Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

Pluperfect.
Singular.

Plural.
I could have loved

We could have loved.
Thou couldest have loved

You could have loved.
He could have loved

They could have loved. Auxiliaries as above.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Singular.

Plural.
Love

Love.

VERBAL SUBSTANTIVE, OR INFINITIVE MOOD.

To love.

Verbal Adjectives, or Participles.
Present.

Past.
Loving

Having loved. The Past Participle loved' is never used out of combination with a Transitive sense.

PASSIVE VOICE.

INDICATIVE MOOD, OR FACT-MOOD.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural.
I am loved

We are loved.
Thou art loved

You are loved.
He is loved

They are loved.
Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural.
I was being loved

We were being loved.
Thou wast being loved

You were being loved.
He was being loved

They were being loved.
Past Tenses.

General Notion.
Singular.

Plural.
I was loved

We were loved.
Thou wast loved

You were loved.
He was loved

They were loved.

Emphatic Time, or Perfect.
Singular.

Plural.
I have been loved

We have been loved. Thou hast been loved

You have been loved. He has been loved

They have been loved.
Completed Action, or Pluperfect.
Singular.

Plural.
I had been loved

We had been loved. Thou hadst been loved

You had been loved. He had been loved

They had been loved.

Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural.
I shall be loved

We shall be loved. Thou wilt be loved

You will be loved. He will be loved

They will be loved.

CONJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural.
I be loved

We be loved. Thou be loved

You be loved.
He be loved

They be loved.
Dependent Present.
Singular.

Plural.
I
may
be loved

We
may

be loved. Thou mayest be loved

You may be loved. He may be loved

They may be loved.

Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural.
I were being loved

We were being loved. Thou wert being loved

You were being loved. He were being loved

They were being loved,
Past Tenses.

General Notion.
Singular.

Plural.
I were loved

We were loved, Thou wert loved

You were loved, He were loved

They were loved.

Perfect.
Singular.

Plural.
I could be loved

We could be loved. Thou couldest be loved

You could be loved.
He could be loved

They could be loved.
Other auxiliaries, should, would, might.

Pluperfect.
Singular.

Plural.
I could have been loved

We could have been loved. Thou couldest have been loved You could have been loved. He could have been loved They could have been loved.

Auxiliaries as above.

[blocks in formation]

Verbal Adjectives, or Participles.
Present.

Past.
Being loved

Loved, and having been loved.

THE SENTENCE.

Subject and Predicate.

All Language arises from the same necessity of human nature, being a method of making known what passes in the mind. Therefore the impressions to be made known will mould that which is outwardly to represent them.

And the common laws of language will be determined by the necessities which arise immediately there is any attempt to make known what passes in the mind.

All languages therefore will have common points of agreement, by whatever names these may be called.

The first of these is a set of outward tokens whether spoken ór written; that is, words.

But words must be arranged so as to have a connected meaning.

That is, words must be arranged in sentences. A sentence being, words arranged so as to have a meaning.

That is, every sentence tells something.

But we must mention what that something is, before there can be any speech about it.

Having done this, the speech about it naturally comes next. Every sentence therefore must contain at the least two things:

ist. That which is mentioned.

2ndly. The speech about it. That which is mentioned is called the Subject.

The speech about the subject is called the Predicate or Speech, i.e. what is predicated or spoken of the subject.

There cannot therefore be less than two words in a sentence; because nothing can be mentioned in less than one word, and no speech can take place about it in less than one word. For instance, 'Man walks,' is as short a sentence as can be framed.

The Subject Man,' being one word, and the Predicate or Speech-clause 'walks,' being one word.

N.B. The question, “Who or what is mentioned ?' will always return the Subject as its answer.

And, 'What is said of the Subject ?' will return the Speechclause or Predicate.

Rule. No Sentence can be without a Subject, and a Predicate, or Speechclause, about the Subject.

NOUN AND VERB.

Man walks.

a

It is evident that no mention can be made of anything unless it is named.

In Grammar, everything that is named in one word is called a Noun*. The word nomen,' that is, noun, in Latin, meaning name.

Nouns, or things named in one word, form a distinct Class of words. Every distinct class of words is called a Part of Speech.

The Noun therefore, or Name-word, is a part of speech, and every noun can stand as the Subject of a Sentence.

And no sentence can be without a noun, or something representing a noun, as its subject.

But something more than a subject is wanted for a sentence; there must be a Predicate or Speech-clause. That is, something must be said of the subject.

If this is done by one word, that word is called a Verb. Verbs, therefore, are words which tell or speak of something.

Verbs form a distinct class. The verb therefore, or speechword, is a part of speech.

In the simplest form of sentence, therefore, the subject is a noun, and the predicate, or speech-clause, a verb.

And by definition the predicate must speak of the subject.

This then is the simplest form of subject, one noun, “Man;' and the simplest form of predicate, one verb, ‘walks.'

N.B. The subject is not necessarily a single noun, though it must always represent a noun. * The Noun is frequently called a Noun Substantive, or a Substantive only.

a

« AnteriorContinuar »