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"Ye have brought this man "unto me as one that perverteth "the people; and, behold, I, "having examined him before you, "have found no fault in this man, touching those things whereof ye accuse him: 15. No, nor yet "Herod: for I sent you to him: "and, lo, nothing worthy of "death is done unto him. 16. I "will therefore chastise (t) him, "and release him." 17. (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast.) 18. And they cried out all at once, saying, "Away with this man, and release "unto us Barabbas:" 19. (who for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder, was cast into prison.) 20. Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spake again to them. 21. But they cried, saying, "Crucify him, crucify him." 22. And he said unto them the third time, "Why, what evil hath "he done? I have found no cause "of death in him: I will there"fore chastise him, and let him "go." 23. And they were (u) instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified. And
(f) v. 16. "Chastise," i. e. "inflict a small punishment upon him." Hamm.
(u) v. 23. Instant, &c." According to John xix. 12. they told Pilate, "If thou "let this man go, thou art not Cæsar's "friend: whosoever maketh himself a king, "is not Cæsar's friend;" and Pilate might be afraid of a complaint against him at Rome, if he discharged him.
(2) v. 25. "Him that for sedition, &c." i. e. "Barabbas."
(y) v. 29. "The days, &c." "The time "of the destruction of Jerusalem." See note on Rom. xiii. 11. ante, 28. and on Luke xxi. 25. ante, 32. See also Newt. on Pro. ii. 205. and Wats. Theol. Tracts, v.115.
(z) "The barren, &c." Because they would have none to take care of but themselves: no incumbrances to prevent their flight. Our Saviour, in his prophecy
the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed. priests prevailed. 24. And Piate gave sentence that it should be as they required. 25. And he released unto them him that (x) for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will. 26. And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus. 27. And there followed him a great company of people, and of women, which also bewailed and lamented him. 28. But Jesus turning unto them, said, Daughters of Jeru"salem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your "children. 29. For, behold, (y) "the days are coming, in the "which they shall say, Blessed are "the (*) barren, and the wombs "that never bare, and the paps
which never gave suck. 30. Then "shall they begin to say to the "mountains, "Fall on (a) us;" "and to the hills, "Cover us." "31. For if (b) they do these things "in a green tree, what shall be
as to these times (Matt. xxiv. 19.) says, "Woe unto them that are with child, and "to them that give suck in those days;" because those circumstances would prevent a rapid flight.
(a) v. 30. "Fall on us, &c." A common expression to denote times of unusual distress. It occurs, Hos. x. 8. " They shall "say to the mountains, Cover us, and to "the hills, Fall on us." And Rev. vi. 15 to 17. "The kings of the earth, and the great men, &c. &c. hid themselves in the "dens and in the rocks of the mountains, "and said to the mountains and rocks, "Fall on us, and hide us from the face of "him that sitteth on the throne, and from "the wrath of the Lamb, for the great day "of his wrath is come; and who shall be "able to stand?"
(b) v. 31. “If, &c." (probably) a pro
"done in the dry?" 32. And there were also two others, malefactors, led with him to be put to death. 33. And when they were come to the place which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors ; one on the right hand, and the other on the left. 34. Then said Jesus, "Father, forgive them; for they know not "what they do." And they parted (c) his raiment, and cast lots. 35. And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, "He "saved others; let him save him"self, if he be Christ, the chosen "of God." 36. And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him (d) vinegar, 37. and saying, "If thou be the King of the Jews, save thyself." 38. And a superscription also was written over him, in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS. 39. And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed
verbial expression; and the meaning may be, if an innocent person is so treated, what shall be the condition of the sinful? "Green trees," and "dry trees," were phrases among the Jews, to denote good and bad men; and it was a proverb, "Two "dry trees will burn a green one," i. e. "two bad men will corrupt a good one," "and Ezek. xx. 47. God threatens to "de"vour every green and dry tree," i. e. "to "cut off the righteous and the wicked."
(c) v. 34. "Parted his raiment, &c." And so fulfilled the prophecy in Ps. xxii.
"They parted my garments among "them, and upon my vesture did they "cast lots." See Matt. xxvii. 35. ante, 104. (d) v. 36. "Offering him vinegar." See note on Matt. xxvii. 48. ante, 105.
(e) v. 39. "Christ," or, "the Christ," Kids, with the article.
(g) v. 42. "Lord," Kúpe.
(h) v. 43. In napadia, the known place of departed spirits. See 1 Pet. iii. 19. post, and ante, p. 9. note (o).
on him, saying, "If thou be "Christ (e), save thyself and us." 40. But the other answering, rebuked him, saying, "Dost not "thou fear God, seeing thou art "in the same condemnation ? "41. And we indeed justly; for "we receive the due reward of "our deeds: but this man hath "done nothing amiss." 42. And he said unto Jesus, "Lord (g), re"member me when thou comest "into thy kingdom." 43. And Jesus said unto him, "Verily I say "unto thee, To-day shalt thou be "with me in (h)paradise." 44. And it was about the sixth (i) hour, and there was darkness over all the earth until the ninth (i) hour. 45. And the sun was darkened, and the (k) veil of the temple was rent in the midst. 46. And when Jesus had cried () with a loud voice, he said, "Father, into (m) thy hands "I commend my spirit ;" and having said thus, he gave up the ghost. 47. Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glori
(i) v. 44. 6th & 9th hour, i. e. 12. & 3. adopting the Roman computation.
(k) v. 45. "The veil." There were two veils, or high walls, one separating the sanctuary (where the priest offered incense) from that where the people assembled, and one dividing the holy of holies (which was considered a type of heaven) from the sanctuary: it was the latter that was rent: and the rending perhaps implied, that from thenceforth heaven, the true holy of holies, was open to all mankind. See note on Matt. xxvii. 51. ante. 105. and note on Heb. x. 19. post, 129.
(1) v. 46. "Cried." Perhaps uttering the beginning of the 22d Psalm: "My "God, my God, why hast thou forsaken "me?" as stated by Saint Matthew and Saint Mark.
(m) "Into thy hands, &c." This is from Ps. xxxi. 16. "Into thy hands I commend my spirit; for thou hast redeemed me, "O Lord, thou God of truth."
fied God, saying, "Certainly (n) "this was (0) a righteous man. 48. And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned. 49. And all his acquaintance, and the (p) women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.
ALMIGHTY God, we beseech thee graciously to behold this thy family, for which our Lord Jesus Christ was contented to be betrayed, and given up into the hands of wicked men, and to suffer death upon the cross; who now liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end. Amen.
ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, by whose Spirit the whole body of the Church is governed and sanctified; Receive our supplications
(n) v. 47. "Certainly, &c." See ante, 106. note on Matt. xxvii. 54.
(o) "A righteous," or "the righteous man; the Messiah." The centurion must have known that the charge against our Saviour was that he claimed to be "the Son of God," and according to Matt. xxvii. 54. ante, 106. and Mark xv. 39. ante, 116. his exclamation was, "Truly this was the Son of God." The article would be omitted in the original, because it follows the verb, "was,"(Middl. p. 62. & 395 to 398.) and the centurion probably spoke in Latin, where there would be no article.
(p) v. 49. "The women." Among whom was Mary Magdalen, and Mary the wife of Cleophas, and mother of James the less, the supposed author of the Epistle of Saint James. See Mark xvi. 40.
(q) Conclusion of the contrast between the atonement by Christ and that under
and prayers which we offer before thee for all estates of men in thy holy Church, that every member of the same, in his vocation and ministry, may truly and godly serve thee, through our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.
MERCIFUL God, who hast made all men, and hatest nothing that thou hast made, nor wouldest the death of a sinner, but rather that he should be converted, and live; Have mercy upon all Jews, Turks, Infidels, and Heretics; and take from them all ignorance, hardness of heart, and contempt of thy Word; and so fetch them home, blessed Lord, to thy flock, that they may be saved among the remnant of the true Israelites, and be made one fold under one shepherd, Jesus Christ our Lord, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Spirit, one God, world without end. Amen.
The Epistle. Heb. x. 1. (q) THE (r) law, having a (s) shadow of good things to come and
the Mosaic dispensation, (see ante, p. 97. and 116.) with a warm exhortation to hold fast and avow without wavering the Christian faith.
(r) v. 1. "The law," i.e. "the Mosaic dispensation:" what is prescribed in Exodus and Leviticus.
(s) "A shadow," i. e. "a very indis"tinct and imperfect resemblance; not "what an image would give, but nothing "more than a shadow exhibits." In Gal. iii. 24. the law is called "a schoolmaster "to bring them unto Christ;" and there were many things in the law which would tend to make them easily comprehend the redemption by Jesus Christ. If he, by his one oblation of himself once offered, made a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world, it would be the less difficult to them to understand it, because, under
not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect. 2. For then would they not have ceased to be offered? because that the worshippers once purged should have had no more conscience of sins. 3. But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance again made of sins every year. 4. For it is not possible (t) that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins. 5. Wherefore, when (u) he cometh into the world, he (a) saith, Sacrifice (y) and offering "thou wouldest not, but a (2) "body hast thou (a) prepared "me: 6. In burnt-offerings and
"sacrifices for sins thou hast had "no pleasure: 7. Then said I,
Lo, I come (in the volume of
the Mosaic law, they were constantly making atonement and satisfaction for sins by sacrifices and oblations, and if he was to bear the sins of many, so that those sins should not be brought into account against them, they would remember that, under the Levitical law, all the sins of the people were put upon the head of the scape goat, and he was considered as bearing them away. Levit. xvi. 21, 22.
(t) v. 4. "Not possible," i. e. (probably) "not absolutely so: but highly impro"bable." See Mic. vi. 7.
(u) v. 5. "When he cometh," i. e. (probably) "with a view to his, our Saviour's "coming, looking forward to that event."
(x) "He saith," i. e. "it is said pro"phetically in his person."
(y) Sacrifice, &c." From Ps. xl. 8, 9. (2) "A body, &c." The passage in Ps. xl. 8. is, "mine ears hast thou opened," implying, that the Messiah had dedicated himself for ever to God's service. But
this reading, "a body, &c." is in the Septuagint, and it requires nothing to warrant it but the variation of a small part of three Hebrew letters.
(a) "A body hast thou prepared me," i. e. (probably) "I am to take upon my"self the human nature."
"the book it is written of me) to "do thy will, O God." 8. Above, when he said, "Sacrifice and
offering and burnt-offerings, "and offering for sin thou would"est not, neither hadst pleasure "therein;" (which are offered by the law. (b)) 9. Then said he, "Lo, I come to do thy will, O "God." He taketh away the (c) first, that he may establish the (d) second. 10. By the (e) which will we are sanctified, through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ (g) once for all. 11. And every priest standeth daily ministering, and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can (h) never take away sins: 12. But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins, for ever sat down on the right hand of God; 13. from henceforth (i) expecting till his
(b) v. 8. "The law," i. e. " the Mosaic dispensation."
(c) v. 9. "The first," i. e. "the sacri"fice, and offerings, and burnt-offerings, "which are offered by the law."
(d) "The second," i. e. "his coming to "do God's will."
(e) v. 10. "By the which will," i. e. "by "the performance of which will by Jesus "Christ."
(g) "Once for all," not yearly, as was the case with the high priest's offering at the feast of expiation, (see Levit. xvi. 29 to 34.) nor daily, as the ordinary priests offered, but once only. Of the several sacrifices under the law, that which seems most exactly to illustrate the sacrifice of Christ, is that which was offered for the whole assembly, on the solemn anniversary of expiation. 1 Magee, 61. see Levit. xvi.
(h) v. 11. "Can never take away." (See the note on v. 4.)
(i) v. 13. "Expecting, &c." This probably refers to the beginning of the prophetic Psalm cx. "The Lord said unto
my Lord, sit thou on my right hand, "until I make thine enemies thy footstool;" and the writer might mean to call their attention to that Psalm, to intimate the certainty of Christ's success against his
enemies be made his footstool. 14. For by one offering he hath perfected (k) for ever them that are sanctified. 15. Whereof (1) the Holy Ghost also is a witness (m) to us: For after that he had said before, 16. ("This (n) is the "covenant that I will make with "them after those days, saith the "Lord; I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds "will I write them;") 17. "and "their sins and iniquities will I
adversaries, and the heavy vengeance they would have to endure.
(k) v. 14. "Perfected for ever," so that for them no further sacrifice is necessary. Agreeably to the Prophecy, Dan. ix. 27. he has "caused the sacrifice and oblation "to cease," for there is none that can now have any effect, and it is probable all the sacrifices before ordained were intended as types only of his great sacrifice. (v. 15. "Whereof," i. e. "of their "being perfected for ever." The argument is this: the inspired passage in Jeremiah proves that they are perfected for ever, for it says, "their sins and iniqui"ties will I remember no more," and where remission of sins is, there is no occasion for any further offering for sin.
(m) "The Holy Ghost," i. e. "the Holy "Spirit which dictated to Jeremiah the "following passage, which is Jer. xxxi.
(a) v. 16. This verse should be read in a parenthesis. It is evidently for the sake the seventeenth verse only that the passage in Jer. xxxi. is referred to, and the word "and" at the beginning of v. 17. is to be considered equivalent to "he "adds." This is the French translation, Mons edition, 1672. So Pyle, and Pole, and Hamm. Dr. Gouge ends the thesis at "those days," and then reads paren"the Lord saith, I will put, &c." which comes nearly to the same thing. So Lud. de Dieu, Poli Synopsis. The former seems preferable. There is an interval in Jeremiah between "I will put my laws, &c." and "their sins and iniquities will I re"member no more." thus: "This shall be the covenant that I The passage runs "will make with the house of Israel: After "those days, saith the Lord, I will put my
"remember no more." 18. Now where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin. 19. Having therefore, brethren, boldness (o) to enter into the (p) holiest by the blood of Jesus, 20. by a hath consecrated for us, through new and living (q) way which he (r) the veil, that is to say, his flesh; 21. and having an high high priest over the house (s) of God; 22. let us draw near with a true heart, in full assurance of
"law in their inward parts, and write it in "their hearts: and will be their God, and "they shall be my people: and they shall "teach no more every man his neighbour, "and every man his brother, saying, "Know the Lord" for they shall all "know me, from the least of them unto "the greatest of them, saith the Lord: "for I will forgive their iniquity, and I "will remember their sin no more. Jer. "xxxi. 33, 34." The quotation is evidently from the Septuagint.
(o) v. 19." Boldness," i. e. "for confidence."
(p) "The holiest," or "holy of holies," was a type of Heaven, the place where the ark was kept, and was separated from the holy place by a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen ; see Exod. xxvi. 31 to 33. No one ever went beyond this veil, (i. e. into the holy of holies,) but the high priest, and he only once a year, and that not without blood; see Hebr. ix. 7. This was the veil which, upon our Saviour's crucifixion, was rent in twain from the top to the bottom, Matt. xxvii. 51.; as if Heaven, which had been so long closed against mankind, should thenceforth, and in consequence of his death and passion, be open to all believers.
(q) v. 20. Living," i. e. "having life "in it: leading to and giving life." (r) "Through the veil, &c." As the way into the holy of holies was through the veil, so the way now into Heaven is through the flesh of Christ, through his sacrifice and atonement, which in this respect answers to the veil of the temple.
(s) v. 21. "The house of God,” i. e. (probably) "all Christians," not over the Israelites only, as was the case with the Mosaic high priest.