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The Personal Pronouns, I, thou, she, and it, are declined as follows:


Subject Form I
Possessive Case

our, or ours.
Objective Case


my, or mine



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The Relative Pronouns, who, which, and that, are declined as follows:

Singular and Plural.
Subject Form

Possessive Case whose, and of whom

of persons.
Objective Case whom


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There are also Demonstrative, or pointing out Pronouns. These are

this, demonstrating a near object;
that, demonstrating one farther off.

These two words show Number by form, but have no change for Case. Thus


Plural. this

these. that



The words such and same may also be considered Demonstrative Pronouns in many instances.

The words ours, yours, mine, thine, &c., it is best to consider as Possessive Cases of the Personal Pronouns, 'I,' 'thou,' &c., and not as Adjectives. They are not, however, joined with their nouns' in modern English, but stand separate from them; as, “The coat is yours.' All the Possessive Cases of the Personal Pronouns are by some considered Adjectives.


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The forms willest' and willeth,' and the Verbal Substantive or Infinitive Mood, are never auxiliary.

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Emphatic Time, or Perfect.

I have been

We have been.
Thou hast been

You have been.
He has been

They have been.

* Thou wert, Wordsworth, &c.

Completed Action, or Pluperfect. Singular.

Plural. I had been

We had been. Thou hadst been

You had been. He had been

They had been.

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Perfect. Singular.

Plural. I could be

We could be. Thou couldest be

You could be. He could be

They could be. Other auxiliaries, should, would, might.

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