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CONTENTS OF VOLUME FIFTH.

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Mr. WARREN's Oration, at Boston, March 5, 1772, in

coininemoration of the Burton Marsucre,"
Mr. IIANcoI'K'» Oration, int Boston, March 0, 1774,
Mr. WAREN'N Orntion, ut Bonton, Murrelo (, 1978,
Mr. W1lson's Speech in the Convcution for the l'ro.

vincc of Pennsylvania, in vindicution of the Colo.

nies, January, 1775,

Dr. Henry's Speech in the Convention of Delegates

of Virginia, March :3, 1775,

Gov. Livingston's Speech to the Legislature of the

State of New Jersey, 1777,

The Address of Congress to the luhabitants of Great

Britain, froin thc pen of Mr. Lee, 1775,
Mr. Piskney's Speech in the Assembly of Maryland,

on a petition for the relief of oppressed slaves,

1783,

Mr. Avams' Oration, at Boston, July 4, 179.3,

WASHINGTON's Farewell Address,

Mr. Lxx's Eulogy on Washington, at Washington,

1799,

Mr. ANES' Eulovy on Washington, at Boston, Feb-

Mr. Mason's Eulogy on Washington, at New York,

February 22, 1800,

Mr. Adams' Oration, at Plymouth, in cominemoration

of the first landing of our ancestors, at that place,

December 22, 1802,

Mr. Otis' Eulogy on Jlamilton, at Boston, July 26,

180.1,

Mr. Nort's Discourse on the death of Hamilton, at

Albany, July 9, 1804,
Mr. Rusat's Oration, at Washington, July 1, 1812,

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ruary 8, 1300,

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Mr. Everett's Oration before the Society of Phi

Beta Kappa, at Cambridge, August 26, 1924,
Mr. WEBSTER's Address at the laying the corner

stone of the Bunker Chill monuincnt, 1825,
Jir. Sinagur's Oration, at Boston, July 4, 1825,
M. EVERETT's Oration, at Cambridge, July 4, 1826,
Mr. Webster's Kulouy on Adams and Jefferson,

at Boston, August 2, 1826,
Mr. Story's Discourse before the Phi Beta Kappa

Society, at Cainbridge, August 31, 1026,
Mr. WIRr's Eulogy on Jetlirson and Adains, at

Washington, October 19, 1826,
Mr. Curtos's Oration befure the New York Alpha of

the Phi Beta Kappa Society, at Schelicctady,
July 22, 183,

374

415

454

501

ORATION OF JOSEPH WARREN,

DELIVERED

AT BOSTON, MARCH 5, 1772, THE ANNIVERSARY OF

THE “ BOSTON MASSACRE."*

WHEN wc turn over the historic page, and trace the rise and fall of states and empires, the mighty revolutions which have so often varicd the face of thc world strike our minds with solemn surprise, and we arc naturally led to endeavor to search out thc causcs of such astonishing changes.

That man is formed for social life, is an obscrva. tion, which, upon our first inquiry, presents itself iininedintely to our view, and our renson approves that wiso and generous principle which actunted the first

* The " Boston massacre, 14 jt is generally called, took place March 5, 1770. Previous to this time, considerable animosity had existed between the citizens of Boston and the British soldiers sta. tioned there, which had occasionally shown itself in quarrels and mutual abuse.

On the cvening of the 5th of March, an extensive disturbance oc. curred, in which a number of the citizens lost their lives. This event was productive of the most important consequences. It was every where representeil as it cruel and barbarous outrage of an armed soldiery, upon unoftending and unarmed citizens.

It wrought up to the highest pitch the spirit of opposition to the British government, and incrcased the activity and energy of those who were determined on resistance.

It afforded also, an opportunity for an exhibition of traits of cha. racter in the “ rebellious colonists," which plainly proved that, with thein, the dictates of justice predominated over every other consi. deration : for the jury who tried the offenders, although burning with resentment for the recent outrage, and incensed at the numer. ous injuries of the British government, still acquitted all the offenders of the charge of murder. 'The anniversary of this day was celebrate cd for a number of years, but at length the practice was disconlinned.--COMPILET.

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founders of civil government-an institution, which hath its origin in the weakness of individuals, and hath for its end, the strength and security of all: and so long as the means of cflecting this important end arc thoroughly known, and religiously attended to, government is one of the richest blessings to mankind, and ought to be held in tlre highest veneration. in

young and new formed communities, thic grand design of this institution, is inost generally understood, and most strictly regarded. Thic motives which urged to the social compact, cannot be at once forgotten, and that cquality which is remembered to have subsisted so lately among then; prevents those who aro clothed with authority, froin attempting to invade the freedom of their brethren; or if such an attempt is inade, it prevents the community from suffering the offender to go unpunished. Every member feels it to be his interest and knows it to be his duty, to preserve inviolate the constitution on which the public safety depends,* and he is cqually ready to assist the inagis. trate in the cxccution of the laws, and the subject in desence of his right; and so long as this noble attachment to a constitution, founded on free and benevolent principles, cxists in full vigor, in any statc, that state must be flourishing and happy.

It was this noble attachinent to a frec constitution, which raised ancient Rome, from the smallest beginnings, to that bright sumınit of happiness and glory, to which she arrived; and it was the loss of this which plunged her from that summit into the black gulf of infamy and slavery. It was this attachment which inspired her scnators with wisdom; it. was this which glowed in the brcasts of her hcrocs; it was this which guarded her liberties and extended her dominions, gave peace at home, and commanded respect abroad. And when this decayed, her magistrates lost thcir reverence for justice and the laws, and degenerated into tyrants and oppressors; her senators, forgetful of their dignity, and seduced by base corruption, betrayed their country; her soldiers, regardless of their relation to the cominunity, and urged only by the hopes of plunder and rapinc, unfcclingly committed the most flagrant enormitics; and, hired to the trade of death, with relentless fury they perpetrated the most crucl murders, whicreby the streets of imperial Rome were drenched with her noblest blood. Thus this empress of the world lost her dominions abroad, and her inhabitants, dissoluto in their manners, at length became contented slaves; and she stands, to this day, the scorn and derision of nations, and a monument of this eternal truth, that public happiness depends on a virtuous and unshaken attachment to a frec constitution..

e Omnes ordincs ad conscrvandain rempublicain, mente, volusi• fate, studio, virtute, voce, cousentiunt.--CICERO.

It was this attachment to a constitution, founded on free and benevolent principles, which inspired the first scutlers of this country. They saw, with grief, the daring, outrages committed on the free constitution of their native land; they knew, that nothing but a civil war could, at that time, restore its pristine purity. So hard was it to resolve to imbrue their hands in the blood of their brethren, that they chose rather to quit their fair possessions and scck another habitation in a distant climc. When they came to this new world, which they fairly purchased of the Indian natives, the only rightful proprietors, they cultivated the then barren soil, by their incessant labor, and defended their dear-bought possessions with thic. fortitude of tho christian, and the bravery of the hicro.

After various struggles, which, during the tyrannic reigns of the house of Stuart, were constantly kept up between right and wrong, between liberty and slavery, the connexion between Great Britain and this colony was settled in the reign of king William and queen Mary, by a compact, the conditions of which were expressed in a charter; by which all the liberties and immunities of British subjects, were confirmed to this

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