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only with assuming to himself the power and authority of • God.' So far is not amiss in my opinion. What follows there I leave to those who may like it.
Script. Doct. n. 645. p. 124. Col. ii. 9, “ For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the godhead bodily.” The note is this. • Ch. i. 19, “ It pleased the Father, that in him should all fulness dwell.” And John xiv. 10, “ The Father that • dwelleth in me, he does the works.". Excellently well, according to my apprehension.
This will lead me to proceed somewhat further, and to consider some other texts before I conclude.
Rom. i. 3, 4, “ Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was of the seed of David according to the flesh, and declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.”
Here are two things: first, that “ Jesus was made of the seed of David:" secondly, that he was a declared to be the Son of God by the resurrection from the dead.” Both which may be illustrated by comparing other texts.
How this text is explained by those who favour the Arian hypothesis, of the Logos supplying the place of a human soul in the person of Jesus, may be seen in divers writers."" I shall explain it as I am able, without attempting a particular confutation of any.
First,“ who was made of the seed of David according to the flesh.” That phrase, “ according to the flesh,” is in several other texts. Some of which may be observed. Acts ii. 30, “ Therefore being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne.”-Rom. ix. 3, “ For I could wish, that myself were accursed from Christ, for my brethren, my kinsmen, according to the flesh,”-ver, 5, “ Whose are the fathers, and of wbom, as concerning the flesh, Christ came.” And see 2 Cor. v. 16.
Secondly, it is added : “ And declared to be the Son of God, with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.”
There are several texts to be observed here. Acts ij. 32, “ This Jesus hath God raised
whereof we all are witnesses. Ver. 36, “ therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye
have crucified, both Lord and Christ.” Jesus was and bad been declared to be the Christ, the Son of God, whilst he was here on earth. But this was more fully manifested by his
"See the Paraphrases of Mr. Locke, and Dr. Taylor.
resurrection, and the consequent effusion of the Holy Ghost upon the apostles and others. See Acts xiii. 33, and Heb. v.5. And our Lord himself had mentioned this to the Jews, as “ the sign,” the most decisive, and demonstrative evidence, that he was indeed the Messiah, as he had said. See Matt. xii. 38-40, xvi, 1–5, Luke xi. 29, 30, John ii. 18, 19, ii. 14, viii. 28, xii. 32.
Now therefore we may explain, and paraphrase this text after this manner : • Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our • Lord, who, with regard to the external circumstances of his • nativity into this world, was of the family and lineage of · David: from whom God had promised the Messiah should • descend : and with regard to the “ spirit of holiness,” or . the divine energy and influence, by which he had been • conceived in the womb, and by which he was sanctified to • his high office, and by which he wrought the greatest mi• racles, he was the Son of God, and was known to be so. • But was most fully and solemnly constituted, and declared * to be the Son of God, by that wonderful demonstration of • the divine power, his resurrection from the dead.'
Nor is it easy to avoid recollecting here, in what terms St. Paul speaks of the power which God exerted in raising Christ from the dead, and exalting him to that dominion, which was the consequence of his resurrection. Eph. i. 19_23.
I shall transcribe belows a part of Grotius's annotations upon this text, and refer to others.y
Eph. iii. 9, “ And to make all men see, what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world has been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ.”
Here it may be observed, in the first place, that those words, “ by Jesus Christ,” are by some learned men suspected to be an interpolation.?
* Sed sensum difficiliorem efficit curtata locutio, quam evolvere conabimur. Jesus Filius Dei multis modis dicitur; maxime populariter, ideo quod in regnum a Deo evectus est; quo sensu verba Psalmi ii. de Davide dicta, cum ad regnum pervenit, Christo aptantur. Act. xiii. 33, et ad Heb. i. 5, v. 5. Hæe autem Filii sive regia dignitas Jesu prædestinabatur, et præfigurabatur, jam tum cum mortalem agens vitam magna illa signa et prodigia ederet—Hæc signa edebat Jesus per spiritum illum sanctitatis, id est, vim divinam, per quam ab initio conceptionis sanctificatus fuerat. Luc. i. 35.–Ostenditur ergo Jesus nobilis ex maternâ parte, utpote ex rege terreno ortus, sed nobilior ex paternâ parte, quippe a Deo factus Rex cælestis post resurrectionem. Heb. v. 9, Act. ii. 30, et xxvi. p. 2,3. Grot. Annot. ad Rom. i. 4.
y Vid. Limborch, Comment. in Rom. i. 3, 4. et Enjedini Explicat. V. et N. Test. p. 258—264.
* Ala T8 Inox Xpise.] Deest in Alexandr. Vulg. Syr.—Et quidem, cum But, secondly, allowing them to be genuine, it is to be observed, that many learned men are of opinion that St. Paul is here speaking of the new creation. So says Grotius. Omnia Christus fecit nova. 1 Cor. v. 17, Et divinior hæc creatio, quam prior illa. And you very well know Mr. Locke's paraphrase, which is this : • Who frames and
manages this whole new creation by Jesus Christ.' And he has endeavoured in a long note to support that paraphrase. This likewise is the sense of Calvin. " Qui omnia creavit per Christum.”] Non tam de primâ creatione interpretari licet, quam de instauratione spirituali. Tametsi enim verum est illud, Verbo Dei creata esse omnia, que madmodum tot locis habetur: circumstantia tamen loci postulat, ut de renovatione intelligamus, quæ continetur in beneficio redemptionis. Beausobre likewise has a very valuable note upon this text; but being somewhat prolix, I only refer you to it.
2 Cor. iv. 4. Christ is styled “the image of God.” Os EOTIV EIKWV 7: Oer. Upon which Whitby's note is to this purpose. • Christ seems here to be styled the image of God, - not in the sense of Theodoret, as being “ God of God," • but rather, as the text insinuates, with relation to the gos
pel, and his mediatory office: in which he has given us many glorious demonstrations of the power, the wisdom, • the holiness, purity and justice, the mercy, goodness, and ' philanthropy of God.' Tit. iii. 4. Beza's note upon the place is to the like purpose. Id est, in quo seipsum perspicue conspiciendum præbet Deus, ut 1 Tim. ii. 16. Neque enim Dei imaginem nunc vocat Paulus Christum alio
quam officii ipsius respectu : ut, licet vera, tamen sint απροσδιονυσα, quae nonnulli ex veteribus hoc loco περι το одовів
deseruerunt. So that I need not here appeal to Grotius.
Col. i. 15, “ Who is the image of the invisible God.” Mr. Peirce's note is in these very words. • The Father • alone is represented in the New Testament, 'as the " invi*sible God." See Jobn i. 18, v, 37, vi. 46, 1 Tim. i. 17, • vi. 16, Heb. xi. 27, 1 John iv. 12, 20. Christ is never re* presented as invisible. It might seem strange, if he • should, since he actually took upon him flesh, and ap* peared, and was seen in the world: which are things the
nature of the Father cannot possibly admit. His being vix fieri possit, ut exemplaribus antiquissimis exciderint, scribarum seu fraude, sive incuriâ, verba tam insignia, præsertim ante ter Arii; adjecta hoc loco crediderim, interpretamenti gratiâ, ex illo Apostoli. Col. i. 16. Mill. in loc. Vid. et Bez. in loc.
• called “the image of God" in this place, and 2 Cor. iv. • 4, implies his being visible, and that the perfections of • God do most eminently shine forth in him.'
So writes Mr. Peirce. And by Christ seems to mean the Logos, or Christ in his pre-existent state, before he came into this world : which appears to me not a little strange. God, the Father, unquestionably, is invisible. So I think, are the Logos, in the Arian sense of that term, and also angels, and the souls of men, and all beings which we call spirits. None of them are visible to our bodily eyes.
Therefore Christ's being “ the image of God," must be understood of his acting in this world. God is invisible in his nature and essence. But he can manifest himself, and make known to us his mind and will, by those whom he sends as bis ministers. This appears to me very plain and evident from John xiv. 8–11, “ Philip saith unto him, Lord, show us the Father, and it sufficeth us. What, now, is the answer which our Lord makes to that disciple? Does he reprehend him, as asking an impossibility ? No. His answer is this : “ Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? He that hath seen me, hath seen the Father. And how sayest thou, show us the Father!" See what follows, and ver. 7.
I think that Irenæus says the same that I have just now done. • Beati mundi corde, quoniam ipsi videbunt Deum.' Sed secundum magnitudinem quidem ejus, et mirabilem gloriam, nemo videbit Deum, et vivet.” Ex. xxxiii. 20. Incapabilis enim Pater. Secundum autem dilectionem et humanitatem, et quod omnia possit, etiam hoc concedit iis qui se diligunt, id est, videre Deum. Homo etenim a se non videt Deum. Ille autem volens videtur hominibus, quibus vult, et quando vult, et quemadmodum vult. Potens est enim in omnibus Deus : visus quidem tunc per spiritum prophetiæ, visus autem et per Filium adoptive. Videbitur autem et in regno cælorum paternaliter. Iren, I. 4. cap. 20. al. 37. n. 5. p. 254.4
So likewise when Christ is called “ the image of God" in 2 Cor. iv. 4, the place before cited, the meaning is, that he was so in this world. This I think to be exceeding evident from the context, which shall be now recited more at
* I must transcribe Grotius here. Qui est imago Dei invisibilis.] Dei inaspecti aspectabilis imago. Ita enim Latini loquuntur. Idem sensus 2 Cor. iv. 4, et i Tim. iii. 16, Heb. i. 3. Adam imago Dei fuit, sed valde tenuis. In Christo perfectissime apparuit, quam Deus esset sapiens, potens, bonus. Sic in aquâ solem conspicimus. Aliud imago, aliud umbra, qualis in Lege. Heb. x.l. Grot. ad Col. i. 15.
large:-“ lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them — For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God, in the face," or person, “ of Jesus Christ.”
It follows in the same, Col. i. 15,“ Who is the first-born of every creature,” or rather, as seems to me,“ of the whole creation,” TPWTOTOKOS maons KTIGEWS : that is, he is the chief, the most excellent, of the whole creation. Pelagius says, it is to be understood of Christ in regard to his humanity. He is the first, not in time, but in dignity. So it is said, “ Israel is my first-born.' Primogenitus secundum assumpti hominis formam, non tempore, sed honore, juxta illud : “ Filius meus primogenitus Israel.” Pelag, in loc. Ap. Hieron. tom. V. p. 1070.
Grotius understands it of the new creation. He refers to 2 Cor. v. 17, Rev. xxi. 5, Heb. ii. 5, to which, perhaps, might have been added Heb. xii. 23, “ The church of the first-born, whose names are written in heaven.” He likewise says, that in the sacred scriptures, “the first-born," sometimes denotes the greatest or highest, and refers to Ps. Ixxxix. 27, Jer. xxxi. 9. Primus in creatione, nova scilicet, de quâ 2 Cor. v. 17. Primogenitum Hebræis dicitur et quod primum, et quod summum est in quoque genere.
For the explication of what follows, I mean Col. 16-20, I beg leave to refer you to Grotius.
Heb. i. 1, 2, “ God, who at sundry times, and in divers manners, spake in time past unto the fathers by,” or in
the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by,” or in his Son,” the promised Messiah :- Ev tous poonreus -Ev viu.
“ Whom he has appointed heir of all things: by whom also he made the worlds.” Grotius thinks that the Greek phrase may be rendered, “ for whom;" which is very suitable to the coherence, it having been before said, that he was appointed heir,” or lord “ of all things." Videtur ôi's hic recte accipi posse pro ô' ov,“ propter quem.” Ideo autem hæc interpretatio hoc loco maxime mihi se probat, quia ad Hebræos scribens videtur respicere ad dictum vetus Hebræorum, propter Messiam conditum esse mundum.
By Christ we are all called to be the first-born, that is, to be all hallowed, and to be called God's peculiar, as were the first-born, before the Le• vites were taken in their stead.' Dr. Sykes upon Heb. xii. 23.
C Moreover it might be observed, • That Dr. Sykes says, the word alwvac, • which we render worlds, does not signify “ the heavens, and the earth, and