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Liberality to a friend, Dative Case. (Latin.)
The stars in heaven.
Poems by Southey. Ablative Case,

Emigrants from Ireland. In such examples as 'I gave my friend a book," two cases follow the verb. The word 'friend, the person to whom the verb applies, being the (Latin) dative case. In Eng

this case must come between the verb and the ordinary objective case.

The possessive case, in the plural number, only marked by the apostrophe (') after the s.

The subject-form is used in addressing a person.
A noun then is complete, as in the following example.-

Subject and Addressive Form

Possessive
Cases

Objective

Singular,
friend
friend's
friend

Plural, friends. friends'. friends.

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In all nouns which end with s in the singular, and in all plurals formed by the addition of s, the possessive case is marked by the apostrophe alone, because the two s's coming together make an unpleasant sound. Thus we say, Moses' rod, not Moses's; and friends' houses, not friends's *.

The personal pronouns are declined, that is, have their cases and numbers, as follows:

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* In the Singular Number the two s's are very often used for the Possessive.

D

Singular.

Plural.
Subject Form
she

they.
Possessive Case her, or hers their, or theirs.
Objective Case her

them.
Subject Form it

they. Possessive Case its

their, or theirs. Objective Case it

them. Case then is, strictly speaking, the representing by form the dependent relation of one word to another that takes it to fill up an incomplete idea.

Rule. Words are said to be in a Case when they show by their form dependence on a word which takes them. In English there are two cases properly so called, the Possessive Case and the Objective Case.

THE PREPOSITION OR CASE-LINK.

Man loves liberality in a friend. It is clear, however, that there must be many instances of dependence not expressed by formal cases, and that formal cases will only show the changes of meaning which occur most often. As then in all languages there will be many less-frequent relations which must be expressed, out of this necessity arises a class of words which are placed with the noun to denote, as separate words, all dependent relations which formal cases omit to mark. These are called Prepositions or Case-links, as linking on the objective case to its preceding word. Thus,

to Man loves liberality

from

a friend. in

towards The words 'to,' 'from,' 'in,' 'towards,' are prepositions or case-links, linking the word 'friend' on to the word 'liberality,' and showing a particular dependent relation thereby. Prepositions or case-links, therefore, are an extension of the principle that gives rise to formal cases : for case-links denote, as separate words, a dependent relation of one word on another, whilst

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formal cases denote it by change of form. Thus the same possessive sense which the possessive case friend's' denotes by change of form, may also be denoted by a preposition; as, 'counsel of a friend,' equalling, ‘friend's counsel.' Prepositions, or case-links, are said to take the dependent word. They come between the two words to be combined, and denote the relation of the one to the other.

Rules. Prepositions, or Case-links, are loose Case-forms, and supply the want of formal cases.

Prepositions show the dependence of a word on another preceding and combined with it, and are said to take a case after that preceding word; as, 'Man loves liberality in a friend.'

EXAMPLES.
Winds blow on flowers. Clouds drop in showers.
Waters sink in earth. Corn saves men from dearth.

Children sport on hay. Lambs frisk in play.
Birds peck with bills. Fish breathe through gills.

Stags butt with horns. Brooks run by thorns.

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THE ADJECTIVE.

A good man loves a wise liberality. The sentence at present stands thus, 'Man loves liberality to a friend.' And it has already been shown that any noun may be limited by an article, either to some particular one of a class, or to any one of a class. Still however the sense is very wide; no knowledge concerning the sort of class, or the sort of individual, is given by these limitations. There is a further need.

A speaker often does want to show the sort of class, the sort of individual. For instance, in the sentence 'A man loves liberality,' this is not strictly true; all men do not. The true sense requires a limitation to the sort of man; for instance, 'A good man loves.' Again, the pod man does not love any liberality, that too must be qualified; for instance, a wise liberality. These words which limit to the sort or quality are called Adjectives, that is, words added.

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of.

Their principle of construction is evident, namely, that their form, if varied, must not be inconsistent with the formal peculiarities of the nouns they are added to.

In English the adjective has no change of form.

When joined to the noun they are said to qualify, or show the quality of the noun. Some languages change the form of their adjectives to correspond to every formal change of the nouns they agree with, whether of number or case. Adjectives, however, do not change their form in the English language.

In English, any noun can always be made stand as an Adjective by being put close before the word it is to qualify; provided that the sense intended belongs so essentially to the following word that it could be represented by the objective case with

Thus—a rose bush,''a gold ring,' a grass plat,' 'a thorn hedge,' &c. &c.; and similar expressions are correct through the whole vocabulary of the language.

Rules. Adjectives are joined to nouns to show the sort or quality of the noun; as, 'A good man.'

In English, Adjectives do not change their form to show either Number, Person, Case or Gender. Adjectives are said to qualify the noun to which they are joined.

EXAMPLES.
Rude winds brush the dewy flowers.
Summer clouds bring pleasant showers.
A good boy passes happy hours.
Clear bright waters gladden earth.
Wheaten bread prevents sad dearth.
Sturdy mowers cut sweet hay.
Little lambs love merry play,
Gentle women soften ills.
Wooden wheels turn noisy mills.
Thrushes sing through tuneful bills.
Speckled trout breathe through red gills.
Reapers cut the golden corn.
Proud stags wear an antlered horn,
Glad eyes see the sunny morn.

THE AUXILIARY VERB.

To be.

The verb 'I am can be joined to any adjective, noun, or participle, with no proper sense of its own, but with the effect of making such adjective, noun, or participle stand as a predicate or speech-clause. Thus

ris alive, equalling, lives.

is rich.
The man

is great.
is &c.

EXAMPLES.
The wind is fresh. The clouds are high.

The swallow is busy. Blue is the sky.
The river is bright.

The meadows are gay.
Thou art rejoicing.

Lambs are at play.
I now am glad. Calm is the sea.

No heart is sad. Joyous are we Thus the verb 'I am' becomes only a helping or Auxiliary Verb, helping to make a word predicative. Dr. Kennedy has proposed to call the word after the auxiliary verb the complement, i. e. filling-up-word.

The verb 'I am’ in its original sense denotes existence, and is therefore called the verb substantive, or verb of existence. The word substantive means ' existent.'

ADVERBS.

Good men greatly love counsel. We have then in this sentence a subject qualified if need be, and a predicate or speech-clause made up of a verb with its case, the case also qualified if need be; as, ‘Good men love wise counsel.' Here there are additions made to the nouns but not to the verb.

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