The Newtonian Revolution

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Cambridge University Press, 1983 M04 29 - 404 páginas
This volume presents Professor Cohen's original interpretation of the revolution that marked the beginnings of modern science and set Newtonian science as the model for the highest level of achievement in other branches of science. It shows that Newton developed a special kind of relation between abstract mathematical constructs and the physical systems that we observe in the world around us by means of experiment and critical observation. The heart of the radical Newtonian style is the construction on the mind of a mathematical system that has some features in common with the physical world; this system s then modified when the deductions and conclusions drawn from it are tested against the physical universe. Using this system Newton was able to make his revolutionary innovations in celestial mechanics and, ultimately, create a new physics of central forces and the law of universal gravitation. Building on his analysis of Newton's methodology, Professor Cohen explores the fine structure of revolutionary change and scientific creativity in general. This is done by developing the concept of scientific change as a series of transformations of ecxisting ideas. It is shown that such transformation is characteristic of many aspects of the sciences and that the concept of scientific change by transformation suggests a new way of examining the very nature of scientific creativity.

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The Newtonian revolution in science
3
the varieties of Newtonian science
9
a world of numbers
17
exact laws of nature and the hierarchy of causes
21
15 Causal mathematical science in the Scientific Revolution
33
Revolution in science and the Newtonian revolution as historical concepts
39
22 The introduction of the concept of revolution to describe scientific progress
42
23 The Newtonian revolution in the sciences
49
42 Transformations of scientific ideas
162
Darwin and intraspecific competition Franklin and the electrical fluid
166
44 Some transformations of ideas by Newton primarily the transformation of impulsive forces into continually acting forces and the formulation of ...
171
45 Newtonian inertia as an example of successive transformations
182
46 Some general aspects of transformations
194
47 The transformation of experience
203
Freud on originality
216
49 Transformations and scientific revolutions
218

The Newtonian revolution and the Newtonian style
52
32 Mathematics and physical reality in Newtons exact science
61
33 Newtons use of imagined systems and mathematical constructs in the Principia
68
Huygenss reaction to the Principia
79
the system of the world
83
36 Mathematical systems or constructs and the review of the Principia in the Journal des Sçavans
96
Newtons constructs compared to Descartess models and to those in use today
99
the cause of gravitation
109
successors Bailly Maupertuis Clairaut
120
310 The Newtonian revolution in the perspective of history
127
311 Optics and the Newtonian style
133
mathematics and experience
141
Transformations of scientific ideas
155
The transformation of scientific ideas
157
Newton and Keplers laws stages of transformation leading toward universal gravitation
222
52 The status of Keplers laws in Newtons day
224
53 Newtons early thoughts on orbital motion and Keplers third law
229
correspondence with Hooke in 16791680
241
the concept of force
248
56 From Keplers laws to universal gravitation
258
57 The role of mass in Newtonian celestial mechanics
271
58 Keplers laws the motion of the moon the Principia and the Newtonian Scientific Revolution
273
History of the concept of transformation a personal account
280
NOTES
290
BIBLIOGRAPHY
361
INDEX
397
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Born in Far Rockaway, New York, I. Bernard Cohen earned degrees from Harvard University. He holds the distinction of being the first person in the United States to earn a Ph.D. in the history of science. Later, Cohen established the History of Science Department at Harvard. Cohen has received many fellowships and has won the George Sarton Medal, awarded by the History of Science Society. Cohen is an author and editor, known for his books about Sir Isaac Newton and Benjamin Franklin.

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