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977 the town. Good-breeding and good- ( into confidence on the credit you gave nature lead people in a great measure to • him, has proved false, unjust, and has This injustice: when suitors of no consi- not an wered any way the character deration will have confidence enough to you gave me of bim.' press upon their superiors, those in power I cannot but conceive very good hopes are tender of speaking the exceptions of that rake Jack Toper of the Temple, they have against them, and are mort- for an honelt fcrupulousness in this point. gaged into promises out of their impa. A friend of his meeting with a servant tience of importunity. In this latter that had formerly lived with Jack, and case, it would be a very useful inquiry having a mind to take him, fent to him to know the history of recommendations, to know what faults the fellow had,

There are, you must know, certain abet. since he could not please such a careless tors of this way of torment, who make fellow as he was. His answer was as it a profeísion to manage the affairs of follows: candidates: these gentlemen let out their impudence to their clients, and supply SIR, any defective recommendation, by in. THOMAS that lived with me was forming how such and such a man is to turned away because he was tog be attacked. They will tell you, Get good for me. You know I live in ta. the least scrap froin Mr. Such-a-one, verns; is an orderly fober rascal, and and leave the rest to them. When one thinks much to sleep in an entry, until of these undertakers has your business two in the morning. He told me one in hand, you may be sick, absent in day when he was dressing me, that lie town or country, and the patron shall wondered I was not dead before norry be worried, or you prevail. I remem- since I went to dinner in the evening, ber to have been shewn a gentleman and went to supper at two in the mornTome years ago, who punished a whole ing. We were coming down Eflex Street people for their facility in giving their one night a little flustered, and I was credentials. This person had belonged giving him the word to alarm the watch; to a regiment which did duty in the he had the imprudence to tell me it was West Indies, and by the mortality of againft the law. You that are married, the place happened to be commanding and live one day after another the same officer in the colony. He oppressed his way, and so on the whole week, I dare subjects with great frankness, till he be. say will like him, and he will be glad to caine sensible that he was heartily hated have his meat in due season. The fel. by every man under his command. low is certainly very honest. My ferWhen he had carried his point, to be vice to your lady. Yours, thus detestable, in a pretended fit of dilo

J. T. humour, and feigned uneasiness of liy. ing where he found he was so univer- Now this was very fair dealing: Jack Sally unacceptable, he communicated to knew very well, that though the love of the chief inhabitants a design he had to order made a man very aukward in his return for England, provided th:cy would equipage, it was a valuable quality give him ample testinonials of their ap- among the queer people who live by probation. The planters came into it to rule; and had too much good-fense and a man, and in proportion to his deserving good-nature to let the fellow starve, bethe quite contrary, the words, Justice, cause he was not fit to attend his viGenerosity, and Courage, were inserted yacities. in his commiilion, not omitting the ge

I shall end this discourse with a letter neral good-liking of people of all con- of recommendation from Horace to ditions in the colony. The gentleman Claudius Nero. You will see in that returns for England, ard within a few letter a flowness to ask a favour, a strong months after came back to them their reason for being unable to deny his good governor on the strength of their own word any longer, and that it is a service Testimonials.

to the person to whom he recommends, Such a rebuke as this cannot indeed to comply with what is asked: all which happen to easy recommenders, in the are neceflary circumstances, both in jufordinary course of things from one hand tice and good-breeding, if a man would to another; but how would a man bear dik fo as to have reafon to complain of tq have it faid to him. The person I took a denial; and indeed a man should not

6 н.


in ftri&ness ask otherwife. In hopes the ceived by you, who are delicate in the
authority of Horace, who perfectly un- choice of your friends and domeftics,
derstood how to live with great men, he knows cur intimacy, and under:
may have a good effect towards amende stands my ability to serve him better
ing' this facility in people of condition, than I do myself. I have defended my.
and the confidence of those who apply self against his ambition to be yours, as
to them without merit, I have tranflated long as I posibly could; bụt fearing the
the epistle.

imputation of hiding my power in you
put of mean and felish confiderations, I

am at Jaft prevailed upon to give you

this trouble. Thus, to avoid the ap. BIR,

pearance of a greater fault, I have put SEPTIMIUS, who waits upon you on this confidence. If you can forgive

with this, is very well acquainted this transgression of modesty in behalf with the place you are pleased to allow of a friend, receive this gentleman into me in your friendship. For when he your interests and friendship, and take beseeches me to recommend him to your it from me that he is an honest and a notice, in such a manner as to be re- braye man,






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BOUT an age ago it was the fa- was darkened at noon day, and had only

Bion in England, for every one a single candle burning in it. After a that would be thought religious, to throw short stay in this melancholy apartment, as much fanctity as possible into his face, he was led into a chamber hung with and in particular to abitain from all ap- black, where he entertained himself for pearances of mirth and pleasantry, which some time by the glimmering of a taper, were looked upon as the marks of a until at length the head of the college carnal mind. The faint was of a for. came out to him, from an inner room, rowful countenance, and generally eaten with half a dozen night caps upon his up with spleen and melancholy. A gen- head, and religious horror in his countleman, who was lately a great orna- tenance. The young man trembled : ment to the learned world, has diverted but his fears increased, when, instead me more than once with an account of the of being asked what progress he had reception which he met with froin a very made in learning, he was examined how famous independent minifter, who was he abounded in grace. His Latin and head of a college in thole times. This Greek itood him in little fead; he was gentleman was then a young adventurer to give an account only of the state of in the republic of letters, and just fitted his foul; whether he was of the number out for the university with a good cargo of the elect; what was the occasion of of Latin and Greek. His friends were his conversion; upon what day of the resolved that he should try his fortune month, and hour of the day it happen. at an election which was drawing near ed; how it was carried on, and when in the college, of which the independent completed. The whole examination minister whom I have before mentioned was summed up with one short question, was governor. The youth, according namely, Whether he was prepared for to cultom, waited on him in order to be death? The boy, who had been bred examined. He was received at the door up by honeft parents, was frighted ouç by a servant, wlio was one of that gloony of his wits at the folemnity of the pro. generation that were then in fashion ceeding, and by the last dreadful in. He conducted him, with great filence terrogatory; so that upon making his and seriousness, to a long gallery, which escape out of this house of mourning,


he could never be brought a second time ing it as an unfociable ftate, that exto the examination, as not being able to tinguishes all joy and gladness, darkens go through the terrors of it.

the face of nature, and destroys the re. Notwithstanding this general form and lifh of being itself. outside of religion is pretty well worn I have, in former papers, thewn how out among us, there are many persons, great a tendency there is to chearfulness who, by a natural unchearfulness of in religion, and how such a frame of heart, mistaken notions of piety, or mind is not only the mott lovely, but weakness of understanding, love to in the most commendable in a virtuous pere dulge this uncomfortable way of life, son. In short, those who represent reand give themselves up a prey to grief ligion in fo unamiable a lighi, are, like and melancholy. Superstitious fears and the spies, sent by Moles to make a dirgroundless fcruples cut them off from covery of the land of Promise, when by the plealures of conversation, and all their reports they discouraged the people those social entertaininents which are from entering upon it. Those who thew not only innocent, but laudable : as if us the joy, the chearfulness, the good mirth was made for reprobates, and humour, that naturally spring up in chearfulness of heart denied those who this happy state, are like the spies bring? are the only persons that have a proper ing along with thein the clusters of title to it.

grapes, and delicious fruits, that might Sombrius is one of thefe fons of for- invite their companions into the pleasant row. He thinks himseif obliged in duty country which produced them. to be sad and disconfolate. He looks An eminent pagan writer has made a on a sudden fit of laughter as a breach discourse, to thew that the atheist, who of his baptifinal vow. An innocent jeit denies a Gov, does him less disonour startles him like blafphemy. Tell him than the man who owns his being, but of one who is advanced to a title of at the same time believes him to be cruel, honour, he lifts up his hands and eyes; hard to please, and terrible to human describe a public ceremony, he shakes nature. For my own part,' says he, his head; thew hin a gay equipage, he I would rather it thould be laid of me, blefles himielf. All the little orna- ! that there was never any such man as nxents of life are pomps and vanities. ! Plutarch, than that Plutarch was illMirth is wanton, and wit profane. He • natured, capricious, or inhumane. is scandalized at youth for being lively, If we may believe our logicians, man and at childhood for being playful. He is diftinguished from all other creatures fits at a chrittening, or marriage. feast, by the faculty of laughter. He has a as at a funeral; fighs at the conclusion heart capable of mirth, and naturally of a merry story, and grows devout disposed to it. It is not the business of when the rest of the company grow plea. virtue to extirpate the affections of the fant. After all, Sombrius is a religious mind, but to regulate them. It may man, and would have behaved himself moderate and reitrain, but was not devery properly, had he live, when Chris- ligned to banish g.adness from the heart dianity was under a general perfecution. of man. Religion contracts the circle

I would by no means prelume to tax of our pleafures, but leaves it wide fuch characters with hypocrisy, as is enough for her votrries to expatiate in. done too frequently; that being a vice The con emplation of the Divine Being, which I think none but he, who knows and the exercise of virtue, are in their the fecrets of men's hearts, thould pre- own nature to tar froin excluding all tend to discover in another, where the gladneis of heart, that they are perpetual proofs of it do not amount to a demon. Tources of it. In a word, the true spirit itration. On the contrary, as there are of religion cheers, as well as composes many excellent persons, who are weigh, the foul; it baniihcs indeed all levity ed down by this habitual forrow of of behaviour, all vicious and diffolute heart, they rather deserve our compas- mirth, ut in exchange fills the mind fion than our reproaches. I think, how- with a perpetual terenity, uninterrupted ever, they would do well to consider chea fulueis, and an habitual inclinacion whether such a behaviour does not deter to pleale others, as well as to be pleased ppen from a religious life, by represent- in itself,





Hor. Op. IV. 1.4. VIR. 57.




s I am one, who, hy my profef- of them, tell us, after their usual mine

fion, am obliged to look into all ner of hyperbole, that there were such kinds of men, there are vone whom I torrents of holy blood shed as carriet confider with fo much pleasure, as those rocks of an hundred yards in circumwho have any thing new or extraordin ference above three miles into the 1ca. nary in their characters, or ways of liv- Their dispersion is the fecond remarking. For this reason I have often amuled able particular in this people. They myself with speculations on the race of swarin over all the East; and are fet:fed people called Jewș, many of whom I in the remoteft parts of China: thiev are have met with in most of the confider- spread through most of the nations of able towes which I have passed through Europe and Africa, and many families in the course of my travels. They are, of them are established in the West In. indeed, so diffeminated through all the dies: not to mention whole nations bor. trading parts of the world, that they are dering on Prefter. John's country, and become the instruments by which the fome discovered in the inner parts of most distant nations converse with one America, if we may give any credit to another, by which mankind are knit their own writers. together in a general correfpondence: The firm adherence to their religion, they are like the pegs and nails in a is no less remarkable than their numbers great building, which, though they are and disperhon, especially conlidering it but little valued in themselves, are ab. as perfecuted or contemned over the face solutely necessary to keep the whole frame of the whole earth. This is likewise the together.

more remarkable, if we consider the freThat I may not fall into any common quent aportacies of this people, when beaten tracks of observation, I shall they lived under their kings in the land consider this people in three views : first, of Promile, and within fight of their with regard to their number ; secondly, temple. their dispersion ; and, thirdly, their ad- It in the next place we examine, what herence to their religion : and after- may be the natural reasons for thele wards endeavour to Thew, first, what three particulars which we find in the natural reasons, and, secondly, what Jews, and which are not to be found in providential reasons, may be assigned for any other religion or people, I can, in these three remarkable particulars. the firit place, attribute their numbers

The Jews are looked upon by many to nothing but their conttant employto be as numerous at p:elent, as they ment, their abstinence, their exemption were formerly in the land of Canaan. from wars, and, above all, their fre

This is wonderful, considering the quent marriages ; for they look on celidreadful Naughter made of them under bacy as an accurled itate, and generally some of the Roman emperors, which are married before twenty, as hoping historians describe by the death of many the Mefish may descend from them. hundred thousands in a war; and the The difperfion of the Jews into all the innumerable massacres and persecutions nations of the earth, is the second rethey have undergone in Turkey, as well markable particular of that people, as in all Christian nations of the world, though not so hard to be accounted for. The Rabbins, to express the great ha- They were always in rebellions and tu. yock which has been sometimes inade mults while they had the temple and


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holy city in view, for which reason they providential reasons may be assigned for have often been driven out of their old these three particulars, we shall find that habitations in the land of Promise. They their numbers, difpertion, and adherence have as often been banished out of moit to their religion, have furnished every other places where they have settled, age, and every nation of the world, with which must very much disperse and scat- the strongest arguinents for the Chriftian ter a people, and oblige them to seek a Faith, not only as these very particulars livelihood where they can find it. Be- are foretold of them, but as they themsides, the whole people is now a race of felves are the depositaries of these and all such merchants as are wanderers by pro- the other prophecies, which tend to their fellion, and, at the same time, are in most, own confusion. Their number furnishes if not all, places incapable of either lands us with a sufficient cloud of witnelies that or offices, that might engage them to attest the truth of the old Bible. Their make any part of the world their home. dispersion spreads these witnesses through

This difperfion would probably have all parts of the world. The adherence to loft their religion, had it not been fe. their religion makes their testimony uncured by the itrength of it's constitu- queitionable. Had the whole body of tion: for they are to live all in a body, the Jews been converted to Christianity, and generally within the same inclosure; we should certainly have thought all the to marry among themselves, and to eat prophecies of the Old Testament, thar no meats that are not killed or prepared relate to the coming and history of our their own way. This shuts them out blessed Saviour, forged by Christians, from all table-conversation, and the and have looked upon them, with the most agreeable intercourses of life; and, prophecies of the Sibyls, as made many by consequence, excludes them from the vears after the events they pretended to most probable means of conversion. foretel,

If, in the last place, we consider what






other enjoyment. Such allowances as THOSE ancients who were the these were no less advantageous to com

most accurate in their remarks on mon fociety than obliging to particular the genius anu temper of mankind, by persons; for by maintaining a decency confidering the various bent and scope and regularity in the course of life, they of our actions throughout the progress supported the dignity of human nature, of life, have with great exactneis allot- which then suffers the greatest violence ted inclinations and objects of defire when the order of things is inverted; , particular to every stage, according to and in nothing is it more remarkably vis the different circumstances of our con- lified and ridiculous, than when feebleversation and fortune, through the se. ness preposterously attempts to adorn itteral periods of it. Hence they were felf with that outward ponip and lustre, dispored easily to excuse those excesses which ferve only to fet off the bloom of which might poflibly arise from a 100 youth with better advantage. I was ineager pursuit of the affections niore im- fenfibly carried into reficētions of this mediately proper to each state : they in- nature, by just now meeting Paulizo dulged the levity of childhood with (who is in his climacteric) bedecked tender nels, overlooked the gaiety of with the utmost Splendour of dress and youth with good-nature, tempered the equipage, and giving an untounded forward ambition and impatience of ri- loose to all manner of pleasure, whilit pened manhood with diicretion, and his only fon debarred all innocent kindly imputed the tenacious avarice of diversion, and may be seen frequently old men to their want of relish for any solacing himself in the Mall with no


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