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But a verb is but a noun stated of something, as noun ‘plough,' verb 'to plough;' as then adjectives are used to qualify the thing named, that is, the noun, so we want words to tell us the sort or degree of the action stated, that is, to qualify the verb. Thus, 'Good men love counsel;' but in what degree? 'greatly love it.' Thus there are words showing the sort or degree of that which is stated added to verbs, as there are words showing the quality or sort of that which is named added to the noun. These words are called Adverbs. Adverbs, therefore, are words added to limit the action spoken of to its proper sort or degree.

Common examples of adverbs are: Of time--Then, afterwards, before, ever, always, never, since, &c. Of place-Here, there, nowhere, &c.

Rule. Adverbs are joined to verbs principally, but also to adjectives and other adverbs, to show the sort or degree of the verb, adjective, or adverb; as, ' greatly loves.'

Winds rudely brush flowers. Women gently soften ills.
Clouds softly bring showers. Wheels noisily turn mills.
Boys merrily pass hours. Birds tunefully use bills.
Waters often gladden earth. Here reapers cut corn.
Wheat always stops dearth. There eyes see morn.
Mowers quickly cut hay. Then stags wear a horn.
Lambs ever love play.


Quick, quicker, quickest. In adjectives also the Degree of quality as to more or less is often required to be expressed.

Adjectives sometimes express degree formally; as, quick, quicker, quickest.' The adjective is then said to be in the Posi. tive, Comparative, or Superlative degree. The affixing er to the original form, generally marking the Comparative degree, and the affixing est marking the Superlative degree. Sometimes, how

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ever, adverbs are joined to adjectives to express either these degrees, or the finer shades of distinction; as, 'quick, more quick, most quick;' 'quick, much quicker, far quickest.' Adverbs also are sometimes joined to adverbs; as, 'far more, very much more,' &c. The adverbs that most frequently express degree in adjectives are, the word more to express Comparative degree; and the word most to express Superlative degree. Many adjectives are used indifferently as adjectives or adverbs throughout all their degrees; as, 'much, more, most;' 'far, farther, farthest,' &c. Some adverbs have degrees like adjectives; as, ‘soon, sooner, soonest.'

Rule. The original form of an Adjective is said to be in the Positive Degree, as 'great;' when er is added, it is said to be in the Comparative Degree, as being comparatively more, as “greater;' and when est is added, the Adjective is said to be in the Superlative Degree, as being superlatively, or beyond measure most, as 'greatest. The adverbs "more' and 'most' are frequently added to adjectives to express these degrees, the form of the adjective remaining unchanged.




loves That man

loved counsel.

will love Verbs have a substantive form answering to the subject-form in nouns. This form is generally known in a sentence by having the case-link or preposition to before it; as, 'to go,''to love.'

When we want to speak about anything, we cannot help making it belong to some Time, either to Past, or Present, or Future Time; and language must show this somehow or other. Now verbs are the speech-words which speak of things. Verbs, therefore, will show the broad distinctions of time by change of form. In English, past and present time is shown by the verb changing its form; and the verb is said to be in the Past, or Present Tense, or Time-form, according as its form shows past or present time. (Tense means Time, from the Latin word for time, tempus.) One great class of verbs in English shows past time

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by adding d or ed to the present time-form; as, Present Tense, or Time-form, 'I love;' Past Tense, ' I loved:' Present Tense, 'I call;' Past Tense, 'I called.'

Another great class shows time by changing the central vowels; as, Present Tense, 'I ride;' Past Tense, 'I rode.'

Thus in the sentence, “Man loves counsel,' the verb 'loves' shows by its form the time of loving; that is, the verb ‘loves' is in a tense, the Present Tense.

And in the sentence, ‘The man loved counsel,' the verb loved' also shows by its form the time of loving; that is, the verb 'loved' is in a tense, the Past Tense.

Verbs which add to the present form to make the past tense are called Regular Verbs, or Weak Verbs. Verbs which change the central vowel are called Irregular or Strong Verbs.

Fresh winds brushed the dewy flowers.
Summer clouds brought pleasant showers.
The good boy passed his happy hours.
Clear waters gladdened the dry earth.
Then wheaten bread prevented dearth.
Sturdy mowers cut sweet hay.
Little lambs loved merry play.
Gentle women softened ills.
Wooden wheels turned noisy mills.
Thrushes sang through tuneful bills.
Speckled trout breathed through red gills.
Reapers reaped the golden corn.
Proud stags wore an antlered horn.

Glad eyes saw the sunny morn. With respect to Future Time, it is clear that our minds can imagine it; but that, strictly speaking, there is no future time. The utmost that is strictly correct, is a strong present certainty in the mind that an event will hereafter take place. The future therefore, in strict speech, is reduced to a present mental impression, however strong, and ha no positive existence, as the past once had, and the present has. Now, undoubtedly, the most convenient method is to treat future time as positive, and denote it by a formal change (many languages do this); but the most correct, is to express it as the mental impression that it really is, by the addition of other words, as in English.

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The man will go. Future Time, in English, is expressed by the original form or root of the verb, with the addition of one of two words both of which denote the mental impression. The word 'will’ denotes the speaker's conviction of the will employed, and the word shall' denotes his conviction of the obligation. Thus we have a combination representing future time, or a future tense. Shall

I shall go,

will Expressions representing your and my going at some future time.

It seems best to parse; that is, give a grammatical account of these words separately, as follows:

'Shall.' Singular number, ist person, present tense, joined as an auxiliary or helping verb to the word 'go;' and 'will’in like


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"Go. Substantive form of verb "to go,' 'I shall go,' &c., combination representing future tense.

Both these verbs, 'shall' and 'will,' as auxiliaries, express the present conviction of a future event, with this difference of sense. In speaking of yourself, your own will you are certain of; the auxiliary expressing will is therefore the strongest word, and cannot be used as an auxiliary. In speaking of any other but yourself, the necessity or obligation from without, not his will, is what you are most certain of; therefore the verb expressing conviction of necessity or obligation is strongest. Thus, ‘I will go,' expressing your decided will, is stronger than 'I shall go,' merely expressing some obligation to do so, and is no future. But 'you shall go,' expressing the speaker's conviction that the obligation is sufficient to enforce the action, is stronger than 'you will go, which merely expresses his notion of the will of another of which he is no sure judge, and therefore is no future.

The future tense then in English always uses "shall’ in the ist person, and will’ in the others.

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N.B.-The verbs "shall' and 'will,' when auxiliaries, never denote anything but Tense,

A verb then is said to be in a tense, first, when its form denotes the time of the action spoken of; and secondly, when other verbs, called auxiliary or helping verbs, are added to the substantive form of the principal verb, to show distinctions of time: the combined expression may also be called a tense or time-form. The verbs “to be,' 'to do,' 'to have,' are auxiliary verbs of present and past time.

Before we proceed, let it be observed that all auxiliary or helping verbs are originally and properly separate verbs by themselves, with their own separate verbal sense, and are in constant use in this their original and proper duty, as will be explained hereafter.

A verb is said to be in a Tense, first, when its form denotes the
Time of the action spoken of; and secondly, when other verbs, called
auxiliary verbs, are added to the principal verb to show Time.

One great class of verbs in English shows Past Time by adding d or ed to the form which shows Present Time. These verbs are often called Regular Verbs, or the tense is called the Modern form or the Weak Tense; as, 'I love,' Present Tense; 'I loved, Past Tense,

Another great class shows Past Time by changing the central vowel or vowels of the Present Tense. These verbs are often called Irregular Verbs, or the Tense is called the Ancient Form or the Strong Tense ; as, “I ride,' Present Tense; 'I rode, Past Tense.

The auxiliary verbs vhich show Future Time are the verbs 'shall' and will.' Auxiliary verbs of Present and Past Time are the tenses of the verbs 'to be,' to do,' and 'to have.'

Fresh winds will dry the flowers.
Clouds will bring soft showers.
I shall pass glad hours.
Waters will freshen earth.
Wheat will prevent dearth.
I shall cut sweet hay.
Little lambs will play.
Wheels will turn the mills.

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