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1840, 160

Orreal, trial by, 179
Oriental Dazairs. 145
Osboru, lines by, 303
Panther, tamed, anecdotes of a, 198
Panis, Dr, selection from. 181
Laruell, Thomas, account of, 23
Passious, rage of the, 93
Patrick, ip.. selections frum, 227, 238
l'exe, lines on, 157

- the proper result of Christian

temper, 247
Perlantry, meaning of the word, 120
l'euros", lines tay, 63
Perfumes, on, 61
Persia, recollections of, 99
Persian wheel, 141
Philade plin, ite counto, the city of, 58
Photogrnic drawing, II., the Daguer-

reotyp, 71-01
Piety, remarks on, 72
Punperuel flower, country maid and

the, 203
Pollok, lines by, 3, 131
Praver, lines on, 69
Preponderance of good over evil, 228
President of the United States, visit

to, 158
Prior. Tours by, 110

anecdote of, 155
Progress of improvement, 16
Proportional compasses. on, 196
Psalms, beauty and variety of the, 176
Pyramid, great, night on the, 130
Quarantine and lazarettos, I., 173-

11.. 179
Questions, botanical, answers to, 120

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Religion, influence of, 77 . Skilled labour, importance of, 112, 119, 1 Torquay, Devonshire, town of, 133
Remorse lines on, 77

191, 235

Townson, selection from, 31
Responsiority of an agent, 227
Smith, Sir T, counsels of,

True peace, 157
Resin'ction, lines on the, 249
Smoke-jack. the, 247

Truth, power of, 80
Retiremeut, advantages of, 193
Smoliet, lines by, 113

Turks in Algers, 86
Reynolds, Sir Joshua, and his works, Smyth's lectures. extract from. 293 Turnspils, boys emplovod ns. 247
1., 221, 25

Soum Jenyus, selection from, 43 Twamlıy, L. A., poim by, 203
Richarison, selection from, 139

Socialism, remarks on, 77
Richmond Castle, Yorkshire, 20
Socrales, last hours of, 131

Vanity, effects of, 111
Robertson, selection from, 120
Solitude, liues ou, 4

Veuilume. Frailer, account of, 109
Roman architecture, 211
Sorrow the guide of man, 100

Venice. lastrillo al. 180
Rume, modern, remarks on, 156

- pffects of, on the miud, 236 Visit of Mary the Medicis to Charles I..
Rook, the. 150
Sonl. lines on the. 75, 203

76
Ros-m ry, lines on the, 103

South of France, gip-ies of the, 244 Voyage, comparison of life to a, 81
Royal Visits, 76

- America, mines of Chili iu, 133
- Western Railway, 163

Waller, lines by, 76
Sage. garden, culture of, 195

Spitalfielis in 1780 and 1840, 160 Ward, selection from. 228
St. Aubin, Jersey, account of, 137 Stay-heetle, the, 141

Washington, visit to the
St. Omers, France, account of, 17, 31 Stanhope, selection from, 31

Water, remarks on, 78
Saudford, Mrs., seiectiou from, 183 Suttes, ivory, of the ancients, 51 Wax figures. on, 23
Saracenie Architecture. 249
Sterne, selection from, 6

arificial flowers in, 204
Saxe-Coburg Gotha, Duchy of, 4
Strata, veneral arrangement of, 44

West, Sir B. aud his works, 1
Science, advantages in, 181
Study of the creation, on the, 28

Wheel, the Persiau, 141
streugili of, 183
Sunday thought, 222

Whiiehali palace, notice of, 101
Scott, Sir W., lines by, 77
Supreme Being, proofs of a, 103

W clif, account of, 42
-

selection from, 222 Switzerland, towu of Zurich in, 65 Wild beast tamers, 63
Second Christiau eia, architecture of

Will 'the Wisp. 67
the, 250
Tamar, banks of the, 153, 177

Wise man, the, 3
Sedgwick, selection from, 176

Tamed pruither, anecdotes of a, 198 Wither, liues hy, 248
Sell-knowledge, 45
Tamers of wild beasts, 63

Wol-ev, cardinal, establishment of
Serk, island of. 106
Taylor. Jerrmy, selection from, 75

101
Sharpe, selection from, 243
Tear, liues ou a, 21

Woman's love, faithfulness of. 159
Shot, on the miunfacture of, 193
Teherau, Persia, tuwn of, 99

Woman's Mission," liups ou, 117
Shuttleworth, selectiou from, 67
Tewkesbury, abbev church at, 73

Works of Sir J Reyn lis, I., 2-11,25
Sickuess, thoughts ou, 143
Thomsun, the poet, epitaph un, 43

Sir Benjamin West, I., 170-
Sidney, Sir Philip, character of, 176

- - lives by, 121

II., 186
Sight and hearing, channels through Thought, a churchyard, 11
which truth is arrived at, 206

- a Sunday, 222

Yew, the common, 239
Simpson, the mathematician, 160 Thyme, qualities aid culture of, 187 Young, selections from, 63
Skating, on. 70
Tillotsov, selection from, 6

Youth, illusious in, 43
Sketch of the history of Algiers, 33 Timber floats of Germany and Italy,

hopes of, 103
Sket:hes in America, 117, 159

Time past, present, and future, 131
in Egypt, 130

Toiletie, materials for the, VIII., 27- | Zval, misapplication of, 119
of national history-Holland, IX., 61

Zoralin, extracts from, 11, 43, 53
182

| Tombstone, inscription on a, 80 | Zurich, Switzerland, account of, 65

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Railroad locomotive engines, 161
Rainbow, the, 78
Kaleigh. Sir Walter, selection from, 53
Rapids of Niagara, vessel seat orer, 118
Regal state, 53
Relaxation, pleasures of, 91

INDEX TO THE ENGRAVINGS.

ABBEY of St. Bertin, ruins of, 17

Fable, illustration of a, 243

| Miner's hut at San Pedro 'Nolasco, | Road-side well, Algiers, 82
Kirkstall, ruins of, 48
Fiy-tree, fruit of the, 136

Chili, 133

Rome, munk walking the streets of,
Black, ruins of, 225
Figures from the Panathenaic frieze, | Monastery of Grand Chartreuse, 201

157
church, Tewkesbury, 73
217. 233

entrance to, 208 Roman peasant and family, 156
Abdekadet, Marabout bouse of, 83 Floating timber in Lombardy, 9 Monk walking the streets of Rome, 157 | Ruins of the Abuey of St. Bertia, at
Academy, the infaat, after Sir J. Rey

Monument to Wiclif, Lutterworth St. Omer, 17
nolds, 1
Gad fly. 221

church, 41

- Kirkstall Abbey, 48
Algerine vessels of pottery, 88
Galvanic battery, sectiou of a, 220 Moors, costume of the, 84

- Byckvacre Priory, 116
Algiers, general view of, 33
llustration of, 223 Mosque at Medeya, 81

the Black Abbey; 225
- street iu. 37

Gate and fountain of Bab-el-Ouad, 40 Muscipula, after Sir J. Reynolds, 25
- gate and fountain of Bab-el. Geuna, from the ramparts, 113

St. Aubin, Jersey, 137
• Onadi, 40

Geological strata, diagram Hlustrative Neptune, temple of, Corinth, remains St. Bertin, ruins of the abbey of, i7
- coffee house and school of Byr. of, 55

of, 121

St. Peter's port, Guernsey, 10
madrais, near, 81
Gont-mo:h caterpillar, 184
New York, city hall at, 57

San Pedro Nolasco, Chiti, miner's hut
- road-side well, 82
Golden age, by West, 185
Nivereh, supposed site of, 13

at, 133
Arabs and a kuulougli. 86
Gotha, town of, 5

Smoke-jacks, illustrations of, 248
Arum, common, or cuckoo-pint, 15,6 Grand Chartreuse, monastery of, 201 Oakhampton castle, 241

Stag-beetle, 144
Athens, remains of the temple of Pan.
--entrance to the, 208 Ockweils, Berkshire, hall at, 89

Statue of Jupiter, by the great sculp
drosus at, 209
Grecian hats, 125

Oiner, St, ruins of the abbey of St. tor Phidias, 52
Aubin, St., Jersey, town of, 137
Greenwich railway, view of, 168

Bertin a., 17

Strata, diagram illustrative of, 55
Axmouth, Deron, land.slip near,
Guernsey, St. Peter's port at, 105

- - Hotel de Ville, at, 32 Street iu Algiers, 37
Bab-el Quad, gate and fountain of,

Oriental bazuar, 145
Hall at Ockwells, Berkshire, 89,

Tamar, banks of the, 153
Bandana handkerchief press, 92
Hotel de Ville, St Omer, 32
Palace at Medeva, exterior of, 81

- Weir-head, 177
Bank of the United States, Philadel. Huts, Grecian, 123

interior grand court of, 85 Temple or Neptune at
phia, 64
Hydrostatic press, 69

- at Whitehall, in the time of mains of. 121
Banks of the Tamar, 153

Charles I., 101

Theseus, 128
Bazaar, an Oriental, 145

Infant academy, after Sir J. Reynolds, 1 Panathenaic frieze, Elgin marbles, - Pandrosus, at Athens, re-
Black Abbey, ruins of the, 225
Interior grand court of the palace at 217, 233

mains of, 209
Buffon's burning mirrors, 236

Medeya, 85

Paodrosus, temple of, Athens, remains Tewkesbury, abbey church
Bycknacre Priory, ruins of, 116

of, 209

Theseus, temple oi, 128
Jersey, town of St. Anbin, 137
Parker's burning.glass, 345

Timber, floating, in Lombardy, 9
Caraccas, cow.trre of the. 228
Jupiter, statue of, by Phidias, 52 Patent shot-tower, section of, 200

Top of the pyramid of Cheops, 129
Caryatider, portico of, 216

Peasant, Roman, and family, 15

Torquay, town of. 193
Caterpillar, the goal-moth. 184
Kirkstall abbey, ruins of, 48
Persian wheel, 141

Tree, the cow, of the Caraccas, 229
Chartreuse, Grand, monastery of, 201

Peter's, St., port, Guernsey, 105
entrance to, 208 Laburnum, the, 232

Phidias, statue of Jupiter by, 52 United States bank, Phila.lelphia, 64
Chelms ord, Ess. x, town of, 149

Land-slip near Axmouth, Deron, 49 Philadelphia, Voited States, bank at,
Cheo, s, top of the pyramid of, 129 Litzaretto at Marselles, 180

64

Vendome, entrance into, 109
Chili, miner s hut at San Pearu No. 1.epsic, town of, 97

Port cu of Caryatiles, 216

Voltaic battery Berlion of n. 2:20
laco, 133
Iwcomutire ringine, railrail, 164
l'ottery, Algeire, 89

-- illustration of, 923
City hall. Sew York, 57
Lombinir, Aratiug iimber in 9

Press, the hyrirostatic, 69
Collections and schol of Burma- | London and Birmingham railway, - Bandana hurikerchief. 92

Wrir heal. river Tamar. 17
drais, wear Algers. 81
entrance to, Enston square, 161 Proportional compasse's. 169

Weli, rotaslie, Algiers. 81
Commoniarum, or cucko.pint, 176 Lutterworth church, muuumeut to | Pyramid of Cheops, tup up, 129

West's picture. " S.Ne linile Children
Compasses, proportional, 1996
Wiclit in, 41

to come outo me, and to bid them
Curiut, remains of the tempie of Nep-

Railroad locomotive engine, 164

Trot," 169
tune at, 121
Marabout house of Abdekadet, 88 Railway, London and Birmingham,

- Golden age. 183
Cow.tier of the Caraccos, 229
Marseilles, lazıret'o at, 130

entrance to, 161

Whitehall palace in the time of Charles
Merleya, musque it. 81

Grenwich, view of the, 168

1, :01
Dantmonth, fiew of. 189
- - extrrior of the palace at, 81 Ramparts of Gelo, 113

Wicti', monument to, in Lutterworth
Devousture, tuwn of Torquay in, 193 S

towu ul, 84

lening of the temple of Neptune at church 41

interior grand court of the truth, 121
Elgin marbles, blucks from, 217, 219, polace at, 83

---Papirosus ! Yew, the common, 240
233

Military drilliuy. positions of the feet at theus, 209
Axterior of the palace at Medu ya, 81

iu, 56

| Richmoud castle, Yorkshire, 21 | Zurich, Switzerland, G3

GHI

NO 482.

JANUARY

4TH. 1840. TU 1940

PRICE TONE PENNY.

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SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS

generally having been found to bring their incipient AND HIS WORKS.

professors into niuch trouble, for neglecting, in the

judgment of their older and wiser friends, better and Among the distinguished characters of the last cen- more substantial interests. Some of the most distury, who exercised great influence upon the profes- tinguished poets have been in early life educated with sion or vocation to which their abilities led them, we a view to the law : Reynolds was destined to the pracmay class Sir Joshua REYNOLDS. It is sufficient tice of physic. But having a natural tendency to for the term of a man's life and the natural powers limning, he could not nor did he attempt to restrain of his mind, that, in whatever direction his capacity the impulses of nature. Hence he was deficient in may develope itself, he should continue, in order to the routine of scholastic learning ; but, though he excel, to cultivate the object to which his capacity believed that genius and capacity were identical, and tends, so as to make such object individual, and his that he possessed these in reference to the arts, he own. Painting is, and has been, from the early days did not fall into the seductive fallacy, which someof the world, one of the great arts of life ; and to times leads genius astray, namely, that fits of inspirathat department of it, which is occupied in the deli tion beget skill, and thereby relieve the possessor neation of portraits, Reynolds was throughout his from earnest and assiduous toil. life most chiefly and successfully devoted.

From his earliest years, therefore, till he was about The legends of antiquity tell us that portrait- nineteen years of age, his time was chiefly taken up painting took its rise in very old times in the city of in copying such pictures and prints as came within his Corinth, in Greece, from the circumstance of a young reach ; in taking likenesses of his friends and relawoman tracing the profile of her lover by his shadow tions; and in perusing all such books as fell in his cast upon the wall by a lamp. This was to serve as way, which treated of painting and perspective. Some a memento during a separation, which the dread con of his performances at length struck the attention cerns of war were about to inflict upon them :-and of his father, who, thereupon, by the advice of his in this dwells one of the great charms and incentives friends, sent Joshua to London, where he began his . to this species of painting,—a charm which incites professional studies under Hudson, the most celeand enchains the mind with the desire to possess, in brated portrait-painter of the day, on the 18th of spite of time, of absence, space, and death, such a October, 1741, which day is the festival of St. Luke, means of calling up the features, looks, and expression the reputed patron of painters. of those whom we have loved and lost on earth, that In the practice of portrait-painting, it has been they may seem to be constantly with us in this world, wisely and acutely observed by those who are comas we trust they will be eternally in the next. What-petent judges of the merit of it, that it is not sufficient ever may be the merits and excellencies of all other to satisfy the judgment, to give merely an exact and species of painting, whether they be of a mental or mathematical likeness of an individual, if there be not mechanical kind, they cannot in this one quality com imparted to the picture an expression which shall pete with the tracing of portraits ; for the latter arouse in the beholder's mind such an idea of vital ministers to the best and holiest of human propensi warmth, as we should entertain if we actually beheld the ties, and excellence in this ministration is naturally living prototype of the portrait. In this, we are told and deservedly rewarded. That the painting of por- | Hudson, the preceptor of Reynolds, was essentially detraits is, and has been, liberally rewarded, as condu- ficient ; though otherwise a distinguished and accurate cing to gratify pride and vanity, cannot be denied : maker of portraits : whereas, Reynolds, by connecting but we do not refuse the good because sullied with the latter excellence with the former, rose, on this evil; and we do not refuse due bonour to Sir Joshua, | ground, to the very top of his profession. He remained though, as Northcote remarks, he thought it his with Hudson about three years, and then returned into duty “to discover only the perfections of those whom | Devonsbire; the separation having probably taken hc represented.”

place, in consequence of Reynolds pursuing a style The general tenor of the foregoing sentiments has of painting very much out of the ordinary beat. The been long ago confirmed by the pen of Johnson, who event, which led to their parting was Reynolds's speaks of this department of the art as being “em- painting the portrait of an old servant-woman of ployed in diffusing friendship, in renewing tenderness, Hudson's. This picture astonished his master, and in quickening the affections of the absent, and con- obtained unbounded applause in the Gallery. tinuing the presence of the dead.” The exercise of I Having acquired the friendship and patronage of of this art, he goes on to observe, every man several distinguished persons, Reynolds soon after desires “for the sake of those whom he loves, and returned to London, and lived for a while in St. by whom he hopes to be remembered. This use of Martin's Lane, which was then the favourite residence the art is a natural and reasonable consequence of of artists, and where something like an Academy was affection : and though, like all other human actions, established. it is often complicated with pride, yet even such pride As most of those, which are esteemed to be the is more laudable than that by which palaces are best productions of the best painters of the middle covered with pictures, that, however excellent, neither ages, are congregated at Rome; and as Rome has, in imply the owner's virtue, nor excite it."

consequence, been held to be the finishing academy of The subject of this paper was born at Plympton, artists; it was only a natural desire in Reynolds in Devonshire, in 1723, and was one of a large about this time to visit the city of the Seven Hills. family. His father was a clergyman and master of In the year 1749, after voyaging about with Commothe grammar school of the place. He has been dore Keppel up the Mediterranean, he landed at accused of neglecting the education of his son ; but Leghorn, and proceeded direct to Rome. if young Reynolds' attention was not driven to the It is a most interesting and astonishing circumacquirement of literature in the ordinary course, it stance in the history and profession of painting, that was owing to his strong natural predilection for Reynolds, and many other distinguished painters, sketching, principally, the human features. His con. when at Rome for the purpose of viewing, studying, scquent neglect of the pursuits, which education im- | and imbibing the principles of the great masters, poses on the young, was a source of much rebuke should have felt but little impression from them at from his sire:-poetry, painting, and the fine arts, the early contemplation of their performances. To

describe the feelings of Sir Joshua, as he has inge-1

THE CALENDAR. nuously developed them, would be to pourtray the feelings of many other professed admirers of the fine

1. Golden Number . . . 17

2. Epact arts, leaving their ingenuousness out of the question.

. . . 3. Solar Cycle

.

. . . . 1 The keeper of the Vatican told Reynolds that many

1840. 4. Sunday Letters . , . . E & D visitors at Rome, who went to see the paintings, and

5. Roman Indiction . . . 13 Raphael's in particular, would ask, when they had

6. Number of Direction. , . 29 seen the whole collection, where the performances

7. Julian Period . . . 6553 of Raphael were to be found and would not be.

The following article is supplementary to an article lieve, that they had already passed through the rooms

entitled, “ WHAT IS AN ALMANAC ?" p. 150, Vol. XV., where they were kept. When Reynolds found that

of this work. The terms used at the head of this others, even the greatest of painters, had stood in the like case with himself, in not all at once admiring

paper, are usually denominated the CHRONOLOGICAL

AND COMMON Notes of the Almanac or Calendar. and appreciating the merits of Raphael, he felt comforted; and solaced himself with the just and wise re

THE CALENDAR is an adjustment of time, accordflection, that he himself was then in the midst of

ing to rule, for the use of society. The term

" Calendar" is derived from an old classic word works executed upon principles, with which he was at

| implying to call, from the circumstance of the first totally unacquainted; that he had come from a country where the arts were then in a low state;

Pontifex Maximus, the head of the ancient Roman that the name of Raphael, and his admirable paintings,

| priests, proclaiming, on the first day of the month, did not owe their reputation to the ignorance and

the date of the appearance of the new moon, and the

festivals to be observed throughout the month. prejudice of mankind: consequently that he himself had come to the Roman School, not to congratulate

In the early stages of society, the progress of time himself on his own acquirements, but to relearn the

was estimated by the courses of the sun and moon; principles of his art. In a short time, he tells us, a

the former marking out years, seasons, and days;

and the latter, months and weeks. new taste and perception dawned upon him; that,

But, as we observed in the former paper, of the instead of admiring stiff and extravagant attitudes, he

| several divisions of time, it has been most difficult to began to feel the sober dignity and majestic simplicity

determine with accuracy, the month and the year ; of the illustrious Italian to be more congenial with

since the revolution of neither the sun nor the moon the feelings of his own soul. Before he left Rome,

is completed in an exact number of days. To retherefore, he became one of the daily worshippers of these models of excellence in the art. On the other

concile the revolutions of the sun and moon, with hand, he remarks, that many visitors at Rome, who

the common account of time, and to make them

agree with each other, was the objeet held in view had no taste or feeling for the art, made pretensions

upon reforming the Calendar on the following reto instantaneous raptures at the sight of Raphael's

markable occasions :works. The whole character and conduct of Reynolds in

i. Julius Cæsar, being convinced by the Greek life was marked by urbanity and courtliness. His

astronomer, Sosigenes, that the year then employed

was too short, and that it could never be properly behaviour, when thrown into the way of pretenders to the art of painting, is happily sketched by Gold.

settled but by referring it to the (apparent) annual smith at the conclusion of his “Retaliation.” The

revolution of the sun, and finding that about ninety

days had been lost by the old reckoning, made the deafness of Sir Joshua, there alluded to, was brought

first Julian year to consist of 444 days, which was in on by a dangerous illness, which he suffered at

consequence called the “year of confusion.” This Rome.

year was thus made to terminate at the proper To coxcombs averse, yet most civilly steering;

season. The following years, with the months, were When they judged without skill, he was still hard of

then adjusted nearly as they are at present ; and, as hearing :

the year was from that time made to consist of 3654 When they talked of their Raphaels, Corregios, and stuff, He shifted his trumpet, and only took snuff.

days, a day was inserted every fourth year, between

the 6th and 5th of the Calends of March, (which The reader will gain some idea of the taste and

days answer to the 24th and 25th of February); so genius of Sir Joshua Reynolds, from the frontispiece that, the 6th day of the Calends of March being reto the present number, “The Infant Academy” is a

peated, there were accounted to be two sixth-days of happy example of our artist's power in grouping and the Calends of March, and the day thus inserted was designing children, and in pourtraying the innocence named bissertus dies, or the double-sixth day; whence of youth and childhood. By the will of Sir Joshua,

| we call Leap-year, in which this addition is made, the second choice was given to Lord Palmerston, of Bissertile. any picture of his (Sir Joshua's) own painting; and

I i. But, as the year does not consist of quite 365 his lordship chose “ The Infant Academy," which has | days, it was found, in the sixteenth century after the been made known to the world through the engraving birth of Christ, that the course of the civil year was by Hayward.

ten days in advance of the course of the sun. The calendar was, therefore, again corrected by Pope

Gregory the Thirteenth, A. D. 1582. This, which is The wise man, says the Bible, walks with God;

called the new style, was adopted in England, A. D. Surveys, far on, the endless line of life;

1752, as noticed in our former paper. The regu. Values his soul, thinks of eternity,

lations assumed in this second reformation of the Both worlds considers, and provides for both: With reason's eye his passions guards; abstains

Calendar, are such as, reckoning from the sixteenth From evil; lives on hope, on hope, the fruit

century, will make the civil year and the course of Of faith; looks upward, purifies his soul,

the sun to differ after the lapse of 4000 years, only Expands his wings, and mounts into the sky;

to the amount of one day ! Passes the Sun, and gains his Father's house,

THE Notes given at the head of this article, were And drinks with angels from the fount of bliss.

the elements employed in the correction of the CalenPollor's Course of Time.

! dar ; and these we proceed briefly to explain,

:

1. The GOLDEN NUMBER is the number which any | THE DUCHY OF SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA. given year holds in the Lunar Cycle, which is a period

COBURG is a country which has been as yet little of nineteen years, at the lapse of which the new visited by travellers, because it does not lie in the moons take place on the same days of the same course of the great roads : but the fine scenery, the months respectively as at the commencement of the

unsophisticated and original old German tone of cycle. Therefore, while the sun performs its annual

manners, the economical mode of living, and the course nineteen times, those of the moon amount to

celebrity of its reigning family, will probably gradu235. The importance of this discovery in the regu ally attract many strangers. lation of time was held to be so great, that the rule

The ducal house of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha is of the for ascertaining the number of the year in the Lunar

Lutheran religion. The reigning duke is Ernest, Cycle was inscribed in letters of gold on a tablet, set up

born January 2, 1784, who succeeded to the throne, in the market-place of Athens, in Greece. Hence, the

December 9, 1806. He was married, first to Louisa, term GOLDEN number. The rule is given in the

princess of Saxe-Gotha, from whom he was separated Calendar which prefaces the Church service.

in 1826, and who died in 1832, and secondly, in 1832, 2. The Epact is the number of days over and

to Maria, daughter of the late Duke Alexander of above all the complete courses of the moon, for any

Würtemberg. He has two sons, Ernest, the heir apnumber of years, in any part of the Lunar Cycle.

parent, born June 21, 1818, and Albert *, born the Hence, it is the moon's age at the beginning of any

succeeding year. Of his two sisters, Julia, married year; that is, the number of days which have elapsed to Prince

to Prince Constantine of Russia, from whom she was since the last new moon in the preceding year. .

divorced in 1820, is dead; the other is Victoria, 3. The SOLAR CYCLE is a period of twenty-eight duchess of Kent, born August 17, 1786 : be has also ycars, which, owing to leap-year, must necessarily

two brothers, Ferdinand, born 1785, and Leopold, pass round before the days of the month can return

king of the Belgians, born 1790. The former has respectively to the same days of the week as at the

three sons and one daughter; the eldest sou, Ferdicommencement of the cycle.

nand, is married to Donna Maria, queen of Portugal. . 4. The Dominical or Sunday LETTER is one of

The following is a view of the provinces of the the first seven letters of the alphabet ; which letters duchy and

duchy and of their population :are used to denote respectively the days of the week,

Area in Geo. Popula- Market Viland one of which letters must of course fall to the

Sq. Miles. tion, 1832. Towns. Towns. lages. Jouses. Sunday throughout the year. But, owing to leap Principality)

}

0.50 of Coburg!

9.50 ... 38,000 ... 4... 4 ... 271 ... 5,700 year, their order is every fourth year disturbed ; so

Principality, 99.10 that the Solar Cycle must pass round before the let

na

09 231 of Gotha } 28.10.... 92,231 ... 5 ... 6 ... 158 ... 18,250

61 tors can fall respectively to the same days of the week. The present being leap-year, there are two

37.60 ... 130,231 ... I ... 101 ... 429 ... 23,960 Sunday letters; the left-hand letter is used till the

According to the latest census, the entire population end of February, and the other till the end of the

amounts to 131,861. year.

The principal towns are, Gotha (13,006 inhabit5. ROMAN INDICTION was a period of fifteen

| ants), and Coburg (9067). With the exception of years appointed by the Emperor Constantine, A.D.

the Jews, all the inhabitants are Germans, and all 312, for the payment of certain taxes from the sub

are Lutherans, except 2000 Catholics and 1000 Jews. jects of the empire.

In this duchy, there are three gymnasiums and 6. The NUMBER OF DIRECTION. It having been

classical schools, one academical gymnasium, two decided by an assembly of Christian bishops at the

seminaries for schoolmasters, one ladies' school (at Council of Nice, in Asia, A. D. 325, that EASTER DAY

Coburg), thirty-five town schools, and 300 village is always "the first Sunday after the Full Moon which

schools.
schoo

The revenue is 1,100,000 florins. The happens upon, or next after, the 21st of March," it

public debt amounts to 3,000,000 florins. The confollows that Easter Day cannot take place earlier than

tingent to the army of the confederacy is 1366 men. the 22nd of March, or later than the 25th of April ;

The government is a constitutional monarchy: the so that from one date to the other (both inclusive)

representatives form one chamber only. Gotha, howare thirty-five days. The number of direction is that

ever, has still its old diet (three classes in one chamday of the thirty-five, on which Easter-Sunday falls.

ber). The qualification to vote for a deputy of the 7. The JULIAN PERIOD consists of 7980 years;

nobles is constituted by the possession of a seignorial which is produced by the multiplication into each

estate (Rittcrgut). For the deputies of towns, cvery other of the Solar Cycle, the Lunar Cycle, and the

citizen is entitled to vote who has never been a bank. Roman Indiction (28 x 19 x 15 =7680). This

rupt, and who has not been punished for transgresperiod is reckoned from 709 years before the creation

sion of the laws. of the world, when the three cycles are supposed to

In the villages, the householders form the constitucommence together; which circumstance cannot take

ency. The deputies must be of the Christian reliplace again until the lapse of the entire period, A. D.

gion, citizens of the state, thirty years of age, and 3267.

men of unblemished reputation. Those of the towns The Roman Indiction and the Julian Period are not

and villages must have either an estate free from in. now of practical use in the Calendar; but the other

cumbrances, worth 5000 florins, or an annual income observations will serve to assist those who wish to

1 of 400 florins, Officers of the government appointed understand the Calendar, which is prefixed to the

for the purpose, superintend the election of the Church service, in the Prayer-book.

knights and of the citizens : in the villages, the elec

tions are superintended by the ordinary officials. Blest Solitude ! when life's gay hours are past,

The ministry is composed of one minister of state, Howo'or we range, in thee we fix at last.

and of three privy-councillors.
Tossed through tempestuous seas, the voyage over,

The highest court of justice is the supreme court
Pale, we look back, and bless thy friendly shore;
Our own strict judges, our past lives we scan,

of appeal; the lower courts are the colleges of justice And ask if virtue has enlarged the span :

at Coburg and Gotha; and finally, throughout the If bright the prospect, we the grave defy,

* The husband-elect of our gracious sovereign Queen Victoria. Trust future ages, and contented die,

| Ev. Sat. Mag:

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