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perly enough be compared to Romih both fallacious. His Reasons for bePenitents, who, after committing the lieving, that this Bill will in fome moft atrocious Crimes, think they Measure prevent the Evils complained have made sufficient Atonement, of, are, that it will bring the Retail when they have solemnly confessed Trade under fome Regulation, so them. But their thus freely acknow- that the Poor will not have such free ledging the Evils, without taking A Access to these Liquors; at leaft, to any proper Method to prevent them, debauch in them, as they have at but on the contrary, resolving to li. ' present ; and that the Liquors must cense them, is no Reason against our be fold at a higher Price, or not made endeavouring in this Debate to set so good in Quality as they are at thofe Evils in a proper Light; no present; because tho' the additional more than it is a Reason against Duty is in itself but small, yet, when Preaching, that every one acknow- B compared to the Price of the Comledges the Evils produced by Sin. modity, and the Circumstances of the People hould not only acknowledge Purchaser, it must be allowed to be the Evil, but they thould forsake, high. and endeavour to prevent the Cause. As to the first of these Reasons, It is the Duty of our Churchmen to my Lords, if I thought that the Jurendeavour to prevent the Cause by tices of the Peace, and the Peace Preaching, it is our Duty to endeavour C Officers would do their Duty, I to prevent it by wholesome Laws, hould admit there would be some and adequate Punishments; and, when Weight in it; but when the ConI think any proposed Measure in-. sumption of these Liquors, is conconsistent with this Duty, surely, I fidered as a Fund for bringing in do not depart from the Subject in Money to the Publick Treasury, I Debate, when I recommend to your am from Experience convinced, that Lordships your Duty, by endeavour- D they will not do their Duty, that ing to raise in your Breasts a due they will have private Instructions Compaflion for the Misfortunes of from their Masters the Ministers, to your fellow Creatures. For this, I neglect their Duty; and as many of know no way more effectual, than our Constables and Headboroughs by laying before you, in their strong- are Alehouse-keepers, and will conet Light, the Evils that have been, , sequently become licensed Gin-sellers, cr will be occafioned by your Neglect E their Interest will become inconsistent of your Duty; and if there are Per- with their Duty; and in such a Case, fons, who, from Experience, know we may eafily judge, which of the tkofe Evils better, and consequently, two they will prefer. - Prom hence, can represent them more feelingly, I must suppose the only Difference than I can, I ought to move for their to be, that if poor People now com-. being examined.
mit any Debauch in these Liquors, Upon this Head, therefore, there F they must do it privately in the has not been, nor can be, any De- Night-Time, or in some By-Corner; parture from the Subject in Debate; whereas, if this Bill be passed into a but as the noble Lord, who spoke Law, they will, as formerly, do it laft, infifted chiefly upon two Argu- openly in our High-Streets, and at ments, which were, that this Bill will
Noon-Day. in a great Measure prevent the Evils Besides, as to the Temptat'on, as complained of, and that it is not safe G well as Access, can your Lordships to proceed farther at once, I shall think, there is no Difference between confine what I have to say, to those an avowed and a clandestine Gintwo Arguments, which, I think, are Shop? I know, or, at least, have
heard of another Vice, which, thank grant, may be innocent: While it is God! is not yet licensed by publick moderate, it continues to be fo; but Authority, because our Ministers have let us confider, my Lords, that the never yet thought of raising a Fund Use of no one Sort of Thing in the from it; and yet a common Dealer World, more naturally or more imin that Way, 'I believe, generally perceptibly runs into an Abuse, than knows, where the Commodity is to A the Use of Spirituous Liquors.' I be met with : So a common Dealer have already shewn, that the Liin Spirituous Liquors may perhaps cenfing of Houses will be no Sort of know, where there is a little clan.
Check to this Abuse, as long as you detine Gin-Shop, and might know,
make either the Use, or the Abuse, a were the Law, now in being more
Fund for bringing Money into the rigorously executed than ever it was ;
Paws of our Ministers; and now I. but one, who is no common Dealer; B hall few, that this Abuse cannot be one whose, natural Inclinations, or
in the least checked or prevented by
the small additional Duty proposed acquired Habits, do not put him upon the Search, may be quite igno
by this Biil. Upon this Head, I must rant, may continue all his Life in
differ from the noble Lord who that Ignorance, and may consequent-spoke laft, with regard to some very ly, never, be exposed to any Tempta
material Facts; and this Difference tion: Whereas, if you pass this Bill, C will thew, how necessary it is for us there will be a licensed Gin:Shop,
to make a farther Inquiry ihto this. with, a pompous Description of the
Affair than we have yet done. The 1.iquors, upon the Sign. Poł, at every noble Lord faid, That as the DistilCorner; so that no Man can pals,ling Tradę has now been for many without being exposed to the Temp: Monopoly or exclusive Privilege,
Years exercised without any Sort of tation, and will often be invited io partake of the delightful Liquor, by D must suppose, that the Distillers now Come old Aquaintance, who may
sell their Liquors at as cheap a Rate casually, happen at that Time to be as they can poffibly afford. In this, with some Friends in the Shop. Must
I differ from his Lordship: The very not your Lordships from thence see, Nature of the Trade furnishes it with that the Temptations to this Vice
a Sort of Monopoly : It is fo mystewill be more frequent and more allur
rious, that no Man can know wha: ing, after this Bill is passed, than e Profits may be made, unless he has they can be supposed to be at pre
been bred to the Business; and, the feni? And every one knows, that a
Setting up of a Distillery requires Person's yielding to a few Tempta
such a large Stock, that no Man will tions of this Kind, may lead him in- ever think of setting it up, unless he to such a Habit, as he shall never be
is well assured of the Profits that able to shake off. The noble Lords may be made. This is the Reason may make what Acknowledgments F that, notwithstanding the unbounded they will of the Evils arising from Liberty allowed by Law, so few have the Use of Spirituons Liquors, but set up or made a figure in this BuI am sure, they cannot be touched liness, except thole that were bred to with the Thoughts or the Apprehen- the Trade; and the great Fortunes fons of those Evils, in the Manner lately raised in a few Years by some they ought to be, if they pass a Bill, of the Distillers, is with me a conwhich so evidently and lo necessarily G vincing Proof, that it is the most tends to increase both the Number profitable Trade of any now. exer- , and the Force of the Tei:ptations.
cised in the Kingdom, except that. The Use of these Liquors, I shall of being Broker to a prine Ministers
Therefore I muft fuppofe, that he certainly be satisfied with, if he should Distillers do not now fell their Li- find himself in danger of losing his quors near fo cheap as they may af- Trade by attempting to take more ; ford; and, consequently, that they so that this very Question must shew *may take the whole additional Duty the Reasonableness of thie 'present upon themselves, and probably will Motion, and the Necessity of your do fo, in order not to discourage the A ágreeing to it, that you may have an Confumption.
Opportunity to examine fuch Persons Another very material Fa# I differ as may be supposed to know the Faci, from his Lordíhip in, is with regard and willing to give you a faithful and to the Quantum of the Duty to be true Account of what they know. added by this Bill; for he called it But the Truth is, I fear, my Lords, 6d. per Gallon, whereas upon the that the Advocates for this Bill are mort pernicious Sort of Spirituous B against any Delay, or any Inquiry, Liquor, and the only Liquor made because they are sensible that every ufe of by the Poor, I say, the addi. Day, and every Circumstance you tional Duty is but one Penny, or examine into, will produce new Obthree Halfpence at most. The ad. jections to their Bill, or refute fome ditional Duty apon Englis Brandies, of the Arguments they make use of Aqua Vitæ, and other sorts of fine, in its Favour. home-made Spirits is, 'tis true, to c A third, and a very material Fact, be Sixpence a Gallon, because they the noble Lord and I differ in, is in are made or drawn generally from telation to the Retailers. He súpforeign Materials; but common Gin, poses, they will advance the Price which is the great and only Nurance at least a Parthing a Pint to their complained of, is alt drawn from Cuftonters, in order to reimburse the Englift Materials, and may be so 2os. per Annum they are to pay for made, as to be liable by this Bill to D a Licence. My Lords, if they had but three Halfpence per Gallon at now a Licence to retail this Liquor most, which is to small an Addition, without paying any Thing, and if that the Distiller will certainly take the Retailing of Gin were' not a very the Whole upon himself, rather than profitable Trade, there would be have the Price raised, or the Liquor
Tome Reason for this Suppolition; made lefs palatable to the Consumer. but as both these Facts are known Bat suppose that every Sort of Spi- E to be otherwise, I am surprised to rituous Liquor fit for Retail, or that hear any such Supposition made. could be made fit for Retail, were
That the Retailing of Gin is a proto be charged with 6d. per Gallon fitable Trade, is manifest from the additional Duty, the Question, whe- great Numbers of People that run ther or no the Distiller will take the into it, notwithstanding its being Whole, or the greatest Part of this contrary to Law, and liable to many upon himself, depends upon the Pro. F Prosecutions and heavy Penalties in fit he now makes ; for if a Gallon Case of Conviction. Surely, the Risk of Spirits, which he now fells for they ran of incurring the Penalty of 18d. does not cost him above 8d, or 100l. for every Dram they sell, is 9 d. it is my opinion, he will take worth more than a Farthing a Pint: the Whole upon himself, rather than I am persuaded, there is not a Re. discourage the Consumption among tailer of any Credit in the Kingdom che Poor, who are his chief Custom-G but will gladly pay 20s. a Year 10 ers for this Sort of Liquor ; for 20
be free from this Rilk; and therePer Cent. Profit is surely fufficient for fore, instead of the Liquor's being any Tradesman, and such as hie will fold a Farthing in the Pint dearer,
I must suppose, it will be sold a Far- so high, and if he pays a high Duty, thing a Pint cheaper, or at less Pro- he must sell his Liquors at a high fit, than it was ever sold before by Price to the Retailer: This will any Retailer.
make them come so dear to the ConI shall admit, that a Penny, or sumer, that the Poor will not be able even a Farthing a Pint, is a great to purchase any great Quantity; and Deal to an habitual Gin-drinker, be. A this will put it out of the Power of cause there may be many Days in a any little clandestine Retailer to sell Year that such a one does not earn a such a Quantity as to make it worth Farthing, being drunk or alleep from his while to continue the Trade. From one End of the Day to the other; hence your Lordships may fee, that but to a Man who earns his 18d. or you not only may safely lay a high 25. a Day, as many labouring Men Duty at once upon the Still-head, do here about London, a Penny is not B but that it will be a more effectual of any great Consideration ; for not. Way for putting an end to the prewithstanding that Addition, he may sent clandestine retail Trade, than still have near half a Gill for a Half- the most severe Penalties you can in. penny, by which he may be encour- flict upon retailing, without a Liaged to drink three or four Drams in cence, as is evident from the Experia Day; and this is the Evil now pro- ence we have of the Law which is ceeding from the Cheapness of that C now to be repealed. Liquor, because this Practice conti- If a very high Duty were to be nued for a few Days leads him into laid upon Licences, and no higher a Habit of Gin-drinking, and this Duty than is now proposed upon the Habit gives a Defire or Appetite for
Still-head, I thall, indeed, grant, the Liquor, which increases upon that it would occasion & Continu. him every Day, till it first puts an ance of the present clandestine retail End to his Industry, after that to his D Trade; but has any one in this DeMorals, then to his Health, and lastly bate proposed laying a higher Duty to his Life, if, in the Career of his on Licences ? No, my Lords: I beWickedness, he happens to escape lieve, the Duty proposed by this being hanged for Thieving, Houle. Bill will be found too high: I bebreaking, or Murder.
lieve, it will occafion a Continuance Now, my Lords, as to the Argu- of the clandestine retail Trade at ment drawn from the Danger of the E many of the little Shops in Town, clandestine Trade's being continued, and all the Hedge Ale houses in the in case the Duties should be at once Country: As to the former, they can raised very high : My Lords, if there have a Licence at no Rate, and were now any clandestine Trade in therefore they must either continue distilling, or if it were desired to lay the Trade in a clandestine Manner, any higher Duty upon Licences, this or give it over altogether : Besides, if might be an Argument of some Force; F they could have a Licence, it would * but can it be pretended that either of fubject them to the quartering of these is the Cafe? It has not been so Soldiers, which, while they continue much as pretended, that there is now, their clandestine Trade, they are free or ever was, any considerable clander from ; so that to one of these Shops tine Trade in distilling: Conceal- or Houses, a Licence will really cost ments of all kinds are much more them 31. a Year or more. Then as difficule in the distilling Way than in G to the little Ale-houses in the Connthe brewing therefore, when you try, tho 20s. a Year is a small Sum, lry a Duty upon the Still head, 'the and such a Sum as will be chearfully, Diltiller must pay it, let it be nev paid by all Houses in good Credit
and Bufiness, rather than run any ever have thought of, and I may Rik, yet the Keepers of those little venture to say, such a one as no Ale-houses will racher risk going to
Commissioner of the Excuse, or Jur. the House of Correction for two tice of the Peace, would ever have Months, than pay 205. for a Li. dared to have put upon it. And as cence; and, I believe, the Projectors to the Danger he supposed might of this Bill will find themselves very A have arisen from the Pot-Act, it is much disappointed as to Informers, altogether imaginary: The Commisfor Informers of all kinds are so fioners never yet attempted any such much hated both by Poor and Rich, Thing; and if they had : If they that no Man in any Business will be- had been but suspected of raising any come an Informer for fear of losing Alehouse-keeper's Tax, or lowering his Business. To say, that every another's, on Account of their Way Alehouse-keeper that takes out a B of voting at any Election, the other Licence, will have an Interest in be. House would certainly have taken coming an Informer, is a most falla. Notice of it, and would have pucious Way of Reasoning. On the
nished them in a most exemplary contrary, he would ruin himself if Manner. According to the same Way he did, because no Man would after- of arguing, may it not be faid, that wards go near his House ; and there all our Excise Laws are of dangerous fore, if this Bill be passed in the C Consequence to our Liberties; beShape it is in, I shall expect, in a cause by them the Commissioners of Year or two, to see the clandestine Excise have, in every Case, a Power Retail of Gin as frequent as ever in to modify the Penalty, and to remit our little Shops and bye Places ; fo the Whole, or exact the Whole, as that all you are to do by this Bill
, is they think fit? Yet, I believe, the to give the better Sort of Houses noble Lord would now be very sorry a Licence to retail this pernicious Li. D to see his Argument prevail so far as quor openly and awovedly, and to to cause a Repeal of all our Excise leave the Little Shops and bye Pla. Laws. But fuppose his Lordship in Ces to sell it privately as before : the right, with respect to both his Whereas, if you lay a high Dury. Observations, what has it to do with apon the Still-head, you will at the amending of this Bill? If the once pat a full Stop to the clandes: proposed Amendment should take tine Retail
, and very much diminish E Place, both these Laws would nevereven that which may hereafter be theless be repealed, either by this carried on by Licence; which is, I Bill, or some other brought in in its am sure, what you ought to aim at, Stead; therefore, as I am convinced, but is not, I am afraid, the Design your Lordships, if fully informed, of those who first projected this Bisl. will agree to amend the Bill as has
I fhall conclude, my Lords, with been proposed, I shall be for agreelaying, that I was extremely sorry to F ing to the noble Lord's Motion. find the noble Lord so much put to 5 to find any Advantage accruing The next Speaker in this Debate was from this Bill, as to be obliged to M. Cato, in the Character of the resort to a forced Construction put- Earl of Bath, the Purport of wboje upon the Gin-Aą, and an imaginary Speech was as follows, viz. Danger which he supposed might have arisea from the Pot-Aa. As to the G My Lords, Contraction he put upon
farther it is such a one as no Lawyer would because of my being sensible, chat 1744