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country, justice is administered by bailiffs, magi- | by these circumstances to a sense of the difficulty of strates, and patrimonial judges.

governing a separate territory, inhabited by a restless The chief officers of the court are, a first marshal population, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha has since of the court, and a grand equerry.

sold the principality of Lichtenberg to the King of The present Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was for- | Prussia. merly Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Saalfeld, but, in In this duchy no preference is given to birth in 1826, he ceded the latter, and obtained the duchy of electing officers of state. Difference of religion does Gotha, with exception of the lordship of Kranichfeld. not affect the equal enjoyment of political rights. After this change of territory, one of the first acts of Every citizen is bound to serve for a certain period his government was the creation of a privy-council, in the army, should he be chosen by lot, or to find a consisting of the officers of government both in substitute. No citizen can remain in arrest for the Coburg and Gotha. A decree of October 30, 1828, space of twenty-four hours without being informed of established in each duchy a separate college of justice, the cause of his apprehension. which takes cognizance of matrimonial matters, for. The territories of the Duke of Gotha lie in Thurinmerly falling under the jurisdiction of the consistorial gia; they are extremely fertile, well cultivated, and court. Each duchy has its own system of internal thickly populated. Agriculture is their principal source administration, taxation, and excise. On the other of prosperity. The northern districts are plains, inhand, for both Coburg and Gotha, there is only one tersected by chains of hills; the south is mountainous high consistorial court for ecclesiastical affairs and for and woody. public instruction, and only one war-office. Accord. The principal products are corn, potatoes, carrots, ing to the new regulations, the fees which were for- and other vegetables, flax, poppies, aniseed, woad, merly claimed by the officials, are now the property and an immense quantity of wood, which is the staple of the state. In 1830, a journal was established for article. A few hops are grown; there is not much the more prompt promulgation of laws and edicts. fruit, and the wine is only made for vinegar. There On the 1st of July, 1829, the army was reorganized, are plenty of pigs and poultry, but the horses are of so that the soldiers of both duchies (1366 in number) an inferior breed. The country contains mines of were made to form one infantry regiment of the line, | iron, manganese, coal, and slate. There are numedivided into two battalions.

rous worsted-spinners and linen-weavers, particularly · The funds for the preservation and increase of the in the hilly districts. There are also woollen and books, pictures, and coins, at Gotha, have been lately cotton manufactories, but they are not very numerous. enlarged. The government has particularly distin- Other articles of manufacture are iron-ware, wire, guished itself in encouraging trade and commerce. copper goods, stockings, tobacco, glue, leather, and Monopolies were abolished in Coburg, so early as soap. There are five paper-mills, three porcelain, 1812, in Gotha, in 1829. Exhibitions of home pro- and three hardware manufactories. ducts and trade schools have been established ; and The exports are corn, wood, wool, woad, mangaall impediments to commerce have been removed. | nese, pitch, potash, bilberries, coriander-seeds, aniseed,

The French revolution of 1830, produced a tempo- | butter, linen, iron goods, sausages, and livers of rary sensation in Coburg and Gotha, which led to no geese. important results. But in the distant principality of Coburg, the capital of the principality of Coburg, Lichtenberg, which had been ceded to the duke by and formerly the residence of the duke, is situated the Congress of Vienna, in 1816, its effects were such in a delightful country; it contains more than 800 as not only to disquiet the inhabitants, but also to houses, and about 9000 inhabitants. One of the weaken the moral force of the government. Awakened | most prominent public buildings is the palace of

Ehrenburg, in which the present duke has made large

THE LAND OF CONTRADICTIONS. improvements. It now contains a library, a cabinet

THERE is a land in distant seas of natural history, of medals and prints, and an ar

Full of all contrarieties. moury. In the neighbourhood of the town is the There beasts have mallard's bill and legs, castle of Coburg, which contains a workhouse and a Have spurs like cocks, like hens lay eggs. house of correction. In the town itself is a gymna

There parrots walk upon the ground, sium, supplied with a library, with specimens of

And grass upon the trees is found ;

On other trees-another wonder natural history, and medals. There are a senate

Leaves without upper side or under. house, an orphan asylum, a casino, an armoury, and There pears you'll scarce with hatchet cut; a government house, built in an Italian style of archi. Stones are outside the cherries put; tecture. Amongst the curiosities of the place are Swans are not white, but black as soot. Luther's room, which contains some beautiful wood

There neither leaf, nor root, nor fruit, work, and the alabaster monument of Duke John Will any Christian palate suit;

Unless'in desperate need you'll fill ye Frederic, in the church of St. Maurice. The principal

With root of fern and stalk of lily, places of amusement are the theatre, the casino, the

There missiles to far distance sent redoute, and the musical club. In the neighbourhood

Come whizzing back from whence they went. are the beautiful old and new walks, the ruins of the There a voracious ewe-sheep crams castles of Callenberg and Lauterburg, and the lovely

IIor paunch with flesh of tender lambs ; seat of the duke, the Rosenau,

While, stead of bread, and beef, and broth,

Men feast on many a roasted moth. ! Gotha, the capital of the duchy of Gotha, and also

There quadrupeds go on two feet, a residence of the present duke, contains about 1300

And yet few quadrupeds so fleet. houses, and 13,000 inhabitants. The palace of Fried

There birds, although they cannot fly, enstein contains a very good library, a collection of In swiftness with the greyhound vie. coins, a museum of natural history, a Chinese cabinet,

With equal wonder you may see a picture gallery, and remarkable collections made by

The foxes fly from tree to tree; the late duke, the whole forming a treasure of litera

And what they value inost, so wary,

These foxes in their pockets carry. ture and art, such as few moderate towns can boast

There courting swains their passion prove of. In 1824, the museum, which was given to the

By knocking down the girls they love. country by the late duke, Frederic, was opened. The There every servant gets his place ducal libraries contain 150,000 volumes. The walls By character of foul disgrace; and fortifications of the town have been changed into

There vice is yirtue, virtue vice, ornamental walks. Near the town is the observatory

And all that's vile is voted nice.

The sun, when you to face him turn ye, on the Seeberg, 1189 feet above the level of the sea.

From right to left performs his journey. In the neighbourhood, too, is the palace of Fried.

The north winds scorch, but when the breeze is reichsthal, containing some valuable monuments of Full from the south, why then it freezes. Italian art, and the orangery and park, where the

Now of what place can such strange tales Dukes Ernest and Augustus are buried.

Be told with truth but New South Wales ? The chief places of amusement and public resort here, are the theatre, ball-rooms, and public gardens. For men to judge of their condition by the decrees of God In the neighbourhood of Gotha are two ducal palaces, which are hid from us, and not by his word which is near and the Moravian colony of Neudietendorf. .. us and in our hearts, is as if a man wandering in the wide

The house of Saxe-Coburg is indisputably the most sea, in a dark night when the heaven is all clouded about, fortunate of all the existing great families of Europe.

should yet resolve to steer his course by the stars which No common lot has attended them in our time, and

he cannot see, but only guess at, and neglect the compass,

which is at hand and would afford him a much better and they appear destined to fill a remarkable place in

more certain direction.--TILLOTSON. modern history. The reigning duke has succeeded to the inheritance of the duchy of Saxe-Gotha, which he enjoys in addition to his original sovereignty of

The brave only know how to forgive; it is the most refined Coburg. His brother, Leopold, was born under an

and generous pitch of virtue human nature can arrive at.

Cowards have done good and kind actions, cowards have extraordinary star; he first married the heiress to the

even fought, nay, sometimes even conquered; but a coward British throne, and subsequently a daughter of the never forgave: it is not in his nature; the power of doing King of the French; two ladies not less amiable than it flows only from a strength and greatness of soul, conelevated ; and, after declining the throne of Greece, scious of its own force and security, and above the little he has been chosen King of Belgium. One sister

temptations of resenting every fruitless attempt to interrupt espoused the Archduke Constantine of Russia, and thus

its happiness. -STERNE. in the ordinary course of events would have become Empress of all the Russias. The history of another | The knowledge we acquire in this world I am apt to think sister, the Duchess of Kent, is too well known to real extends not beyond the limits of this life. The beatific quire comment, she is the mother of the Queen of

vision of the other life needs not the help of this dim twiEngland. Another brother has married one of the

light; but be that as it will, I am sure the principal end

why we are to get knowledge here, is to make use of it for greatest heiresses of the Austrian empire, the daughter

the benefit of ourselves and others in this world; but if by of the Prince of Kohary, and occupies the high post gaining it we destroy our health, we labour for a thing that of lieutenant field-marshal, in the service of the em will be useless in our hands; and if by harrassing our bodies, peror. Finally, a nephew of the Duchess of Kent is (though with a design to render ourselves more useful,) we the reigning King of Portugal. An impartial review

deprive ourselves of the abilities and opportunities of doing of the progress of this distinguished race compels us

that good we might have done with a meaner talent, which to add that it does not owe its success to unworthy

God thought sufficient for us, by having denied us the

strength to improve it to that pitch which men of stronger intrigue ; its members bear their great estate with

constitutions can attain to, we rob God of so much service, prudence, with good sense, and with moderation; and and our neighbour of all that help, which, in a state of their domestic qualities form an antidote to the venom health, with moderate knowledge, we might have been able which generally pursues a career of success.

to perform. He that sinks his vessel by overloading it,

though it be with gold and silver, and precious stones, will From Germany; the Spirit of her History, Literature, Social give his owner but an ill account of his yoyage. -LOCKX. Condition, and National Economy, &c. By Dr. Bisset Hawkins,

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE MONTHS. cold alone, a re-arrangement of particles takes place, I. JANUARY

“ by which the crystalline form of the solid which is

about to be produced occupies more space than the Then came old January, wrapped well

particles in the liquid form.” “Now supposing,” says In many weeds to keep the cold away;

Mr. Tomlinson, “that water regularly contracted from
Yet did he quake and quiver like to queil;
And blowe his nayles, to warm them if he may:

its liquid to its solid state, it is quite clear that a cerFor they were numbed with holding all the day

tain bulk of ice would occupy less space than the bulk An hatchet keene, with which he felled wood, And from the trees did lop the needlesse spray.-SPENSER.

of water which formed it. Its weight would be, in

short, bulk for bulk, greater than that of water, and This month derives its name from JANUS, a deity it would consequently sink; and our streams in winrepresented by the Romans with two faces looking inter, instead of the superficial crust of ice which covers opposite directions, and typical of the past and the them, and which is easily thawed, would become one future. JANUS was the god of gates and avenues, solid mass of ice, destroying all that life with which and held a key in one hand, and a rod in the other, the waters teem, and would take a whole summer to symbolical of his opening and ruling the year. This become again liquid, since water is so imperfect a month is chosen as the commencement of the year, I conductor of heat." in preference to March, when the ancient year began, One effect of this property of water 'to expand probably because the lengthening of the days being during the process of congelation is to diminish the the chief cause of the return of Spring, may there-height of mountains; for the rain and melted snow fore be considered in reality as its commencement. remaining in their cavities and fissures during the The time of the renewal of nature varies greatly in summer season, become frozen, and seeking to occupy different countries, but in our own there is certainly a greater space than before, force out masses of rock less appearance of such a change in the month of with irresistible power, and send them thundering January than at any other period; for “as the days down to the valley beneath. Another, and a genebegin to lengthen, the frost begins to strengthen." rally useful effect, is the preparation of the earth to

The weather during this month is frequently clear, receive its destined seed, in consequence of the crumcold, and bright, and the beautiful effects of hoar-bling to pieces of the heavy clods of the field, by the frost are often sufficient to give animation to a land- expansion of the frozen moisture within them. scape, which would otherwise look blank and dreary. At the time when the frost is severe enough to proEvery branch and spray is fringed with delicate crys-duce these effects, how beautiful, how elegantly divertals, sparkling in the sun's rays with the lustre of sified, are the forms it assumes on the windows of our diamonds; and there is not a single blade of grass, apartments, where we may sometimes fancy a resemor a plant, however insignificant, but may become, blance to the fretted roof and clustered columns of when adorned with these radiant gems, the object of some ancient building, or trace what may seem “the our highest wonder and admiration. The very weeds sparkling trees and shrubs of fairy-land," or seek in which we are accustomed to pass unnoticed, or to tread vain, among its thousand capricious shapes, “the likeljeneath our feet,

ness of some object seen before." These beautiful Now shine

appearances are due to the condensation of moisture Conspicuous, and in bright apparel clad,

from the atmosphere of our dwellings, on the cold And fledged with icy feathers, nod superb.

panes of glass, and its subsequent expansion into All those effects which are produced by the transient crystals. The same kind of starry crystals are found morning dew of summer, are now exhibited, and still in the frozen water of the clouds, or snow, which forms more strikingly, in the brilliant hoar-frost; and were a covering for the earth of unrivalled purity, and it not that the constant recurrence of the wondrous affords protection from the extreme severity of the scene has taught us to look on it with some degree of frost to the plants which lie beneath it. indifference, we could not fail to be struck with feelings But while the plants are thus protected from the of admiration and delight. In the remembrance that rigour of the season, how fares it with the minstrels Nature is but a name for an effect,

of the grove? where do they find a substitute for the Whose cause is God,

leafy shelter of the trees, and how are they able to such a scene is well calculated to inspire us with en-supply their wants, when the rivers are frost-bound, larged ideas of the power of that wonder-working and the land covered with a fleecy deluge? DoubtHand, which, whether in the vast or in the minute, is less when the frost is of long continuance, thousands equally faultless in performance, inexhaustible in of them die of cold and hunger, or become the prey resource, infinite in variety, and unwearied in opera- of man, as they venture near to shelter themselves in tion. The examination of a blade of grass, or even the warm neighbourhood of his dwelling. Blackbirds, of a spider's web, laden with this frozen dew, will thrushes, and fieldfares, nestle together in banks, and prove how inimitably beautiful, and passing human under hedges, and frequent the vicinity of towns. art to imitate, are the least of the works of God. Larks find shelter in the warm stubble, and tribes of

The beautiful hoar-frost is nevertheless only one of small birds courageously surround our houses, and the effects of the absence of heat during this season take possession of our farm-yards, in search of their of the year. As the cold increases, the surfaces of precarious sustenance. The yellow-hammer, the rivers and lakes become fixed, and converted appa- chaffinch, but especially the audacious sparrow, beset rently into floors of marble, and during this change our path, and seem to claim a share in the food with the water expands, and in its solid state occupies more which we are so abundantly supplied; while the space, at the same time that it becomes lighter than friendly redbreast seeks and finds a welcome every-before. This remarkable circumstance appears at where. Redwings, fieldfares, skylarks, &c., find a first sight to contradict the general law of the expan- partial supply in wet meadows, and along the water's sion of bodies by heat, and their contraction by cold, edge, while these remain unfrozen. The ringdove that is, by the diminution of heat; but the difficulty is subsists on ivy-berries; water-fowl quit the frozen lessened by considering that water does contract by marshes for the neighbourhood of rapid streams, cold, according to this law, within a certain limit, and where the swiftly-passing-current escapes its icy fetthat having reached this limit, and become condensed ters, and leaves its richly embroidered banks to disin the greatest degree of which it is susceptible by play the wonders of the mighty agent. Sea-birds

also leave the shore, and frequent the larger rivers,

Ah! why reposest thou, so pale, while nearer home we observe the effect of the severe

So very still in thy white veil, . . is weather in the sad and half-petrified appearance of

Thou cherish'd Father-land ?

Where are the joyous lays of spring, the cattle, which are seen creeping to the corner which

The varied hue of summer's wing, seems best adapted to shelter them from the keen air,

Thy glowing vestment bland ? and waiting in mournful silence for their customary

But half-attired, thou slumberest now, supply of fodder. Many animals remain in a death

No flocks to seek thy pastures go, like state of torpor, during the winter, and many

O'er vales or mountains steep: others sleep away the greater part of the scason, re

Silent is every warbler's lay, ceiving nourishment from the fat which they had

No more the bee hums through the day, acquired in summer. Thus it happens that the bear,

Yet art thou fair in sleep! marmot, &c., come out in the spring greatly emaciated,

On all thy trees, on every bough, but during summer they gain so much in bulk as to

Thousands of crystals sparkle now, be able to undergo another season of torpor.

Where'er our eyes alight;

Firm on the spotless robe we tread, Intense cold and deficiency of food embolden the

Which o'er thy beauteous form is spread, fox, the weasel, the polecat, and other predatory

With glittering hoar-frost bright. quadrupeds to attack the hen-roost and the farm

Our Father kind, who dwells above, yard. The fearful attacks of hungry wolves' are

For thee this garment pure hath wove, happily known to us only by tradition in our own

He watches over thee... country, or by the reports of travellers in Alpine

Therefore in peace, thy slumber take, lands. Even the timid hare approaches the abodes

Our Father will the weary wake, of man to feed on the garden vegetables. Rabbits

New strength, new light to see. greatly injure the young trees by nibbling off the

Soon to the breath of spring's soft sighs, bark as high as they can reach. The tit-mouse sceks

Delighted thou again wilt rise, food in the thatched coverings of houses and walls,

In wond'rous life so fair.

I feel those sighs breathe o'er the plain, and the farmer keeps his early lambs and calves

Dear Nature, then rise up again within doors, tending them as carefully and as gently

With flower-wreaths in thy hair. as his own children, The vegetable kingdom too has put on winter dress

MIGRATION OF HERRINGS. or retired to winter quarters. The roots of hcrbaceous plants are safe under ground, ready at the

.The great winter rendezvous of the herring is within the

arctic circle, and there they spend many months of the year. return of warmth to throw up their young shoots.

In the spring, this mighty army begins to put itself in The soft and tender parts of shrubs and trees, are | motion."We distinguish the united shoals by that name, wrapped up in hard buds; the larger kinds of which, because the word herring comes from the German heer, an such as those of the horse-chesnut, the sycamore, army, and expresses their number. They begin to appear and the lime, are covered with a sort of resin which

off the Shetland Isles in April and May; these are only resists the most intense cold. Sometimes, however,

| the forerunners of the great shoal which comes in June;

| and their appearance is marked by the numbers of birds, as a tree which is less securely guarded than its fellows

gannet, and other sea-fowl, which come to prey upon them. by those kind provisions of nature, has its juices | When the main body appears, its breadth and depth are frozen, and it then spilts asunder by the formation of such as to alter the appearance of the very ocean. It is the ice, and perishes. By the end of the month the divided into distinct columns of five or six miles in length, leaves of the woodbine appear ready to expand ; the

and three or four in breadth, and they drive the water before winter aconite and bear's foot are often in flower,

| them with a kind of rippling: sometimes they sink, for the

space of ten or fifteen minutes, and then rise again to the and in sheltered situations the red dead-nettle and

surface: and in fine weather reflect a variety of splendid groundsel. The snow-drop is preparing its modest

colours, like a field of the most precious gems; in which bell and the catkins of the hazel begin to open. light this gift of Providence ought in very truth to be viewed.

On mild days the slug or shell-less snail is moving The first check this army meets with, in its journey south, about to the injury of the young wheat and garden is from the Shetland Isles, which divide it into two parts; plants. The bodies of these animals are covered with

one wing takes to the eastern, the other to the western, slime, as the whale is with blubber ; this non-con

shores of Great Britain, and fill every bay and creek with

their numbers; others pass on towards Yarmouth, the great ducting substance enables them to withstand the

and ancient mart of herrings; they then pass through the cold.

British Channel, and after that disappear. The other wing, The frost suspends most of the out-door work of which takes a westerly direction, after presenting themselves the farmer. His team can now move over the frozen at the Hebrides, where the great stationary fishery is, profields as easily as on the high-road; he, therefore,

ceed to the north of Ireland, where they meet with a second carries out manure to his fields; or he lops his

interruption, and are obliged to divide again; one party

takes the west of Ireland, and is soon imperceptible in the timber, or repairs hedges. The labourer warms

immensity of the Atlantic ; but the other shoal passing himself in the barn by the constant use of the flail ;

into the Irish Sea feeds the inhabitants of its coasts. These or when work is over, he retires to his snug chimney last are often capricious in their motions, and do not, like corner, and if honest and industrious, he need not the grand body, show an invariable attachment to their old fear the want to his family of " meat, clothes, and haunts. The object which induces this yearly migration, fire." But still there is no season of the year in

is the spawning, or depositing of their eggs,

Herrings are found, also, in vast shoals, on the coasts of which charity is more efficacious than in this. Those

America, as low down as Carolina. Chesapeak Bay is inwho from their warm and snug retreats hear the

undated with them. We find them also in Kamtschatka, cold wind without, should think upon their poorer | and they probably visit Japan. The Dutch are passionateiy fellow-creatures and relieve their necessities.

fond of pickled herrings, and the first boat that arrives, is Rivers and canals are no longer the high-roads for entitled to a prize. The herring dies as soon as it is taken watermen and bargemen : these are out of employ

out of the water; hence the proverb as dead as a herring.

The Dutch call a merry-andrew, pickle-herring, and from ment, while troops of skaters and sliders usurp the

this, also, we borrow some colloquial expressions. domain of the boat and the barge. It was at such a season as this that the pious

LONDON: Krummacher composed his WINTER LAY of which JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. we offer the following translation,



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FLOATING TIMBER IN LOMBARDY. PROBABLY but few of our readers think of the means | Now as all countries are, more or less, intersected by by which timber is conveyed from the forest where it rivers, which flow from the interior into the sea, a very grows, to the spots where it is to be applied to the simple and economical mode of transport for timber is purposes of building. And yet it must be evident at once attained, by causing it to float down running that the means of transport form a matter of no streams, either by the mere force of the descending small importance. We know that our timber-yards water, or aided by mechanical agents. There is no are plentifully supplied with the various kinds of necessity that each piece of wood should be floated wood necessary for building; and that the timbers separately down the stream ; for they may be fastened are shaped by the axe and the saw. But, in most | together, and steered down the middle of the river, cases, the wood which we employ is brought from | in the form of a long and broad raft. foreign countries, often many miles inland. It is | Beckmann says : -conveyed across the ocean in ships ; but the mode of It is probable that the most ancient mode of constructtransporting it from the forests where it grows to the ing vessels for the purpose of navigation, gave rise to the ports where it is to be shipped, is a curious subject, first idea of conveying timber in the like manner; for the and one well worthy of a little attention.

earliest ships or boats were nothing else than rafts, or a colThe main circumstance that forms the groundwork

lection of beams and planks bound together, over which were of all the plans adopted for this purpose is, that nearly

placed deals. By the Greeks they were called schedai, and

by the Latins rates; and it is known, from the testimony of all kinds of wood are, bulk for bulk, lighter than many writers, that the ancients ventured out to sea with water, and will consequently swim on its surface. | them, on piratical expeditions, as well as to carry on comVOL. XVI.


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