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be totally useless, if they serve to tion) were little less deplorable, produce a dislike of that prompti. than those of their friends who had tude of entering into wars, which perished in the roins of their houses. is but too natural to people, as Disperfed and wandering in the fowell as to princes, when they fee refts, as chance and fear directed the consequences, which their par- their steps, without any mutual fion, often for trivial and con- knowledge or communication,withtemptible objects, fo frequently out provision or covering, they had produce ; and by which they are a long tract of desarts to traverse, led gradually, not only to great without guide or direction. They crimes and great misfortunes, but accordingly fuffered every degree even to a total change and degra. of diftsels. Several women were dation of their nature.

delivered alone in the woods, at a It is necessary to observe with re- great diftance from every possibility {pect to the destruction of Wyom- of relief. If thefe, through vigour ing, that as no narrative of the ex of mind, or ftrength of constituploits of the leaders in that tranf- tion, escaped, undoubtedly others, action, whether by authority or in similar, and in different circum. otherwise, has as yet appeared in itances, perifhed: this country, we can only rely, for Although the fate of Wyoming, the authenticity of the faas which and the lamentations of the surwe have stated, upon the accounts ivors, had served alternately to published by the Americans. As freeze every breast with horror, these have already been long ex- and to melé it with compaffion ; pofed to the view of all Europe, yet the various objects and exigenwithout their yet producing a fingle cies of the war, rendered the Amecontradiction, any natural, but iin- ricar's incapable for the present, proper partiality, which might be of executing that vengeance on a temptation to induce us, either their favage enemy, which was, to draw a veil over the whole, or however, fully intended at a proper to suppress any of the parts of that season. Some small expeditions transaction, would therefore of were, indeed, undertaken, which, course, be as fruitless in the effect, from the difficulties attending as disgraceful in the design. Happy them, and the fpirit of enterprize Thould we deem it, for the honour under which they were conducted, of humanity, that the whole ac- were not deftitute of merit, and count was demonftrated to be a fac consequently, are not unworthy of ble. The event has already shewn, observation, in the narrative of a the impolitic nature of these pro. campaign not distinguished by any ceedings, which have only served activity in the great and splendid to fix a bitter and lasting resent- operations of war. ment in the minds of the colonists. Of this fort was an expedition

The sufferings of the refugees, undertaken in the course of the confifting mostly of women and fummer from Virginia, under the children, (the broken parts, and conduct of a Col. Clarke, with a scattered relicks of families, who fmall party of between two and had escaped to the woods during three hundred men. It cannot but the different scenes of this devafta- appear aftonishing to those, who

have been generally used to con- of its mouth, where they hid their template military operations, only beats, and bent their course by as they are circumscribed within land to the northward. In this the narrow confines of European Atage of the expedition, after concountries, that the object of this suming all the provision which they enterprize was at fo valt a distance, had been able to carry on their as that the party, in their way, backs, they endored a hard march were obliged to traverse no less of two days without any fuftenance. than about 1200 miles; of a We may therefore well credit their boundless, uncultivated, and un assertion, that when they arrived in inhabited waste, through which this hungry ftate, about midnight, they were under a neceflity of con at the town of Kakafkias, they veying, every necessary for fab- were unanimously determined to fiftence, and every equipment for take it or to perish in the attempt. action. It is, however, to be ob This town contained about 250 ferved, that their conveyance, for houses, and was sufficiently fortified much the greater part

of the

to have withstood a much stronger was by water.

enemy; but as the imagined fecuTheir object was the reduction riry which the people derived from of those French fettlements, which their remoteness, forbid all ideas of had been planted by the Canadians danget, it of course fuperseded all on the upper Milfifippi, in that fine precaution against a surprize. This and fertile region, as it is described, was accordingly as complete as which taking its name from a noted poffible. The town and fort were nation of Indians, is called the Il- taken, without noise or oppofition, linois country. It appears, that before the people were well awake; much of the mischief which had and the inhabitants were so effec. fallen

upon the southern and mid- tually secured, that not so much dle colonies from the incursions of as a fingle person efcaped to alarin the savages, had been attributed to the neighbouring fettlements. The the activity of the governor of those governor, Philip Rocheblave, who fettlements; who, fince the com was considered as fo inimical to the mencement of the troubles, acting Americans, was sent to Virginia, as an agent for government, and with all the written instructions paying large rewards for fcalps, which he had received from had befides been indefatigable in Quebec, Detroit, and Michillihis continual endeavours of excit- mackinack, for setting on and paying the Ohio and Miffifippi In- ing the Indians. The inhabitants dians, to undertake expeditions were compelled to take an oath of against the back sectlements. This allegiance to the United States ; conduct was the motive to the pre- and the fort became the principal fent diftant expedition.

citadel and head quarters of the The party, after a long courfe victors. down the Monongahela, and what A small detachment which was might be considered in point of pushed forward from this place on extent, as a voyage, on the Ohio, horseback, surprized and took with arrived at length at the great falls as little difficulty, three other of the latter, within about 60 miles French towns, which lay from


fifteen to about seventy miles far An expedition, in fome degree ther up the Millisippi.' In all, the of the same


was also una inhabitants seem to have transfer. dertaken, from the remote and upred their allegiance with great fac per parts of Pensylvania in the cility ; nor were those dispersed in month of O&ober, under the conthe country behind - hand with duct of a Col. Butler ; the present them ; who, withoat waiting for being, however, as much directed any operation of force or neceflity, against several confiderable settle flocked in by hundreds to take the ments belonging to those people new oath.

whom they called Tories (and who, The fituation of this small party, from the violence of their past hofin the heart of the Indian country, tilities, had become particularly at the back of fomc of their most obnoxious), as against the Indians, cruel and hostile çribes, in the with whom they seem to have been track of many others, and more or intermixed as one people. This less in the way of all, was converted party, which consisted of a Pensylto peculiar advantage, by the ex vania regiment, covered by rife. traordinary activity, and unwearied men and rangers, took its deparspirit of their commander. He di- ture from Schoharie; and having rected and timed his attacks with gained the head of the Delaware, such judgment, and executed them marched down that river for two with such filence and dispatch, that days; from whence, turning off to the favages, at length, found their the right, they struck across the own mode of war effectually turned mountains to the Susquehanna,

Surprized in their which was the scene of action. inmost retreats, and most requester Without entering into a detail of ed recesses, at those times and sea. 'particulars, it will be sufficient to sons, when they were scarcely less observe, that they totally burnt indisposed for action, than unpre- and destroyed, both the Indian pared for defence, they experienced castles or villages in that quarter, in their own huts and families, that and the other settlements. But unexpected slaughter and destruc- that, notwithstanding the utmoft tion, which they had so frequently address and precaution were praccarried home to others. Thus feel- tised for the purpose of a complete ing, in the most sensible manner, surprize, the inhabitants, both Tothose calamities which they were ries and Indians, had the fortune only wont to administer, they grew to escape; a deliverance of no small cautious and timid ; and the con moment in their situation ; as the tinual danger to which their fami- vengeance for Wyoming, where lies were exposed, damped, for a they bore a diftinguished part, while, the ardour of the warriors would undoubtedly have fallen in undertaking expeditions. In the heavy upon them. The destrucmean time, the Americans in the tion was extended for several miles back settlements, not only hearing on both sides of the Susquehanna ; of Clarke's successes, but imme. in the course of which, the fruits diately feeling their benefit, began of a plentiful harvest, together with to shake off their terror, and even the only saw-mill and grift-mill in seemed by degrees to partake of his that whole country, shared an equal spirit and enterprize.

fate with the houses and every


upon them.

other article useful or necessary to rendered useless, at those times man.

when they were most liable to the The difficulties, diftreffes, and sudden attack of an enraged and dangers, which the party encoun cruel enemy, whose principal effort tered in this expedition, were per lay in that sort of surprize. These culiar to that part of the world; were, however, only small matters, and required no small share of that when compared with the danger patient fortitude, and hardiness of which awaited their return, and body and mind, which can scarcely which they hardly escaped. This be acquired without long habitude, was the sudden rifing of the great under certain marked circumstances rivers in their way, occafioned by of situation; by any considerable the continual rains, whilft they number of men. Notwithstanding

were fill in the enemies country, the occafional affiftance which they (who were very strong in that quarderived from their pack - horses, ter) their provisions nearly expend . they were under a neceflicy of car. ed, and every moment affording rying six days provisions on their fresh room for apprehension, that backs, and thus loaded, continu- their return would become totally ally to wade through rivers and impracticable. A strenuous and creeks of such a depth and magni- bold exertion, to which fortune tude, that they would scarcely ap- was, at least, negatively favourable, pear paffable, without any incum- prevented the fatal consequences brance, to men unused to such fer- of that event: vice. In these circumitances, after In this manner, the favage part the toil of a hard march, and in of the war was carried on in Amesome fituations not venturing to rica with mutual boldness and permake fires for fear of discovery, severance; and waste and cruelty they were obliged to endure, with inflicted and retorted, with infinite out cover, the chilling nights and variety of scenes of horror and heavy rains peculiar to that climate disguit: and season ; whilst their arms were

Vol. xxii.



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Review of conciliatory measures pursued by the commissioners for restoring

peace in America. - Attempt to open and smooth the way to a negociation by private communications and correspondence, fails in the effect, and is highly resented by the Congress. Resolutions by that body against holding any Communicatian or intercourse with one of the commisioners. Gentleman in question, declines acting any longer in the commision, and publishes a declaration in answer to the Congress. Declaration from the remaining commisioners in answer to that body. Final manifesto and proclamation by the commissioners. Cautionary measures recommended by the Congress to the people ; followed by a counter manifesto, threatening retaliation. Singular letter from the Marquis de la Fayette, to the Earl of Carlisle. American expedition for the reduction of the British settlements in the country of the Natches, on the borders of the Milippi. Expedition from NervYork, under the conduct of Commodore Parker and Colonel Campbell, for the reduction of the province of Georgia. Landing made good, and the rebels defeated. Town of Savannah taken, and the province in general reduced. Major-General Prevost arrives from the southward ; takes the town and fort of Sunbury, and afumes the principal command. T affords no small degree of which the Congress had thrown in

pleasing relaxation, to return the way of that conciliatory system, from all the rage of war, and all with which the Commissioners had the horrid ferocity of savages, and been charged from England to once more to tread in the pleasing America; and that an acknowledg, paths of civil life. We have in- ment of independency, or the toial deed beheld the first in its most withdrawing of the military force, shocking and degraded form. were the peremptory and only conStripped of all that "pomp, pride, ditions held out by the former, " and circumstance," which serve upon which they would admit the so strongly to fascinate the imagin- opening of any negociation. One ation, and divefted of that glare of of the gentlemen who was appointglory, which throws a shade over ed in the commission, having served its deformities, the ghaftly carcass in the navy, on the American coast, has not only been exposed in all its and afterwards been governor of nakedness, but polluted and disa province there, had formed contained by the bloody hands of bar- liderable connexions, and an exbarians. From fo 'horrid a scene tenfive acquaintance in that counwe naturally turn with pleasure, to try; and he now hoped that these trace the tranquil mazes of negó- circumstances might be of effential ciation, and to review the acts and service, by using them as means to conduct of men in the most refined facilitate the attainment of the state of society.

great object in view. This seemed We briefly stated in our last vo the more feasible, as his parlialume, the insuperable difficulties mentary conduct since that time,


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