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ARTICLE I. Of the models of Eloquence proper for the
I. Duty of a Preacher
Page 267 To instruct, and for that end to speak clearly ibid.
The necessity of perspicuity in Catechists 269 II. Duty of a Preacher
273 To please, and for that end, to speak in a florid and polite manner
Taking too much pains about the ornaments
The being too negligent of the ornaments of speech 279 III. Duty of a Preacher
287 To affect and move the Passions of his Auditors, by the Arength of his Discourse
ibid. Extract from St. Austin
289 Extract of St. Cyprian
292 Extracts from St. 7. Chryfoftom against Oaths 293 Extract of St. Chryfoftom's discourse on Eutropius's disgrace
296 Extract from the first Book of the Priesthood 301
- PART II.
The learning requifite in a Christian Orator
III. The beauty of the Scripture does not arise from the words, but the things'.
323 IV. DESCRIPTION :
325 V. FIGURES
330 1. The Metaphor and Simile
ibid. 2. Repitition Apostrophe, Prosopopeia
332 VI. Sublime Passages VII. Tender and affecting Passages. VIII. Characters
342 The Song of Mofes, after his pasage through the Red
Sea Moses's Song The Song of Mases, explained according to the rules of Rhetoric
354 Occasion and subject of the Song Explication of the Song
BOOK III. . 'Of RHETOR I C..
T HOUGH nature and genius are the princi
pal foundations of eloquence, and sometimes suffice alone for success in it, we can
not however deny, but that precepts and art may be of great service to an a orator, whether he uses them as guides to supply him with certain Rules for distinguishing the good from the bad, or for improving and bringing to perfection the advantages he has received from nature.
These precepts, founded on the principles of good sense and right reason, are only the judicious observations of learned men on the discourses of the best orators, which were afterwards reduced into form, and united under certain heads; whence it was said, that eloquence was not the offspring of art, but art of elo. quence.
From hence it is easy to conceive, that rhetoric without the study of good authors is lifeless and barren, and that examples in this, as in all other things, are infinitely more efficacious than precepts; and indeed the rhetorician feems only to point out the path
· Ego in his præceptis hanc vim in præcepris omnibus, non ut ea & hanc utilitatem effe arbitror, fecuri oracores eloquentiæ laudem Don ut ad reperiendum quid di- unt adepti ; fed, quæ sua sponce camus arte ducamur, fed ut ea homines eloquentes facerent, ea qiæ natura, quæ ftudio, q!exer- quofdam observasse, atque id egiffe. citatione consequimur, aut recta Sc effe non eloquentiam ex artielle confidamus, aut prava intele ficio, sed artificium ex eloquentia ligamus; cùm, quo referenda fint, natum. 1. de orar. n. 146. didicerimus. Cic. 2. de orat. n. c In omnibus ferè minùs valenc 232.
præcepta quam experimenta. Quinc. • Ego hanc vim intelligo efle I. 2. c. 5. Vol. II.
at a distance which youth are to follow; whilft the Orator takes them by the hand, and leads them into it.
As the end then proposed in the class of rhetoric, is to teach them to apply the rules, and imitate the models or examples set before them; all the care of mafters with regard to eloquence is reduced to these three heads; precepts, the studying of authors, and compoSition.
Quintilian tells us, the second of those articles was entirely neglected in his time, and that the rhetoricians bestowed all their study on the other two. To fay nothing here of the species of compofition, then in vogue, called Declamation, and which was one of the principal causes of the corruption of eloquence; · they entered into a long train of precepts, and into .. knotty, and very often frivolous questions; which is the reason, that even Quintilian's rhetoric, though so excellent in other respects, appears vaftly tedious in several places : 'he had too just a taste, not to observe, that the reading of authors is one of the most essential parts of rhetoric, and most capable of forming the minds of youth. Yet, however good his inclination might be, it was impossible for him to stem the torrent; and he was obliged, in spite of all his endeavours, to conform in public, to a custom, that prevailed universally; but followed, in private, that method which he judged the best.
This method is now generally received in the university of Paris, and did not gain ground there but by degrees. I shall dwell chiefly on that part, which relates to the study and explanation of authors, after having treated transiently of the other two, which it may be said to include in some measure.
co Cæterùm, fentientibus jam tum oprima, duæ res impedimento fuerunt: quòd & longa confuse
cudo aliter docendi fecerac legem,
L. H A P.