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Thrushes will sing through bills.
Reapers will reap the corn.
The stag will wear his horn.
Your eyes will see the morn.




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Loving, or having loved, a friend. Verbs have a form which in sense differs from an adjective only by the addition of the notion of time, present or past, and by the power of governing the same case as its verb. This form is called a Participle. Thus, 'A loving friend.'

Loving is the Present Participle from the verb “to love;' denoting, like an adjective, the quality or sort of friend, but moreover telling the Time, such as the present time. The present participle can also be joined with the same case as its verb; as, “His friend loving him much,' &c.; where the word ‘him' is the objective case after the present participle loving,' and denotes the object of love.

There is also a participle of past time, or Past Participle ; as,'having loved him.' The words “having loved' are the past participle of the verb 'to love.' This participle is formed by combining the auxiliary having with a participle formed from the root by adding d or ed, but not used out of combination with a transitive sense.

Participles, therefore, are adjectives with the addition of the notion of time, and a power of taking a case. Participles are generally formed from the verbal substantive by adding ing for present time, ed or d with an auxiliary for past time.

Participial Substantives. “Thou hast been as one in suffering all that suffers nothing.'

It is very necessary to observe carefully the Participial Substantives, which in form differ in no respect from participles; and when of the active form take the cases of their respective verbs, but yet are used exactly as nouns.

ist. They have articles and adjectives joined to them.

2nd. They stand as the subject of sentences, or are joined to verbs and prepositions or case-links. They are like participles therefore in form, and in sometimes taking a case.

But in every other respect nouns, capable of being limited by articles, qualified by adjectives, standing as subjects, and being joined to verbs and case-links or prepositions; as, “This sudden sending him away must seem deliberate.'

'He grew into his seat;
And to most wondrous doing brought his horse.'

Rules. The verb has a form called a Participle. There is a Participle of Present Time, and a Participle of Past Time.

The Present Participle is generally formed by adding ing to the Verbal Substantive; as, root, 'to love;' Present Participle, 'loving.'

The Past Participle is a combination of the auxiliary having,' with a Participle formed from the root generally by adding d or ed; as, 'having loved,' Past Participle of the verb 'to love.'

Blowing winds brush opening flowers.
Clouds float o'er us bringing showers.
Boys laugh passing happy hours.
Men work cutting the sweet hay.
Lambs rest having left their play.
Woman's helping hand cures ills.
Rushing wheels turn grinding mills.
Birds warble, having tuned their bills.
Trout darted glancing up the rills.
Bending reapers cut the corn.
The stag roamed having shed its horn.
Waking eyes watched for the morn.


COMBINATIONS. 'I am loving,' &c. In treating of the future tense we found it was made up of the substantive form of the principal verb and another verb assisting or auxiliary to it. This same plan is followed for other distinctions of time, which some languages express formally. In the principal verb, the substantive form, the present participle, and the verbal form in ed employed in making up the past participle, are used in combination with auxiliary verbs. The verbal form in such combinations being joined to a case, if its verb is joined to a case. The verbs combined with them as auxiliaries

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Present Tense and representing Present.
I love

General Notion.
I am loving Emphatic Present Time.
I do love Emphatic Present Action.

Combination representing Imperfect Tense.

I was loving.

Past Tense and representing Past.
I loved

General Notion.
I have loved Emphatic Past Time, or Perfect,
I did love Emphatic Past Action.

I had loved Completed Action, or Pluperfect. In these Combinations, am and have throw emphasis on the Time ; whilst do and did throw emphasis on the Action spoken of. In giving an account therefore of a word in any tense, it would be well to mark the tense as it is done in the Table, according to these distinctions.

Thus in the combination ‘I am loving,' after going through the words separately, say, 'Combination of Emphatic Time, Present Tense.'

There are other combinations which might be included under the head of Tenses, but which fall sufficiently under the rules of ordinary construction to need no separate notice; as, 'I have been writing,' denoting continuance of past action. The parsing of which, however, more properly belongs to the verb 'to be.' 'I am going to write,' in like manner rather belonging to the verb 'to go,' &c.

I love the rich autumnal hours.
I am plucking dewy flowers.
I do wait for summer showers.
Clear rivulets were gladdening earth.
The harvest was preventing dearth.
Sturdy mowers cut sweet hay.
Little lambs have left their play.
Gentleness did cure our ills.
The wheel all day had turned the mills.
The thrush had sung his evening song.
The trout did dart the reeds among.
The proud stag wore his branching horn.
My eyes have seen the sunny morn.


And, &c. The simple sentence must at least consist of a noun and a verb. And these or their substitutes are the ground-work of all sentences. And by definition the noun names, whilst the verb speaks of that which is named; the noun being a name-word, and the verb a speech-word. The noun is capable of showing number and person; the verb by its form denotes both. It follows therefore that in a sentence, as the verb speaks of the noun, these forms must agree with each other. The noun, moreover, may be limited by articles, qualified by adjectives; whilst adjectives may in turn be modified by adverbs. The verb may be qualified by adverbs, and moreover denotes by form or otherwise a time; it may also require a case, and the case in turn may be limited and qualified by articles and adjectives. So far of the simple sentence. But it is manifest that we require in practice not only to be able to tell a single fact, but to tell a series of facts. Thus we may not only wish to say, “Men love liberality,' but that they also love bravery, and hate cowardice.' This constantly recurring necessity gives rise to a set of words whose work is to act as bond-words, binding together words or sentences. These words are called Conjunctions (that is, conjoiners, joiners-together). The most common of these are the words and' and 'but.' And’ joining together like things, 'but' joining unlike. Whence 'but’ is sometimes called a disjunctive particle; because though it joins the words or sentences, it disjoins the notions and marks a difference between them. Other conjunctions are: Also, either—or, neither-nor, though, although, that, therefore, than, &c.

Many of the words denoting time or place—as, of time, Before, afterwards, when, since; and of place, Where, whence, &c.—are sometimes simple adverbs, but not unfrequently have moreover a conjunctive force; and therefore are called Relative Adverbs, that is, adverbs denoting the position of one place or time with respect to another place or time. They are, in fact, adverbs with a conjunction added to their sense. Some ask questions, as, Whence? These must be called Interrogative Adverbs, or Question-askers. If the sense of the particle stops at the verb and belongs to it alone, it is an adverb, but if it goes on to any further point joining the two, it cannot be right to call it anything but a conjunction, or relative adverb. Than is strictly a conjunction, and is never correctly joined with a


Conjunctive forms often govern cases, and must then be called prepositions or case-links. Conjunctions therefore are particles which bind together words and sentences. No conjunction can be joined with a case, though some words are used in one place as conjunctions, in another as prepositions or case-links. Care therefore must be taken to give them their proper name in each instance, whether conjunction, adverb, or preposition.


Conjunctions are words which join sentences, clauses of sentences, or single words, together; as, 'The horse and dog.'

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