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the basement and a hundred shops and, when she had viewed every part or booths above-stairs for retail thereof above the ground, especially dealers, was completed by the sum- the Pawn,'—the upper part with its mer of 1569; and how it was christ- hundred shops—which was richly ened on the 23rd of January, 1571, furnished with all sorts of the finest when the Queen's majesty, attended wares in the City, caused the same with her nobility, came from her Burse, by an herald and trumpet, house at the Strand, called Somerset to be proclaimed the Royal ExHouse, and entered the City by change, and so to be called thenceTemple Bar, through Fleet Street, forth, and not otherwise ;' is it not and, after dinner at Sir Thomas all written in the book of the chroGresham's in Bishopsgate Street, nicles of Stow, as well as in every entered the Burse on the south side, other trustworthy history of London?

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Familiar also, to readers of this in our extant information about Sir magazine, at any rate,* is the affect- Thomas Gresham's later years. He ing episode of Gresham's life in seems to have lived chiefly at his which, during three years and a house in Bishopsgate Street, and half, from the summer of 1569 to quietly to have carried on his mer. the winter of 1572, he acted, much cantile pursuits there and at the against his will, as gaoler to poor newly-built Exchange hard by. We Lady Mary Grey, sister of the Lady see but little of him in the records Jane whom Northumberland's am- of Court festivities or financial hisbition made sham queen of England tory. The work appointed for him for a day. In that episode is in- he had done, and all the rewards he cluded nearly all that is interesting could hope for were his already.

* See • London Society' for November, Honest and enterprising in the 1862, pp. 398-400.

path he had marked out for himself,

steadfast in the service of his Queen in Bishopsgate Street, he suddenly and his country, and zealous for the fell down in his kitchen, and being dignity of both, he had little in taken up, was found speechless, and common with the new generation of presently died. On the 15th of men just appearing in the prime of December he was buried solemnly life. He had done his work in rais- and splendidly, at a cost of sool., ing to an elevation never before at.. in St. Helen's church, hard by, a tained the old-fashioned sort of hundred poor men and a hundred English commerce, within the nar- poor women following him to the row limits of European civilization, grave. His greedy wife and her which he had learnt from his fore- greedy son, born of a former husrunners. In no unfriendly spirit, band, his own son and daughter as we see from the numerous entries being already dead, inherited his of his name as a subscriber to the immense wealth, and the indolence exploring expeditions of Frobisher

of the Mercers' Company, in the and others, but doubtless with the course of generations, robbed of thought that he at any rate had no nearly all its good effect] the noble need to go out of the beaten track in bequest, by which he intended to which he had walked so well, he left have converted his famous house the chivalrous company of Haw- into a yet more famous college for kinses and Raleighs, Drakes and educating young merchants in those Cavendishes to extend the empire parts of knowledge best fitted to of commerce to far-off regions, and adorn and to improve their posito open up new and boundless tions. But neither avarice sources of trade. And he was wise apathy have been able to deprive in doing so.

the noblest name in the history of He died in harness. “On Satur- Tudor commerce of its place in the day, the 21st of November, between heart of every Englishman, or to six and seven of the clock in the undo the work of its greatest owner evening,' says Holinshed, coming in forwarding the interests of trade from the Exchange to his house, and giving dignity to the merchants which he had sumptuously builded, calling.

H. R. F. B.




NOTES ON DRESS AT A FANCY BALL. ANY have been the compari- trains ; the high-heeled rosetted

sons by which the dress of our shoes; the large and feathery fans; day has been judged. Many have the open, soft, hanging sleeves; been the arguments for its beauty the knots of the gayest ribbons. or for its ugliness. The wide-flow- In every age almost we recognize ing dresses with the sweeping trains something that we have stolen, and of the ladies, and the straight plain that we now call ours, and with coats, and general blackness of gen- each year apparently more items are tlemen, all have been often discussed, adopted. but not often brought to fair trial. A few years ago, it is said A fair field and no favour is, for any accidental revival of the oldonce accorded, however, to all the fashioned powdered hair was thought world (who are there) on the nights supremely becoming; now it is of great fancy balls.

rather remarkable how little this The glittering dress of the gen- is noticed. It strikes me that the tlemen, who, debarred from their real secret was less in the white much-loved black coats, break sud- powder than in the brushed-off denly into splendour, compressing hair, exposing the white forehead, into one night, as it were, the finery and softening the face wonderfully, of a lifetime; the marvellous fancies as the hair that was raised so lightly of ladies, who we must now sup- fell back in the long repentir, or pose to adopt the style they conceive rolled lightly away backwards to be most charming and most becoming confined with combs. It was the to them, and who make strange halo of hair that was beautiful, and blunders sometimes, as people will not the whitewash of powder. The do always in judging of their own hair, as we see it now, may be as beforte; the dresses of ages past, and coming as ever, but now it is very the dresses that are based only upon usual to hear abuse of the plastered some poet's fancy, or on the shining whiteness. If women will wear powwonders of some fancy ball; the der, besides the glittering gold dust heroes who don't look heroic; the that shines in its own coloured famed beauties who don't look beau- tresses, let them at least resolve to tiful; the whole thing is a delusion, merely powder, literally, just in a burlesque of life and history. the turned-off hair; then, indeed,

And yet never was there a scene it may soften without impairing where so many elements joined in beauty. adding each their tribute of beauty How strange a mistake it is when to the whole. People must be the beautiful soft white hair, which good actors to sustain a historical is one of the charms of age, is discharacter; they must possess the missed for some darker shade that features to picture some far-famed harmonized doubtless well with some beauty. So far, no doubt, they bright young colouring, but which often fail; but the wonder to me now fails to suit the beautiful soft and to many, in seeing the throng clear look that the smooth white sweep by, has been to see how hair becomes so much always in very few have not possessed some English faces, with the bright combeauty, some grace or charm of plexion and pretty colour that clings some kind.

to them in age. Here we see young Amidst the gayness and bright- faces seeking the added charm that ness, each shared in the whole effect. they find in white powdered tresses, The scene was a vast moving par- because of that very softening, and terre, and who should call one flower there we see braids and curls that plain?

now only harden the face they preOf late, too, our liberal fashions tend to shade. have been apt to gather up the The soft clouds of tulle that are pretty things of all times—the open so much worn by every one, falling flowing dresses; the long sweeping back from the head and almost

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