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cited and justified the most ferocious propensities, is scarcely possible that abstinence from aliments deshould bave alone been deemed essential; whilst Chris- monstrably pernicious should not become universal. tians are in the daily practice of all those babits, which In proportion to the number of proselytes, so will be bave infected with disease and crime, not only the re- the weight of evidence; and when a thousand persons probate sons, but these favoured children of the com- can be produced, living on vegetables and distilled water, mon Father's love? Omnipotence itself could not save who have to dread no disease but old age, the world will them from the consequences of this original and uni- be compelled to regard animal Aesli and fermented versal sin.
liquors as slow but certain poisons. The change There is no disease, bodily or mental, which adop- which would be produced by simpler habits on political tion of vegetable diet and pure water has not infallibly economy is sufficiently remarkable. The monopolizing mitigated, wherever the experiment has been fairly tried. cater of animal flesh would no longer destroy his conDebility is gradually converted into strength, disease stitution by devouring an acre at a meal, and many into healthfulness; madness, in all its bideous variety, loaves of bread would cease to contribute to gout, madfrom the ravings of the feltered maniac, to the unaccount- ness and apoplexy, in the shape of a pint of porter, or a able irrationalities of ill temper, that make a hell of dram of gin, when appeasing the long-protracted famine domestic life, into a calm and considerate evenness of of the hard-workiog peasant's hungry babes. The temper, that alone might offer a certain pledge of the quantity of nutritious vegetable matter, consumed in future moral reformation of society. On a natural sys- fattening the carcase of an ox, would afford ten times tem of diet, old age would be our last and our only the sustenance, undepraving indced, and incapable of malady; the term of our existence would be pro- generating disease, if gathered immediately from the tracted; we should enjoy life, and no longer preclude bosom of the earth. The most fertile districts of the others from the enjoyment of it; all sensational de habitable globe are now actually cultivated by men for lights would be infinitely more exquisite and perfect; animals, at a delay and waste of aliment absolutely inthe very sense of being would then be a continued capable of calculation. It is only the wealtlıy that can, pleasure, such as we now feel it in some few and to any great degree, even now, indulge the uunatural favoured moments of our youth. By all that is sacred craving for dead flesh, and they pay for the greater in our hopes for the human race, I conjure those who licence of the privilege by subjection to supernumerary love happiness and truth, to give a fair trial to the diseases. Again, the spirit of the nation that should take vegetable system. Reasoning is surely superfluous on
the lead in this great reform, would insensibly become a subject whose merits an experience of six months agricultural; commerce, with all its vice, selfishness would set for ever at rest. But it is only among the and corruption, would gradually decline; more natural enlightened and benevolent that so great a sacrifice of habits would produce gentler manners, and the exappetite and prejudice can be expected, even though its cessive complication of political relations would be ultimate excellence should not admit of dispute. It is so far simplified, that every individual might feel and found easier, by the short-sighted victims of disease, to understand why he loved his country, and took a palliate their torments hy medicine, than to prevent personal interest in its welfare. How would England, them hy regimen. The vulgar of all ranks are invariably for example, depend on the caprices of foreign rulers, sensual and indocile; yet I cannot but feel myself per
if she contained within herself all the necessaries, suaded, that when the benefits of vegetable diet are
and despised whatever they possessed of the luxuries mathematically proved; when it is as clear, that those of life? How could they starve her into compliance who live naturally are excmpt from premature death, as
with their views? Of what consequence would it be that nine is not one, the most sottish of mankind will feel that they refused to take her woollen manufactures, a preference towards a long and tranquil, contrasted when large and fertile tracts of the island ceased to with a short and painful life. On an average, out of be allotted to the waste of pasturage? On a natural sixty persons, four die in three years. Hopes are enter- system of dict, we should require no spices from India; tained that, in April 1814, a statement will be given, that
no wines from Portugal, Spain, France, or Madeira; sixty persons, all having lived more than three years on
none of those multitudinous articles of luxury, for vegetables and pure water, are then in perfect health. which every corner of the globe is rilled, and which More than two years have now elapsed ; not one of them
are the causes of so much individual rivalslip, such has died; no such example will be found in any sixty calamitous and sanguinary national disputes. In the persons taken at random. Seventeen persons of all history of modern times, the avarice of commercial afes (the families of Dr Lamb and Mr Newton) have monopoly, no less than the ambition of weak and wicklived for seven years on this diet without a death, and ed chiefs, seems to have fomented the universal discord, almost without the slightest illness. Surely, when we
to have added stubbornness to the mistakes of cabinets, consider that some of these were infants, and one a
and indocility to the infatuation of the people. Let it martyr to asthma now nearly subdued, we may chal
ever be remembered, that it is the direct influence of lenge any seventeen persons taken at random in this city commerce to make the interval between the richest and to exhibit a parallel case. Those who have been excit- the poorest man wider and more unconquerable. Let ed to question the rectitude of cstablished habits of diet, it be remembered, that it is a soe to every thing of real by these loose remarks, should consult Mr Newton's lu- worth and excellence in the human character. The minous and eloquent essay.'
odious and disgusting aristocracy of wealth is built upon When these proofs come fairly before the world, and the ruins of all that is good in chivalry or republicanism; are clearly seen by all who understand arithmetic, it and luxury is the forerunner of a barbarism scarce
capable of cure. Is it impossible to realize a state of 1 Return to Nature, or Defence of Vegetable Regimen,
Ca- society, where all the energies of man shall be directed dell, 1811.
to the production of his solid happiness? Certainly, if
this advantage (the object of all political speculation) | flesh, in its effects on the human stomach, is analogous be in any degree attainable, it is attainable only by a to a dram. It is similar to the kind, though differing community, which holds out no factitious incentives to in the degree, of its operation. The proselyte to a pure the avarice and ambition of the few, and which is inter-diet must be warned to expect a temporary diminution nally organized for the liberty, security and comfort of muscular strength. The subtraction of a powerful of the many. None must be entrusted with power stimulus will susfice to account for this event. But it (and money is the completest species of power) who is only temporary, and is succeeded by an equable capado not stand pledged to use it exclusively for the bility for exertion, far surpassing bis former various general benefit. But the use of animal flesh and fer- and fluctuating strength. Above all, he will acquire mented liquors, directly militates with this equality of an easiness of breathing, by which such exertion is the rights of man. The peasant cannot gratify these performed, with a remarkable exemption from that fashionable cravings without leaving his family to painful and difficult panting now felt by almost every
Without disease and war, those sweeping cur- one, after hastily climbing an ordinary mountain. He tailers of population, pasturage would include a waste will be cqually capable of bodily exertion, or mental too great to be afforded. The labour requisite to sup- application, after as before his simple meal. Ile will port a family is far lighter than is usually supposed. feel none of the narcotic effects of ordinary diet. IrritaThe peasantry work, not only for themselves, but for bility, the direct consequence of exhausting stimuli, the aristocracy, the army, and the manufacturers. would yield to the power of natural and tranquil
The advantage of a reform in diet is obviously greater impulses. He will no longer pine under the lethargy of than that of any other. It strikes at the root of the ennui, that unconquerable weariness of life, more to be evil. To remcdy the abuses of legislation, before we dreaded than death itself. He will escape the epidemic annihilate the propensities by which they are produced, madness, which broods over its own injurious notions is to suppose, that by taking away the effect, the cause of the Deity, and « realizes the hell that priests and will cease to operate. But the efficacy of this system beldams feigo.» Every man forms as it were his god depends entirely on the proselytism of individuals, and from his own character; to the divinity of one of simple grounds its merits, as a benefit to the community, upon habits no offering would be more acceptable than the the total change of the dietetic habits in its members. happiness of his creatures. He would be incapable of It proceeds securely from a number of particular cases hating or persecuting others for the love of God. He to one that is universal, and has this advantage over will find, moreover, a system of simple diet to be a systhe contrary mode, that one error does not invalidate tem of perfect epicurism. He will no lovger be incesall that has
santly occupied in blunting and destroying those organs
the world. He will embrace a pure system, from its Those who may be induced by these remarks to give abstracı truth, its beauty, its simplicity, and its promise the vegetable system a fair trial, should, in the first of wide-extended benefit; unless custom has turned poison place, date the commencement of their practice from into food, he will hate the brutal pleasures of the chace the moment of their conviction. All depends upon by instinct; it will be a contemplation full of horror and breaking through a pernicions habit resolutely and at disappointment to his mind, that beings capable of the once. Dr Trotter 2 asserts, that no drunkard was ever gentlest and most admirable sympathies, should take reformed by gradually relinquishing his dram. Animal delight in the death-pangs and last convulsions of dying
animals. The elderly man, whose youth has been poi
soned by intemperance, or who has lived with apparent " It has come under tbe author's experience, that some of the moderation, and is afflicted with a variety of painful workmen on an embankment in North Wales, who, in consequence of the inability of the proprietor to pay them, seldom received their maladies, would find his account in a beneficial change wages, have supported large families by cultivating small spots of produced without the risk of poisonous medicines. The sterile ground by moonlight. In the notes to Prati's Poom, • Bread mother, to whom the perpetual restlessness of disease, of the Poor,, is an account of an industrious labourer, who, by and unaccountable deaths incident to her children, are working in a small garden, before and after bis day's task, attained to an enviable state of independence.
the causes of incurable unhappiness, would on this diet * See Trotter on the Nerrous Temperament.
experience the satisfaction of beholding their perpetual
health and natural playfulness. ' The most valuable και κρεώδες και αλλ' αυτόθεν η φύσις τη λειότητα των lives are daily destroyed by diseases, that it is dangerous | οδόντων, και τη σμικρότητα του στοματος, και τη to palliate and impossible to cure by medicine. How | μαλακότητα της γλώσσης, και τη προς πέψιν αμβλύmuch longer will man continue to pimp for the gluttony | τητι του πνεύματος, εξόμνυται την σαρκοφαγιάν. Ει of death, his most insidious, implacable, and eternal | δε λεγείς πεφυκέναι σεαυτόν επί τοιαύτην έδωσης, και
βούλει φαγείν, πρώτον αυτός απόκτεινον. αλλ' αυτός, 'Αλλά δρακώντας αγριούς καλείτε και παροελεις και δια σεαυτού μη χρησάμενος κοπίδη, μηδέ τυμπανα λέοντας, αυτοί δε μιαξονείτε εις ωμότητα καταλι- μηδέ πελέκει, αλλά ως λύκοι, και άρκτοι, και λεόνες πόντες εκέινοις ουδέν. εκέινοις μεν ο φόνος τροφή, αυτόι ως εσθιούσι φονευούτιν, άνελε δήγματι βουν, ή ημίν δε όψον εστίν.
σώματι συν, ή άρνα ή λαγώον διάρρηξoν, και φάγε
προσπεσών έπι ξώντος ώς εκείνα. Οτι γάρ ουκ έστιν ανθρώπων κατά φύσιν το σαρκοφαγείν, πρώτον μεν από των σωμάτων δηλούται της Ημείς δε ούτως εν τω μιαιφόνω τρυφώμεν, ώστε κατασκευης. Ουδεν γαρ έoικε το ανθρώπου σώμα όψον το κρέας προσαγορεύομεν, είτα όψων προς αυτό των επί σαρκοφαγία γεγονότων, ού, χρωπότης χεί- το κρέας δέομεθα, αναμιγνύντες έλαιον, οίνον, μέλι, λους, ουκ οξύτης όνυχος ου τραχύτης οδόντων χάρον, όξος, ή δυσμασι Συριακούς, 'Αρραβικούς, ώσπερ πρόσεστιν, ου κοιλίας αυτονία, και πνευματος θερ- όντως νεκρόν, ενταφίαξοντες. Και γάρ ότως αυτων μότης, τρέψαι, και κατεργάσασθαι δυνατή το βαρύ διαλυθέντων και μαλαχθέντων και τρόπον τινά χρευ
1 See Mr Newton's book. His children are the most beautiful | σαπέυντων έργον εστί την πέψιν κρατήσει και διαand healthy creatures it is possible to conceive; the girls are per- κρατηθείσης δε δεινάς βαρύτητας εμποιεί και νοσώδεις foct models for a sculptor ; their dispositions are also the most are buss. gentle and conciliating; the judicious treatment, which they erperience in other points, may be a correlative cause of this. In the
Ούτω το πρώτον άγριόν τι ξώον έβρώθη και καirst five years of their life, of 18, 000 children that are boro, 7, 5ου κούργον είτα όρνις τις ή ιχθύς είλκυστο και γεύομεdie of various diseases; and how many more of those ibat survive νον, ούτο και προμελετήσαν εν εκείνους το νικούν επι are not renderod miserable by maladies not immediately mortal ? The quality and quantity of a woman's milk are materiali, Injured | βουν εργάτης ήλθε, και το κοσμον πρόβατον και τον by the use of dead flesh, In an island near Iceland, wbere no re- οίκουρον άλεκτρονα και καταμικρόν ούτο την απληgetables are to be got, the children invariably die of tetapus, be- στιάν πονώσαντες, επισφαγάς ανθρωπών, και φόνους fore they are three weeks old, and the population is supplied from the main land.-Sir G. MACKENZIE's Hist. of Iceland. See also
και πολέμους προήλθεν. Emile, clap. 1. pages 53, 54, 56.
περι της σαρκοφάγιας.
Alastor; or, the Spirit of Solitude.
Nondum amabam, et amare amabam, quærebam quid amarem amans amare.
Confess. St August.
derful, or wise, or beautiful, which the poet, the philosopher, or the lover could depicture. The intellectual
faculties, the imagination, the functions of sense, have THE poem entitled • Alastor,, may be considered as al- their respective requisitions on the sympathy of correlegorical of one of the most interesting situations of the sponding powers in other human beings. The Poet is human mind. It represents a youth of uncorrupted represented as uniting these requisitions, and attaching feelings and adventurous genius led forth by an imagi- them to a single image. He seeks in vain for a protopation inflamed and purified through familiarity with type of his conception. Blasted by bis disappointment, all that is excellent and majestic, to the contemplation he descends to an untimely grave. The picture is not of the universe. He drinks deep of the fountains of barren of instruction to actual men. The Poet's selfknowledge, and is still insatiate. The magnificence and centred seclusion was avenged by the furies of an irrebeauty of the external world sinks profoundly into the sistible passion pursuing him to speedy ruin. But that frame of his conceptions, and affords to their modifica- power which strikes the luminaries of the world with tions a variety not to be exbausted, So long as it is sudden darkness and extinction, by awakening them to possible for his desires to point towards objects thus in- too exquisite a perception of its intluences, dooms to a finite and unmeasured, be is joyous, and tranquil, and slow and poisonous decay those meaner spirits that dare self-possessed. But the period arrives when these objects to abjure its dominion, Their destiny is more abject and cease to suffice. His mind is at length suddenly inglorious as their delinquency is more contemptible awakened, and thirsts for intercourse with an intelli- and pernicious. They who, deluded by no generous Gence similar to itself.
He images to himself the being error, instigated by no sacred thirst of doubtful knowwhom he loves conversant with speculations of the ledge, duped by no illustrious superstition, loving nosublimest and most perfect natures, the vision in which thing on this earth, and cherishing no hopes beyond, he embodies his own imaginations unites all of won- yet keep aloof from sympathies with their kind, rejoicing
Burn to the socket!
neither in human joy nor mourning with human grief; | Enough from incommunicable dream,
But the charm'd eddies of autumnal winds
Built o'er his mouldering bones a pyramid
Of mouldering leaves in the waste wilderness ;
A lovely youth!--no mourning maiden deck'd
Withi weeping flowers, or votive cypress wreath,
He lived, he died, he sung, in solitude.
Strangers have wept to hear his passionate notes,
And virgins, as unknown he past, have sigh'd
The fire of those soft orbs has ceased to burn,
And Silence, too enamour'd of that voice,
Locks its mute music in her rugged cell.
By solemn vision and bright silver dream,
His infancy was nurtured. Every sight Willi sunset and its gorgeous ministers,
And sound from the vast earth and ambient air, And solemn midnight's tingling sileniness;
Sent to luis heart its choicest impulses. If autumn's hollow sighs in the sere wood,
The fountains of divine pliilosophy And winter robing with pure snow and crowns
Fled not his thirsting lips; and all of great, Of starry ice the grey grass and bare boughs;
Or good, or lovely, which the sacred past If spring's voluptuous pantings when she breathes In truth or fable consecrates, he felt ller first sweet kisses, have been dear to me;
And knew. When early youth had past, he left If no bright bird, insect, or gentle beast
Ilis cold fireside and alienated liome, I consciously have injured, but still loved
To seek strange trutlis in undiscover'd lands. And cherishid these my kindred ;-then forgive Many a wide waste and tangled wilderness This boast, beloved brethren, and withdraw
Has lured his fearless steps; and has he bought No portion of your wonted favour now!
With his sweet voice and eyes, from savage men,
This rest and food. Nature's most secret steps Modier of this unfathomable world!
De, like her shadow, has pursued, where'er Favour my solemn song, for I have loved
The red volcano overcanopies Thee ever, and thee only; I have watch'd
Its fields of snow and pinnacles of ice Thy shadow, and the darkness of thy steps,
With burning smoke; or where bitumen lakes, And my heart ever gazes on the depth
On black bare pointed islets ever beat Of thy deep mysteries. I have made my bed
With sluggish surge; or where the secret caves, In charnels and on coffins, where black death
Rugged and dark, winding among the springs Keeps record of the trophies won from thee,
Of fire and poison, inaccessible Hoping to still these obstinate questionings
To avarice or pride, their starry domes Of thee and thine, by forcing some lone ghost,
Of diamond and of gold expand above
Numberless and immeasurable balls,
Frequent with crystal column, and clear shrines
Nor had that scene of ampler majesty Staking his very life on some dark hope,
Than gems or gold, the varying roof of heaven Uave I mix'd awful talk and asking looks
And the green earth, lost in his heart is claims Witi my most innocent love, until strange tears, To love and wonder; he would linger long Uniting with those breathless kisses, made
In lonesome vales, making the wild his home, Such magic as compels the charmed night
Until the doves and squirrels wouli partake To render up thy charge: and, though ne'er yet From his innocuous hand his bloodless food, Thou hast unveil'd thy inmost sanctuary,
Lured by the gentle meaning of his looks,
And the wild antelope, that starts whenc'er
Dis wandering step,
Subdued by its own pathos : her fair hands
Meantime an Arab maiden brought his food, Iler daily portion, from her father's tent, And spread her matting for his couch, and sto From duties and repose to tend his steps: Enamourd, yet not daring for deep awe To speak her love:-and watch'd his nightly sleep, Sleepless herself, to gaze upon his lips Parted in slumber, whence the regular breath Of innocent dreams arose: then, when red morn Made paler the pale moon, to ber cold home, Wilder'd and wan and panting, she return d.
The Poet wandering on, through Arabic And Persia, and the wild Carmanian waste, And o'er the aërial mountains which pour down Judus and Oxus from their icy caves, In joy and exultation held his way Till in the vale of Cachmire, far within Its loneliest dell, where odorous plants entwine Beneath the hollow rocks a natural bower, Beside a sparkling rivulet he stretch'd His languid limbs. A vision on his sleep There came, a dream of hopes that never yet Had flushi'd his cheek. He dreamed a veil'd maid Sate near him, talking in low solemn tones. Her voice was like the voice of his own soul Heard in the calm of thought; its music long, Like woven sounds of streams and breezes, held His inmost sense suspended in its web Of many-colour'd woof and shifting hues. Knowledge and truth and virtue were her theme, And lofty hopes of divine liberty, Thoughts the most dear to him, and
pocsy, Ilerself a poet. Soon the solemn mood Of her pure mind kindled through all her frame A permeating fire: wild nungbers then She raised, with voice stilled in tremulous sobs
Roused by the shock, he started from his trance-
While daylight beld The sky, the Poet kept mute conference With his still soul. At night the passion came, Like the fierce fiend of a distemper'd drcam, And shook him from his rest, and led him forth Into the darkness. — As an eagle grasp'd