit rested upon them, they prophesied, and did not cease:” meaning for some while.
* But there remained two of the men in the camp: and the spirit rested upon them; and they prophesied in
Deut. xxxiv. 9, “ And Joshua was full of the spirit of wisdom: for Moses had laid his hands upon him.”