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MUSCIPULA; Arter SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS.
Angelo; so that, ever after, when in England, the The 'reflecting reader, who peruses the histories of names of these celebrated masters were daily upon his great and distinguished men, in whatever pursuit their lips, and he admonished, in his public lectures and in greatness and distinction may have arisen, cannot but his private discourses, all who loved what was noble find cause for marvel, when he finds them guilty of and sublime to study the “great masters," and labour remarkable inconsistencies. By the time Reynolds at the grand style." left the Vatican he had acquired an almost idolatrous But did Sir Joshua's practice and precept coincide ? love and respect for the works of Raphael and Michael) By no means. Why so? Because the pursuit of the Vol. XVI.
noble and sublime led to poverty; whereas the deline. | ture, the tracing of the likeness and the finish of the ation of the beautiful and fair, especially when it had picture belonging to himself. individual reference, led to consideration and opulence. In the year 1761, Reynolds, having acquired consiHence it was that the great masters whom he so fer-derable wealth, bought a house on the west side of vently admired, did not influence his taste; those Leicester Square, where, in addition to every conrather of the Venetian school, of which he speaks but venience and luxury, he set up a splendid gallery for little, regulated his professional character more than the exhibition of his works. The wheels of his all the others. He admired and recommended one carriage were carved and gilt, and on the panels style, therefore, and painted after another. When were painted the four seasons of the year. It was, actually employed in the former style, he is not in fact, a gay and expensive curiosity. It frequently considered to be remarkably eminent, while in the happened that while the footman obtained fees for latter he is allowed to possess unrivalled skill; how showing the gallery, the coachman also obtained this skill, peculiar to himself, was obtained, he has perquisites by exhibiting the carriage. not condescended to leave any explanation.
The Royal Academy was instituted in the year 1768, After his return from Rome he again lived as a pro- by the union of some of the most distinguished painfessional man in St. Martin's Lane, and engaged in ters of the day, and Reynolds was unanimously many bickerings and altercations with the other artists elected president. The king soon after favoured the of the day, on account of the new style of painting new society, and knighted the president. Sir Joshua to which he had devoted himself,—a style not nierely continued at the head of the society, for about 22 correct in likeness, but more life-looking, natural, and years, and in addition to the service done to the arts easy. After painting the Duke of Devonshire and by his pencil, the students in the profession have been Commodore Keppel with great success, the tide of benefitted by the efforts of his pen. He composed popularity set in in his favour. His rooms began and delivered discourses for the instruction of the to be frequented by the rich and great, who were able pupils in the principles and practice of their art. In and willing to pay liberally for good portraits of them | addition to the “old masters," the “grand style," selves, and thus Reynolds happily gained the honour | and the routine, of instruction in painting, he wisely of perpetuating the features of the most illustrious impresses upon his auditors the paramount necessity persons then living, whether in literature or fashion of continuous industry, and undeviating earnestness able life. While the correctness and natural anima- of mind, in reference to the professional object of tion of his portraits gratified the would-be heroes their lives. To excel in painting, as in anything else, and philosophers, angels and goddesses, who flocked it must be followed up, not merely as an amusement, to him, and while he thus manufactured portraits, but as an occupation of labour and perseverance. and swept in his largely increasing gains, he would During Reynolds's long career of prosperity, parsidilate, with lofty commendations, upon Raphael and mony was the general rule of his character. Early Angelo, “the grand style,” and “the old masters." necessity had in all probability engrafted in him, as in Like the sign-post by the road-side, he pointed the many others, the habit of thriftiness; and we know way, but followed it not himself.
that habits, especially of an unfavourable tendency, By the time he was thirty years old, it is remarked are not easily removed. He was by nature inclined of him that in force and elegance of expression, and to benevolence, and he sometimes performed deeds of in the natural splendour of his colouring, no one generosity, which cost him money and gained him no could rival him. Being a close observer of nature, open praise ; but these were exceptions in his chahe seized every happy attitude into which negligence racter. Again, the general order of his domestic or design threw the human frame. On one occasion arrangements was on a thrifty scale, and his sister, he observed that one of his sitters, instead of looking | who served as his housekeeper, encouraged thriftiness, the way desired, kept gazing at a beautiful picture by or was indifferent to it; but plenty, freedom, and one of the old masters. Reynolds thereupon made noisy bustle reigned predominant, when, upon occathis circumstance subservient to his portrait. “I sions, general invitations to dinner were issued to all snatched the moment," says he, “and drew him in his admirers among the nobility and gentry, the liteprofile, with as much of that expression of a pleasing | rary world, and the genteel professions of life. melancholy as my capacity enabled me to hit off. The really talented and meritorious pupils whom When the picture was finished, he liked it, and parti. Reynolds had under his charge rapidly acquired skill cularly for that expression, though, I believe, without and proficiency. Northcote painted one of the serreflecting on the occasion of it.”
vants so like nature, that a tame macaw mistook the Another remarkable trait in the character of Rey-l picture for the original, against whom it had a grudge, nolds is his friendship and predilection for Johnson, and flew to attack the canvass with beak and wing. who was of a nature and behaviour entirely opposed Reynolds compared the circumstances to the ancient to himself. If, as the old maxim goes, “ the like as painting of the grapes and the birds. “I see," said sociate with like," or “birds of a feather flock toge- | he,“ that birds and beasts are as good judges of picther,” this is, for the most part, for their profit's sake; tures as men.” In the celebrated painting of the but for their pleasure's sake it will often be found that l'golino by Reynolds, where a child is represented as dissimilar natures are most agreeably consorted. expiring, a savage, brought over by Captain Cook, on
The charge which Reynolds at first made for a head seeing it, ran forward to support the child. was five guineas, which price increased with his repu- In the year 1775, Johnson sat to Sir Joshua for his tation, until it rose at last to fifty guineas. When a portrait. The picture shows him holding a manuscript visitor attended for a likeness, he submitted to him near his face, and reading, he being near-sighted. a portfolio of prints and sketches, in order that the Johnson complained. “It is not friendly to hand sitter might select his position. He received six sitters down to posterity the imperfections of any man." A daily in their turns, and kept regular lists of those who looker-on observed, “You will not be known to possat and of those who were waiting, until a finished terity for your defects, though Sir Joshua should do portrait should make way for their admission. As his worst.” This picture afterwards sold for 500 his commissions accumulated, he engaged several guineas. assistants who were skilful in the drapery of a pic-) There have been many instances of distinguished
literary characters, not being the best judges of the MATERIALS FOR THE TOILETTE. VIII. merits of their own performances. This was the case,
ON COSMETICS. we know with Milton ; and Sir Joshua falls into
The word Cosmetic is derived from the Greek, and the same predicament, when he points to the Straw- 10
signifies in the original “ to adorn :" hence it is berry Girl, as one of the cleverest of his performances.
applied to the various preparations for refreshing A very serious complaint was made against Sir
and beautifying the skin. Joshua in the latter part of his life, in consequence of
The advantages and the comfort of retaining that the colours of many of his pictures turning off and
clear and healthy state of the skin, with which we fading. Richness, brilliancy, and freshness, always
are usually endowed in early years, are sufficiently distinguished his colouring; but he was often led to
evident to us all, and it is not, therefore, surprising try modes of colouring, which, from ignorance of
to find that at the present day, as well as in the time chemistry, and the mechanism of colours, frequently l of the ancients, a considerable degree of attention has failed. He was, in fact, accused of making experi
been given to the best means of attaining so desirable ments at the expense of people for whom he had
an object. Doubtless it will ever be found that painted portraits. We regret to say that he carried simplicity of diet, and regular exercise, with a proper on this practice for many years and ripped up many
attention to cleanliness, will do more towards prefine paintings of the Venetian school, to get at the
serving the fresh and healthy appearance of youth, composition of their colours.
than all the creams, washes, and lotions in the world, In 1780, the Royal Academy was removed to for it is not possible by mere external applications to Somerset House ; and, whatever success may have
remedy those evils which arise from an unhealthy ultimately attended this society, bickerings, disputes,
system, nor will the aid of cosmetics be resorted to and animosities, marked its early career, to which the ) with any chance of success, while intemperance. in. conduct of Sir Joshua in one instance, at least,
dolence, late hours, or other causes are gradually furnished occasion. He resigned the office of pre
of pre- | undermining the constitution, and marking their sident, and resumed it at the royal wish. He soon
progress also on the outward frame. Yet, as various after resigned it again, for ever! At his last visit to
perfumed unguents and other articles have been in the Academy, a tragical scene was on the point of
use for many ages, and are considered by some to occurring. A beam in the floor gave way with a loud
possess the most beneficial effects, it becomes necescrash ; but as the floor only sank a little way, it was
sary to allow them a place in our notice of Materials soon supported, and the business of the day pro
for the Toilette, and to explain, as far as may be, ceeded with complete composure on the part of Sir
what they are, how used, and the nature of the Joshua, who, all the time, had not moved from his
benefits ascribed to them ; but first let us consider the chair.
estimation in which materials for anointing the body Sir Joshua offered the Academy his collection of
were held by the ancients. pictures by the great masters, at a low price ; but
In the Thermæ or baths of the Romans, we find they declined the purchase. He then made an ex | that a room called the unctuarium, was appropriated hibition of them for the benefit, we are told, of his to the anointing of the bathers, and here previously faithful servant, Ralph Kirkley. But as Reynolds's
to their entering the baths they made use of a cheap love of gain was well known, it was thought to be as
coarse oil for the purpose, but on returning from much for his own benefit, as his servant's. The fol
their ablutions they employed fine odoriferous oint. lowing lines were applied to him from Hudibras :
ments, which were abundantly supplied, and with A squire he had whose name was Ralph,
which they carefully anointed their bodies. Balsams, Who in the adventure went his half.
oils, and perfumes of various descriptions were arReynolds had suffered from a paralytic stroke. ranged in pots and vases round this apartment, and One day, in July, 1789, while finishing the portrait of the bather chose for his purpose such of them as the Marchioness of Hertford, he suddenly lost the best suited his inclination. The names of some of sight of his left eye, and never used his pencil again. their anointing oils were cinnamominum, made of
His physical infirmities increased, and he died cinnamon, irinum, oil made from the iris, balininum, unmarried, on the 23rd of February, 1792, in the oil of ben; the serpyllinum, wild thyme, with which 69th year of his age. He was interred, with a grand they rubbed their eyebrows, hair, neck and head, and funeral, in one of the crypts of St. Paul's cathedral, oil of sisymbrium, or water-mint, with which they by the side of Sir Christopher Wren.
anointed their arms. Asses-milk was much in reOur present article is illustrated with a copy of quest among the Roman ladies for improving the Sir Joshua's Muscipula, or the Mouse-trap Girl, which delicacy of their skin. A lady named Poppea, though admirably displays the artist's power of permanently in exile, is said to have kept 500 she-asses for the fixing the various expressions of the human coun- | purpose not merely of bathing her face, but her tenance as excited by passing occurrences. The whole body in the milk. The use of oils was supmixture of surprise and triumph expressed in the posed to communicate strength and suppleness to face of Muscipula, on finding the imprisoned mouse, the limbs, and hence we find the practice of anointing is a happy effort. In a volume by an anonymous to have been common among those who were trained writer, published soon after the death of Sir Joshua, for wrestling and other public exercises. Respecting it is stated, that the Comte d'Adhemar, the French the custom of anointing among the Romans we have Ambassador, is the fortunate possessor of this charm- the following anecdote. The Emperor Hadrian was ing and exquisite little picture.”
in the habit of going to the public baths, and of
bathing and anointing himself with the common It is of the last importance to season the passions of a 1 people. One day he happened to observe a veteran child with devotion, which seldom dies in a mind that bas whom he had formerly known among the Roman received an early tincture of it. Though it may seem troops, rubbing his back and other parts of his body extinguished for a while by the cares of the world, the
against the marble wall of the anointing room, and heats of youth, or the allurements of vice, it generally
| asked him his reason for doing so. The veteran breaks out and discovers itself again, as soon as discretion,
answered that he had no slave to assist him, and consideration, age, or misfortunes have brought the man to himself. The fire may be covered and overlaid, but cannot
was, therefore, obliged to rub himself against the be entirely quenched and smothered. ADDISON,
wall, whereupon the emperor gave him two slaves to
wait on him, and a sufficient sum for their main-1 In former times, the meal or flour of beans was a tenance. Another day, several old men, enticed by | celebrated cosmetic with the ladies, and was thought the good fortune of the veteran, began rubbing their to possess the power of removing wrinkles. Horsebacks against the marble, in the emperor's presence, radish scraped and infused in cold milk is likewise in the hope of exciting his liberality also on their considered a safe and excellent wash for the skin. behalf, but Hadrian perceiving their drift, merely We might mention other washes and unguents, recommended them to rub each other.
but it is unnecessary. Where cutaneous diseases pre: In the public baths of the Greeks also, the custom vail, recourse should be had to medical aid, and of anointing prevailed, and of this we have the fol- cosmetics should only be used under proper advice; lowing account in RoBINSON's Grecian Antiquities. where the skin is healthy, the less such means of
After bathing they always anointed, either to close the improving its appearance are employed, the better. pores of the body, which was especially necessary after the Before we dismiss the subject, it is requisite to use of hot baths, or lest the skin should become rough after mention an article which still obtains a place in some the water was dried off it. It appears that the ancient toilettes, and which may be considered more de. heroes never used any costly ornaments, and Homer nerer
cidedly injurious to those who make use of it than introduces any of his heroes anointed with any other ointment than oil, except Paris, a soft and effeminate
any other cosmetic; we mean, rouge. person. In succeeding ages when much of the primitive Rouge is of various kinds. The best is called car. simplicity was laid aside, many still thought it indecent for mine, and is a powder obtained by the union of a solumen to anoint themselves with precious ointments. Solon tion of alum, with the colouring matter of a Mexican prohibited men from selling ointments, and the laws of insect, called the cochineal insect. Spanish and orien. Sparta forbade any person to sell them. Yet women, and
tal wool are also used. Wool is impregnated with a some effeminate men, were so curious in their choice of ointments, that they could tell with great nicety what sort
beautiful red colour, and made into small cakes, in suited best with each part of the body. The feet being which form we receive them. Rouge dishes are also most exposed to dust were oftener washed and anointed imported covered with a thin layer of colour, but the than other parts of the body. Women were generally em common rouge is formed by pounding certain subployed to anoint the feet both in the heroic and later ages,
stances which yield the desired hue. These are and it was customary for them to kiss the feet of those to
boiled in brandy or vinegar until three-fourths of the whom they thought a more than common respect was due. Thus the woman in the gospel kissed the feet of our blessed
liquid have evaporated, and a red paint remains. Saviour, whilst she anointed them.
By these means an attempt is made to imitate the It was likewise customary among the Greeks to
natural hue of health, and a bright and beautiful perfume the grave-stones of their deceased relatives
colour is obtained, at the expense of lasting injury to
the skin. But it is not sufficient that the cheeks are with precious ointments.
made to suffer ; the other parts of the face, as well as Why do we precious ointments shower, Noble wines why do we pour,
the neck and arms, must share the same fate, and Beauteous flowers why do we spread,
means have been found to give them the delicacy of Upon the mon'ments of the dead ?
appearance necessary to set off the rouge on the face Odee of Anacreon. Cowley's translation. to the best advantage. A costly article obtained by Thus we find the use of unguents among the
dissolving real seed pearls in an acid, and then preciancients to have been very general, but we must pitating the powder by an alkali, is used by those who remember that their manner of dress rendered such
can afford to purchase it, while powders of an inferior applications far more necessary in their case than
description, made from mother-of-pearl, and even from they can be with us. The loose robes of the Greeks
oyster-shell, suffice for the less wealthy aspirants to and Romans afforded them but little protection from
artificial beauty. There is another powder used to the air, and they would have been exposed to the
whiten the skin, which very nearly resembles the real inconveniences of a rough and chapped state of the pearl powder, but which has the disadvantage of skin in cold weather, and of an inflamed or irritated
turning black on exposure to the fumes of sulphur. condition in extreme heat, but for the counteracting
But we will not dwell longer on the subject of these effect of unctuous applications. But among ourselves,
artifices, degrading as they are to the character of our closely protected as we are by the form of our
countrywomen. We would willingly hope that a sense garments from the evils above named, there seems
of the important situation they hold in a Christian little need of other precautionary measures. Daily
country, and the influence which their example is ablutions in salt and water, or vinegar and water,
allowed to exert on all around them, may lead them succeeded by the friction of a coarse towel, and con
to seek for other adornings than those of mere cosnected with a due attention to exercise, diet, &c., are tume or complexion, adornings which will render them nearly certain to keep the skin healthy and free from lovely and beloved when time has stolen away the eruptions, and will be found to produce a far happier brightness of their youthful appearance, and has imeffect than the most costly and carefully prepared pressed their features with the peculiar mark of his cosmetics. Since all persons may not, however, be
own hand. disposed to acquiesce in our opinion, we proceed to name a few of the most approved unguents and washes to be used after a warm bath, or after the AMONGST the many acts of gratitude we owe to God, it daily ablutions just spoken of. The cold cream so may he accounted one, to study and contemplate the much in use amongst us for the cure of chapped
perfections and beauties of his works of creation. Every hands, &c., is, perhaps, as efficacious for anointing
new discovery must necessarily raise in us a fresh sense of the skin as any substance we can mention. After
the greatness, wisdom, and power of God. He hath so
ordered things that almost every part of the creation is for the use of it, the skin should be rubbed with a towel our benefit, either to the support of our being, the delight till all appearance of greasiness is removed. This of our senses, or the agreeable exercise of the rational cream may be made in the following manner : take faculty. If there are some few poisonous animals and three ounces of oil of sweet almonds, and of sperma
plants fatal to man, these may serve to heighten the ceti and white wax, each a drachm and a half, melt
contrary blessings; since we could have no idea of benefits,
were we insensible of their contraries; and seeing God has them together, and beat in while warm eight parts of
given us reason, by which we are able to choose the good, rose water, and two of orange-flower water, till the and avoid the evil, we suffer very little from the malignant oil will absorb no more.
parts of the creation.-EDWARDS.
rather for complaint than thankfulness. On the deAND HIS POEM OF THE HERMIT..
parture of the travellers in the morning, the angel THOMAS PARNELL was born in Dublin, in 1679. He
presented this man with a cup he hd stolen from the
| their former host. This renewed the sorrow of the was the son of a Commonwealth man, who at the
hermit, who could not endure to see this treasure Restoration left Congleton, in Cheshire, where the
taken from the poor and kind-hearted, and given to family had been established for several centuries, and
the rich man, who possessed neither benevolence or settling in Ireland, purchased an estate, which with
courtesy. his lands in Cheshire descended to the poet. He re
Both evil and strange did the deeds of the angel ceived his education at a grammar-school, from whence
appear, but he took little heed of the expostulations at the age of thirteen he was admitted into the col.
and bewailings of the hermit; and on they journeyed, lege. In 1700 he was ordained a deacon, and in
till they reached a habitation whose owner was kind 1705 the archdeaconry of Clogher was conferred upon
and courteous, and who cordially welcomed them. him. He was warmly recommended by Swift to u
When morning came they bade him adieu ; and on Archbishop King, who gave him a prebend in 1713 ;
passing a bridge, on which was standing a favourite and afterwards presented him to the vicarage of
servant of their host, the angel precipitated him over Finglas, in the diocese of Dublin. He enjoyed his
it into the river, and he was instantly drowned, preferment, however, little more than a year, dying
Astonished at such cruelty, the hermit reproached in 1717, in Chester, at the early age of thirty-eight.
his companion with his perfidy, but neither his surprise Dr. Johnson observes, that the general character of
nor indignation had any effect on the angel, who traParnell is not great extent of comprehension, or fer
velled on till they arrived, on the fourth night, at the tility of mind; but his praise must be derived from
dwelling of an honourable and kind man, who received the easy sweetness of his diction. The most cele
them with great civility. This person had a young brated of his poems is The Hermit, the origin of which
child, whose cries were heard by the angel; he arose is supposed by Goldsmith to have been Arabian, and
in the night, and strangled the infant in its cradle, the following is a literal translation from an old
The hermit, horror-struck at such extraordinary volume of Spanish tales in the black letter.
and atrocious actions, resolved no longer to continue The Hermit.
in companionship with the angel. Quitting the house DERMIT of old, after having spent many years
of the good man, who was bewailing the death of a
child in whom he had placed his fondest hopes, the m in the practice of voluntary acts of piety and severe
anchorite embraced his cross, and conjured the angel, mortification in the solitude of his hermitage, was
whom he now considered as a demon, to depart, and sorely tempted by a spirit of blasphemy, representing
no longer bear him company. But the angel answered to him as unjust those judgments of God which were
him, “I am no evil spirit as thou imaginest, but the hidden from his understanding. So tormented was
angel of the Lord, who has sent me to show thee he by these doubts, so worn with care and beset by
the hidden judgments of an eternal Providence, that temptation, that no rest was left for him either day
thou so much desirest to understand. Know thereor night; for he continually struggled against those foolish thoughts that rose up in his mind contrary to
fore, that I took away the silver cup from its chahis will.
ritable owner, because such was the satisfaction with But God never forgets the afflictions of his
which he surveyed it, that he became careless in the servants, and though none are exempt in this life from
prayers he was in the habit offering up before he the temptations of the enemy, yet He does not suffer
possessed it. I therefore deprived him of a treasure, him to injure us to the extent of his evil designs.
the pride and care of which occupied too much of his One day as the hermit sat in his cell more sad than
thoughts, in order that his devotion might become as usual, being more strongly assailed by temptation,
frequent and earnest as formerly. This same cup I there appeared to him an angel in the likeness of a
gave to the rich and uncharitable man, that he might young man of agreeable aspect, who said to him,
receive in this life the reward of any good work his “ Follow me, if thou wouldst consider and understand the hidden judgments of God, which thou art so de
natural inclination may have led him to perform, for
God is immovably just, and leaves no evil deed withsirous to know." Happy in the extreme, the con.
out its punishment, or good without its recompense. templative hermit accepted the offer, with the earnest
I precipitated the servant of our third host who rewish of having his doubts cleared up and his mind
ceived us so hospitably, into the river, because he had set at ease. They travelled far that day, and as night came on they reached the dwelling of a good and
formed the resolution of murdering his master the
following night; so that by drowning that perfidious charitable, but poor man; he gave them a civil wel.
servant, God freed from a violent death one who, for come with such provision as he had, placing on the
his sake, had treated us with so much benevolence. supper table a silver cup of curious workmanship,
I strangled in the cradle the infant son of our last that he greatly prized, and in the contemplation of which he took the greatest delight. The angel, how
kind host, because, once extremely liberal to the poor,
since the birth of this child he had each day dimi. ever, contrived unperceived to steal away the cup that night, and carry it off with him.
nished the alms he had been in the habit of be. Taking leave next
stowing, in order to amass wealth for his son. I morning of their host, the angel showed the stolen
therefore took away the life of the babe in its age cup to the hermit, who was greatly scandalized and
of innocence, in order that the father might no surprised at the baseness of stealing from that poor man, who had received them into his house with so
longer be diverted from the performance of those much liberality, the possession that he most prized.
works of charity which he had begun to neglect. The angel, however, paid little attention to the up
These are the most wise and equitable judgments of braidings and lamentations of his companion, and,
God, which appear to those who understand them not, pursuing their way, they lodged the following night
strange and unjust.”
With this the angel disappeared, leaving the hermit at the dwelling of one who was rich in goods, but of
delivered from his tormenting temptations, and com. so churlish and morose a disposition, and of such un
forted under all his afflictions. courteous manners, that his reception of them was
T. F. very ungracious, and withal so grudging, that it called