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grammar.' Thus, the seemingly vast subject of language, as far as Grammar is concerned, shrinks down, first to a knowledge of eight main classes, and then to a knowledge of two, the Noun and Verb. I mean, as far as making mistakes or not in the word-building goes.

The value or beauty of the building is a different matter.

The Noun changes its form to show differences of meaning, so does the Verb. First of all, both the Noun and the Verb show by change of form whether one, or more than one, is meant. This is called the Noun and Verb being in the Singular or Plural Number.

One form of the Noun is used when the Verb speaks of it; this is called the Subject Form or Nominative Case, as 'a horse runs. Another form is used to mark belonging to, or proceeding from, as 'a horse's bridle.' This is called the Possessive Case of the Noun. The Noun is also used after a Verb to show what the Verb deals with, as the horse eats grass.' Though there is no change in the form of the Noun it is convenient to call this the Objective Case.

The Verb can express difference of Person, as 'I love,' thou lovest;' and difference of Time, as “I love,' “I loved,' &c.; and difference of Mood, or manner of viewing the action as a fact or a supposed case, &c., as ‘he goes,' • should he go,' 'if he were wise.'

Adjectives and Adverbs may be added to Noun and Verb; as, 'The hungry horse eats greedily fresh grass.'

,

The sense of Adjectives, Nouns, and Adverbs need not be expressed in single words; a clause made up of many words may represent a part of speech, e.g. 'eats with strange and wonderful greediness of nature :' the clause beginning with with shows the manner of eating, and is, therefore, practically an Adverb.

The greatest and most difficult variety in language is brought about by the Verb being made to express the

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chances of a thing taking place, to express condition, uncertainty, supposition, chance, as distinct from the fact that it actually does take place. This, as we have said above, is called the Verb being in a Mood, the Conjunctive Mood. Thus, the horse runs,' states a fact. If the horse would run he would win,' puts a condition and its consequence, not a fact.

The following pages teach these subjects more fully.

TABLES.

Every name is a Noun.

Nouns generally form their plural number by adding s or es to the form of the singular number.

Most nouns ending in f or fe change the or fe into ves to form the plural number; as calf, calves, &c.

A few nouns take the termination en; as ox, oxen, &c.

Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant change the y into ies for the plural; as duty, duties. Nouns are thus declined:

Singular.

Plural.
Subject Form friend

friends.
Possessive Case friend's

friends'. Objective Case friend

friends. Subject Form

child

children. Possessive Case child's

children's. Objective Case child

children. Subject Form

lady

ladies. Possessive Case lady's

ladies'. Objective Case lady

ladies. Subject Form calf

calves. Possessive Case calf's

calves'. Objective Case calf

calves.

man

men.

COW

mouse

The following form the plural irregularly : Singular. Plural.

Singular. Plural.

cows or kine. woman women.

SOW

sows or swine. child children.

foot feet. brother

tooth s brothers or

teeth. brethren.

goose geese. deer deer.

mice. fish fish or fishes.

louse lice. sheep sheep.

pea

peas or pease. penny

pence. The following nouns ending in s are singular, and are erroneously used as plurals: alms, amends, news, pains, gallows, wages, sessions.

Many nouns are only used in the plural, and have no singular: e.g. annals, morals, odds, thanks, tidings, vitals, mechanics, ethics, optics, &c.

Nouns of multitude, in the singular, take either a singular or plural verb; as 'the flock feed, or feeds. Such arenation cattle

court
people
herd

committee
folk

flock
multitude

board
&c.
&c.

&c. “The crowd gets thicker.' The swarm settles. "The swarm disperse.' "The council sits at four o'clock.' "The multitude increases.' • The multitude was enfranchised.' · The board decide in the negative.'

Nouns adopted from foreign languages generally retain their original plurals: as, seraph, calculus, bandit, phenomenon, &c., which make seraphim, calculi, banditti, phenomena, &c.; but if in very common use, as memorandum, album, &c., custom allows the English form of the plural.

Nouns of number, such as brace, dozen, thousand, &c., retain the singular form with numerals, but take their regular plurals when used otherwise; as, 'two thousand were killed," (thousands were killed.'

council

Swarm

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Some nouns have double plurals, and occasionally with different meanings; as

indices,
indexes.

index {

brother { brothers

, die dice

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fish

{,

,
dies(stamps for coining).
fish,
fishes.
genii (fabulous spirits),
geniuses(men of genius).

pease (in the mass).
pence,
pennies (as separate

coins).

penny

genius

Notice court martial,

son-in-law,
spoonful,

courts martial.
sons-in-law.
spoonfuls.

Adjectives are not declined in English.

Adjectives generally form their Comparative and Superlative degrees by adding er and est to the original form; as, quick, Comp. quicker, Super. quickest.

Adjectives of more than one syllable (except those of two syllables ending in a vowel) do not admit this change, as beautiful.'

The Comparative Degree is followed by than when the other object of comparison is named; as, 'worse than ever.' Than is a conjunction, and makes no change in the case of the nouns used; as, 'You are older than I,' 'He beat him more cruelly than me.'

The following adjectives are irregular in the formation of the Comparative and Superlative:

Comp.

Super.
bad
evil

worst.
ill
far
farther

farthest.
fore
former

foremost,

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}

worse

{ first.

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best.

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