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government which, whilst it infringes the very right of lieve; whereas the mind can only believe that which thought and speech, boasts of permitting the liberty of it thinks true. A human being can only be supposed the press, a man is pilloried and imprisoned because he accountable for those actions which are influenced by is a deist, and no one raises his voice in the indignation bis will. But belief is utterly distinct from and unconof outraged humanity. But it is ever a proof that the nected with volition: it is the apprehension of the agree falsehood of a proposition is felt by those who use coer- ment or disagreement of the ideas that compose any cion, not reasoning, to procure its admission ; and a proposition. Belief is a passion, or involuntary operadispassionate observer would feel himself more power- tion of the mind, and, like other passions, its intensity fully interested in favour of a man, who, depending on is precisely proportionate to the degrees of excitement. the truth of his opinions, simply stated his reasons for Volition is essential to merit or demerit. But the Chrisentertaining them, than in that of his aggressor, who tian religion attaches the highest possible degrees of daringly avowing his unwillingness or incapacity to merit and demerit to that which is worthy of neither, answer them by argument, proceeded to repress the and which is totally unconnected with the peculiar energies and break the spirit of their promulgator faculty of the mind, whose presence is essential to their by that torture and imprisonment whose infliction he being. could command.

Christianity was intended to reform the world: had Analogy seems to favour the opinion, that as, like an all-wise Being planned it, nothing is more improbable other systems, Christianity has arisen and augmented, than that it should have failed : omniscience would inso like them it will decay and perish; that, as violence, fallibly have foreseen the inutility of a scheme which darkness, and deceit, not reasoning and persuasion, have experience demonstrates, to this age, to have been utprocured its admission among mankind, so, when en- terly unsuccessful. thusiasm has subsided, and time, that infallible con- Christianity inculcates the necessity of supplicating troverter of false opinions, has involved its pretended the Deity. Prayer may be considered under two points evidences in the darkness of antiquity, it will become of view ;—as an endeavour to change the intentions of obsolete; that Milton's poem alone will give permanency God, or as a formal testimony of our obedience. to the remembrance of its absurdities; and that men the former case supposes that the caprices of a limited will laugh as heartily at grace, faith, redemption, and intelligence can occasionally instruct the Creator of the original sin, as they now do at the metamorphoses of world how to regulate the universe; and the latter, a Jupiter, the miracles of Romish saints, the efficacy of certain degree of servility analogous to the loyalıy dewitchcraft, and the appearance of departed spirits.

manded by eartlıly tyrants. Obedience indeed is only Had the Christian religion commenced and continued the pitiful and cowardly egotism of him who thinks that by the mere force of reasoning and persuasion, the pre- he can do something better than reason. ceding analogy would be inadmissible. We should never Christianity, like all other religions, rests upon miraspeculate on the future obsoleteness of a system per-cles, prophecies, and martyrdoms. No religion ever fectly conformable to nature and reason: it would existed, which had not its prophets, its attested miraendure so long as they endured; it would be a truth as cles, and, above all, crowds of devotees who would indisputable as the light of the sun, the criminality of bear patiently the most horrible tortures to prove its murder, and other facts, whose evidence, depending on authenticity. It should appear that in no case can a our organization and relative situations, must remain discriminating mind subscribe to the genuineness of a acknowledged as satisfactory so long as man is man.

miracle. A miracle is an infraction of nature's law, It is an incontrovertible fact, the consideration of which by a supernatural cause; by a cause acting beyond ought to repress the hasty conclusions of credulity, or that eternal circle within which all things are included. moderate its obstinacy in maintaining them, that, had | God breaks through the law of nature, that he may the Jews not been a fanatical race of men, bad even the convince mankind of the truth of that revelation which, resolution of Pontius Pilate been equal to his candour, in spite of his precautions, has been, since its introducthe Christian religion never could have prevailed, it tion, the subject of unceasing schism and cavil. could not even have existed: on so feeble a thread hangs

Miracles resolve themselves into the following questhe most cherished opinion of a sixth of the human race! tion : '-Whether it is more probable the laws of naWhen will the vulgar learn bumility? When will the ture, hitherto so immutably harmonious, should have pride of ignorance blush at having believed before it undergone violation, or that a man should have told a could comprehend ?

lie? Whether it is more probable that we are ignorant Either the Christian religion is true, or it is false: if of the natural cause of an event, or that we know the true, it comes from God, and its authenticity can admit supernatural one? That, in old times, when the powers of doubt and dispute no further than its omnipotent of nature were less known than at present, a certain set author is willing to allow. Either the power or the of men were themselves deceived, or had some hidden goodness of God is called in question, if he leaves those motive for deceiving others; or that God begat a son, doctrines most essential to the well-being of map in doubt who, in his legislation, measuring merit by belief, and dispute; the only ones which, since their promulga- evidenced himself to be totally ignorant of the powers tion, have been the subject of unceasing cavil, the cause of the human mind-of whiat is voluntary, and what is of irreconcileable hatred. If God has spoken, why is the contrary? the universe not convinced ?

We have many instances of men telling lies;-none There is this passage in the Christian Scriptures: of an infraction of nature's laws, those laws of whose • Those who obey not God, and believe not the Gospel of government alone we have any knowledge or expehis Son, shall be punished with everlasting destruction.» rience. The records of all nations afford innumerable This is the pivot upon which all religions turn: they all assume that it is in our power to believe or not to be

Seo Hame's Essays, vol. ii, page 131.

instances of men deceiving others either from vanity or knew fulure events from God, until it is demonstrated interest, or themselves being deceived by the limitedness that he neither could know them by his own exertions, of their views and their ignorance of natural causes : mor that the writings which contain the prediction could but where is the accredited case of God having come possibly have been fabricated after the event pretended upon earth, to give the lie to his own creations? There to be foretold. It is more probable that writings, would be something truly wonderful in the appearance pretending to divine inspiration, should have been fabriof a ghost; but the assertion of a child that he saw one cated after the fulfilment of their pretended prediction, as he passed through the church-yard is universally ad- than that they should have really been divinely inspired; mitted to be less miraculous.

when we consider that the latter supposition makes But even supposing that a man should raise a dead God at once the creator of the human mind and ignobody to life before our eyes, and on this fact rest his rant of its primary powers, particularly as we have claim to being considered the son of God;—the lu- numherless instances of false religions, and forged promane Society restores drowned persons, and because phecies of things long past, and no accredited case of it makes no mystery of the method it employs, its mem- God having conversed with meu directly or indirectly. bers are not mistaken for the sons of God. All that we li is also possible that the description of an event might have a right to infer from our ignorance of the cause have foregone its occurrence; but this is far from being of any event is, that we do not know it: had the Mexi- a legitimate proof of a divine revelation, as many men, caus attended to this simple rule when they heard the not pretending to the character of a prophet, have necaonon of the Spaniards, they would not have consi- vertheless, in this sense, prophesied. dered them as gods: the experimenis of modern che- Lord Chesterfield was never yet taken for a prophet, mistry would have defied the wisest philosophers of even by a bishop, yet he uttered this remarkable predicancient Greece and Rome to have accounted for them tion : « The despotic government of France is screwed on natural principles. An author of strong common up to the highest pitch; a revolution is fast approachsense has observed, that a miracle is no miracle at ing; that revolution, I am convinced, will be radical and second-hand;. he might have added, that a miracle is sanguinary. This appeared in the letters of the prono miracle in any case; for until we are acquainted phet long before the accomplishment of this wonderful with all natural causes, we have no reason to imagine prediction. Now, have these particulars come to pass, others.

or have they not? If they have, how could the Earl There remains to be considered another proof of have foreknown them without inspiration? If we admit Christianity-Prophecy. A book is written before a

the truth of the Christian religion on testimony such as certain event, in which this event is foretold; how this, we must admit, on the same strength of evidence, could the prophet have foreknown it without inspira- that God has affixed the highest rewards to belief, and tion? how could he have been inspired without God? the eternal tortures of the never-dying worm to disThe greatest stress is laid on the prophecies of Moses belief; both of which have been demonstrated to be inand Hosea on the dispersion of the Jews, and that of voluntary. Isaiah concerning the coming of the Messiah. The The last proof of the Christian religion depends on prophecy of Moses is a collection of every possible the influence of the Holy Ghost. Theologians divide cursing and blessing; and it is so far from being mar- the influence of the Holy Ghost into its ordinary and vellous that the one of dispersion should have been ful- extraordinary modes of operation. The latter is supfilled, that it would have been more surprisioy if, out posed to be that which inspired the Prophets and of all these, none should have taken effect. In Deu- Apostles; and the former to be the grace of God, which teronomy, chap. XXVIII, ver. 64, where Moses explicitly summarily makes known the truth of his revelation, to foretells the dispersion, he states that they shall there those whose mind is fitted for its reception by a subserve gods of wood and stone : « And the Lord shall missive perasal of his word. Persons convinced in this scatter thee among all people, from the one end of the manner, can do any thing but account for their convicearth even to the other, and there thou shalt serve tion, describe the time at which it happened, or the other gods, which neither thou nor thy fathers have manner in which it came upon them. It is supposed to known, even gods of wood and stone.» The Jews are enter the mind by other channels than those of the at this day remarkably tenacious of their religion. senses, and therefore professes to be superior to reason Moses also declares that they shall be subjected to these founded on their experience. causes for disobedience to his ritual : « And it shall Admitting, however, the usefulness or possibility of come to pass, if thou will not hearken unto the voice of a divine revelation, unless we demolish the foundations the Lord thy God, to observe to do all the command of all human knowledge, it is requisite that our reason ments and statutes which I command you this day, should previously demonstrate ils genuineness; for, that all these curses shall come upon thee and overtake before we extinguish the steady ray of reason and comthee. Is this the real reason? The third, fourth and mon sense, it is fit that we should discover whether we fifth chapters of Hosea are a piece of immodest confes- cannot do without their assistance, whether or no there sion. The indelicate type might apply in a bundred be any other which may suffice to guide us through the seuses to a hundred things. The fifty-third chapter labyrinth of life : ' for, if a man is to be inspired upon of Isaiah is more explicit, yet it does not exceed in all occasions, if he is to be sure of a thing because he is clearness the oracles of Delphos. The historical proof, sure, is the ordinary operations of the spirit are not to that Moses, Isaiah and Hosea did write when they are be considered very extraordinary modes of demonstrasaid to have written, is far from being clear and cir- tion, if enthusiasm is to usurp the place of proof, and cumstantial.

madness that of savity, all reasoning is superfluous. But prophecy requires proof in its character as a

Seo Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding, bnok iv, chap. miracle; we have no right to suppose that a man fore- xix, on Enthusiasm.

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The Mahometan dies fighting for his prophet, the Indian

Dark flood of time!

Roll as it listeth thee-I measure not immolates himself at the chariot-wheels of Brahma, the

By months or moments thy ambiguous course. Hottentot worships an insect, the Negro a bunch of

Adoiber may stand by me on the brink, feathers, the Mexican sacrifices human victims! Their

And watch the bubble wbirl'd beyond his ken degree of conviction, must certainly be very strong : it

That pauses at my feet. The sense of love, cannot arise from conviction, it must from feelings, the

The thirst for action, and the impassion'd thought,

Prolong my being: if I wake no more, reward of their prayers. If each of these should affirm,

My life more actual living will contain in opposition to the strongest possible arguments, that Than some grey veteran's of tbe world's cold scbool, inspiration carried internal evidence, I fear their inspired

Whose listless hours onprofitably roll, brethren, the orthodox Missionaries, would be so un

By one enthusiast feeling unredeem'd. charitable as to pronounce them obstinate.

See Godwin's Pol. Jus, vol. i, page 411;-and Miracles cannot be received as testimonies of a dis- Condorcet, Esquisse d'un Tableau Historique des puted fact, because all human testimony has ever been Progrès de l' Esprit Humain, Époque ix. insufficient to establish the possibility of miracles. That which is incapable of proof itself, is no proof of

Note 17, page 120, col. 2. any thing else. Prophecy has also been rejected by the

No longer now test of reason. Those, then, who have been actually

He slays the lamb that looks bim in the face. inspired, are the only true believers in the Christian I hold that the depravity of the physical and moral religion.

nature of man originated in his unnatural habits of life.
Mox nomine viso

The origin of man, like that of the universe of which
Virginei tumoere sinus, innuplaque mater

he is a part, is enveloped in impenetrable mystery. His
Arcano stupait compleri viscera partu

generations either had a beginning, or they had not.
Auctorem peritura suam. Mortalia corda

The weight of evidence in favour of each of these sup-
Artificum texere poli, latuitque sub uno
Pectore, qui totum late complectitur orbem.

positions seems tolerably equal; and it is perfectly un-
CLAUDIAN, Carmen Paschali. important, to the present argumeni, which is assumed.

The language spoken however by the mythology of Does not so monstrous and disgusting an absurdity nearly all religions seems to prove, that at some distant carry its own infamy and refulation with itself?

period man forsook the path of nature, and sacrificed Note 16, page 120, col. 2.

the purity and happiness of his being to unnatural

appetites. The date of this event seems to have also Him (still from hope to hope the bliss pursuing

been that of some great change in the climates of the Which, from the exhaustless lore of buman weal Dawns on the virtuous mind), tbe thougbis tbat rise

earth, with which it has an obvious correspondence. In time-destroying infiniteness, gift

The allegory of Adam and Eve eating of the tree of With self-enshrined eternity, etc.

evil, and entailing upon their posterity the wrath of Time is our consciousness of the succession of ideas God, and the loss of everlasting life, admits of no other in our mind. Vivid sensation, of either pain or plea- explanation than the disease and crime that have flowed sure, makes the time seem long, as the common phrase from unnatural diet. Milton was so well aware of this, is, because it renders us more acutely conscious of our that he makes Raphael thus exhibit to Adam the conse ideas. If a mind be conscious of a hundred ideas quence of his disobedience. during one minute, by the clock, and of two hundred during another, the latter of these spaces would actually

Immediately a place

Before his eyes appear'd: sad, noisome, dark: occupy so much greater extent in the mind as two ex- A lazar-house it seem'd; wherein were laid ceed one in quantity. If, therefore, the human mind,

Nambers of all diseasod; all maladies by any future improvement of its sensibility, should be

Of ghastly spasm, or racking torture, qualms

Of beart-sick agony, all feverous kinds, come conscious of an infinite number of ideas in a mi

Convulsions, epilepsies, fierce catarrhs, nute, that minute would be eternity. I do not hence Intestine stone and ulcer, cholic pangs, infer that the actual space between the birth and death

Dæmoniac frenzy, moping melancholy,

And moon-struck madness, pining atrophy, of a man will ever be prolonged; but that his sensibi

Marasmus, and wide-wasting pestilence, lity is perfectible, and that the number of ideas which

Dropsies, and asıbmas, and joint-racking rheums. bis mind is capable of receiving is indefinite. One man is stretched on the rack during twelve hours; another And how many thousands more might not be added sleeps soundly in his bed : the difference of time per- to this frightful catalogue ! ceived by these two persons is immense; one hardly The story of Prometheus is one likewise which, alwill believe that half an hour has elapsed, the other though universally admitted to be allegorical, has never could credit that centuries had flown during his agony. been satisfactorily explained. Prometheus stole fire Thus, the life of a man of virtue and talent who should from heaven, and was chained for this crime to Mount die in his thirtieth year, is, with regard to his own feel-Caucasus, where a vulture continually devoured his ings, longer than that of a miserable priest-ridden slave, liver, that grew to meet its hunger. Hesiod says, that, who dreams out a century of dulness. The one has before the time of Prometheus, mankind were exempt perpetually cultivated his mental faculties, has ren- from suffering; that they enjoyed a vigorous youth, and dered himself master of his thoughts, can abstract and that death, when at length it came, approached like generalize amid the lethargy of every-day business ;- sleep, and gently closed their eyes. Again, so general the other can slumber over the brightest moments of was this opinion, that Horace, a poet of the Augustan his being, and is unable to remember the happiest hour age, writesof his life. Perhaps the perishing ephemeron enjoys a

Audax omnia perpeti, longer life than the tortoise.

Gens bumana ruit per vetitum nefas;

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Audax Japeti genus

1 Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit;

above the level of his fellow animals. But the steps that

have been taken are irrevocable. The whole of human Postigoem alberià domo Sabductum, macies et nova febrium

science is comprised in one question :—How can the Terris incubuit cohors,

advantages of intellect and civilization be reconciled Semotique prius tarda necessitas

with the liberty and pure pleasures of natural life? Lethi corripuit gradum.

How can we take the benefits, and reject the evils of How plain a language is spoken by all this? Prome- the system, which is now interwoven with all the fibres theus (who represents the human race) effected some of our being ?-I believe that abstinence from animal great change in the condition of his nature, and applied food and spirituous liquors would in a great measure fire to culinary purposes ; thus inventing an expedient capacitate us for the solution of this important question. for screening from his disgust the horrors of the sham- It is true, that mental and bodily derangement is bles. From this moment his vitals were devoured by attributable in part to other deviations from rectitude the vulture of disease. It consumed his being in every and nature than those which concern diet. The misshape of its loathsome and infinite variety, inducing the takes cherished by society respecting the connection of soul-quelling sinkings of premature and violent death. the sexes, whence the misery and diseases of unsatisfied All vice arose from the ruin of healthful innocence. celibacy, unenjoying prostitution, and the premature Tyranny, superstition, commerce, and inequality, were arrival of puberty necessarily spring; the putrid atmothen first known, when reason vainly attempted to sphere of crowded cities; the exhalations of chemical guide the wanderings of exacerbated passion. I conclude processes; the muffling of our bodies in superfluous this part of the subject with an extract from Mr New-apparel; the absurd treatment of infants :-all these, ton's Defence of Vegetable Regimen, from whom I and innumerable other causes, contribute their mite to have borrowed this interpretation of the fable of Pro- the mass of human evil. metheus.

Comparative anatomy teaches us that man resembles • Making allowance for such transposition of the frugivorous animals in every thing, and carnivorous in events of the allegory as time might produce after the nothing; he has neither claws wherewith to seize his important truths were forgotten, which this portion of prey, nor distinct and pointed teeth to tear the living the ancient mythology was intended to transmit, the fibre. A Mandarin of the first class, with nails two drift of the fable seems to be this :- Man at his creation inches long, would probably find them alone inefficient was endowed with the gift of perpetual youth; that is, to hold even a hare. After every subterfuge of cluthe was not formed to be a sickly suffering creature as tony, the bull must be degraded into the ox, and the we now see him, but to enjoy health, and to sink hy slow ram into the wether, by an unnatural and inhuman degrees into the bosom of his parent earth, without dis- operation, that the flaccid fibre may offer a fainter ease or pain. Prometheus first taught the use of ani- resistance to rebellious nature. It is only by softening mal food (primus bovem occidit Prometheus ") and of and disguising dead flesh by culinary preparation, that fire, with which to render it more digestible and pleas- it is rendered susceptible of mastication or digestion ; ing to the taste. Jupiter, and the rest of the gods, and that the sight of its bloody juices and raw horror foreseeing the consequences of these inventions, were does not excite intolerable loathing and disgust. Let amused or irritated at the short-sighted devices of the the advocate of animal food force himself to a decisive newly-formed creature, and left him to experience the experiment on its fitness, and, as Plutarch recommends, sad effects of them. Thirst, the necessary concomitant tear a living lamb with his teeth, and plunging his head of a flesh diet,» (perhaps of all diet vitiated by culinary into its vitals

, slake his thirst with the steaming blood; preparation,) ensued; water was resorted to, and man when fresh from the deed of horror, let him revert to forfeited the inestimable gift of health which he had the irresistible instincts of nature that would rise in received from heaven : he became diseased, the partaker judgment against it, and say, Nature formed me for of a precarious existence, and no longer descended such work as this. Then, and then only, would he be slowly to his grave., 2

consistent. But just disease to luxury succeeds,

Man resembles no carnivorous animal. There is no And every death its own avenger breeds ;

exception, unless man be one, to the rule of herbivorous The fury passions from that blood began,

animals having cellulated colons. And tara'd on man a fiercer savage--man.

The orang-ontang perfectly resembles man both in Man, and the animals whom he has infected with his the order and number of his teeth. The orang-outang society, or depraved by his dominion, are alone diseased. is the most anthropomorphous of the ape tribe, all of The wild hog, the mouflon, the bison, and the wolf, are which are strictly frugivorous. There is no other speperfectly exempt from malady, and invariably die either cies of animals, which live on different food, in which from external violence, or natural old age. But the this analogy exists.' In many frugivorous animals, domestic hog, the sheep, the cow, and the dog, are sub- the canine teeth are more pointed and distinct than ject to an incredible variety of distempers ; and, like those of man. The resemblance also of the human the corrupters of their nature, have physicians who stomach to that of the orang-outang, is greater than to thrive upon their miseries. The supereminence of man that of any other animal. is like Satan's, a supereminence of pain; and the ma

The intestines are also identical with those of herbijority of his species, doomed to penury, disease, and vorous animals, which present a larger surface for crime, have reason to curse the untoward event, that by absorption, and have ample and cellulated colons. The enabling him to communicate his sensations, raised him cæcum also, though short, is larger than that of carnivo

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rous animals; and even here the orang-outang retains of violent passions, blood-shot eyes, and swollen veins, its accustomed similarity.

that alone can grasp the knife of murder.

The system The structure of the human frame then is that of one of a simple diet promises no Utopian advantages. It filted to a pure vegetable diet, in every essential parti- is no mere reform of legislation, whilst the furious cular. It is true, that the reluctance to abstain from passions and evil propensities of the human heart, in animal food, in those who bave been long accustomed which it had its origin, are still unassuaged. It strikes to its stimulus, is so great in some persons of weak at the root of all evil, and is an experiment which may minds, as to be scarcely overcome; but this is far from be tried with success, not alone by nations, but by bringing any argument in its favour. A lamb, which small societies, families, and even individuals. In no was fed for some time on flesli by a ship's crew, refused case has a return to vegetable diet produced the slighiils natural diet at the end of the voyage. There are est injury; in most it has been attended with changes numerous instances of horses, sheep, oxen, and even undeniably beneficial. Should ever a plıysician be wood-pigeons, having been taught to live upon flesh, born with the genius of Locke, I am persuaded that until they have loathed their natural aliment. Young he might trace all bodily and mental derangements to children evidently prefer pastry, oranges, apples, and our unnatural habits, as clearly as that philosopher has other fruit, to the flesh of animals; until, by the gra- traced all knowledge to sensation. What prolific dual depravation of the digestive organs, the free use sources of disease are not those mineral and vegetable of vegetables has for a time produced serious inconve- poisons that have been introduced for its extirpation ! niences; for a time, I say, since there never was an How many thousands have become murderers and instance wherein a change from spirituous liquors and robbers, bigots and domestic tyrants, dissolute and animal food to vegetables and pure water, lias failed abandoned adventurers, from the use of fermented liultimately to invigorate the body, by rendering its quors! who, had they slaked their thirst only with juices bland and consentaneous, and to restore to the pure water, would have lived but to diffuse the happimind that cheerfulness and elasticity, which not one in ness of their own unperverted feelings. llow many

fifty possesses on the present system. A love of strong groundless opinions and absurd institutions have not "liquors is also with difficulty taught to infants. Al received a general sanction from the sottishness and inmost every one remembers the wry faces which the temperance of individuals! Who will assert that, had first glass of port produced. Unsophisticated instinct the populace of Paris satisfied their bunger at the everis invariably unerring; but to decide on the fitness of furnished table of vegetable nature, they would have animal food, from the perverted appetites which its lent their brutal suffrage to the proscription-list of constrained adoption produces, is to make the criminal Robespierre? Could a set of men, whose passions were a judge in his own cause: it is even worse, it is appeal- not perverted by unnatural stimuli, look with coolness ing to the infatuated drunkard in a question of the on an auto da fe? Is it to be believed that a being of salubrity of brandy.

gentle feelings, rising from his meal of roots, would What is the cause of morbid action in the animal take delight in sports of blood? Was Nero a man of system? Not the air we breathe, for our fellow deni- temperate life? could you read calon health in his zeus of nature breathe the same uninjured; not the cheek, tlushed with ungovernable propensities of hatred water we drink, (if remote from the pollutions of man for the human race? Did Muley Ismael's pulse beat and his inventions,') for the animals drink it too; not evenly, was his skin transparent, did his eyes beam the earth we tread upon; not the unobscured sight of with healthfulness, and its invariable concomitants, glorious nature, in the wood, the field, or the expanse cheerfulness and benignity ? Though history has deof sky and ocean; nothing that we are or do in com-cided none of these questions, a child could not hesitate mon with the undiscased inhabitants of the forest. to answer in the negative. Surely the bile-suffused cheek Something then wherein we differ from them: our habit of Bonaparte, his wrinkled brow, and yellow eye, the of altering our food by fire, so that our appetite is no ceaseless inquietude of his nervous system, speak no less longer a just criterion for the fitness of its gratification. plainly the character of his unresting ambition than his Except in children, there reinain no traces of that murders and his victories. It is impossible, had Bonainstinct which determines, in all other animals, what parte descended from a race of vegetable feeders, that aliment is natural or otherwise; and so perfectly oblite-, he could have had either the inclination or the power rated are they in the reasoning adults of our species, that to ascend the throne of the Bourbons. The desire of it bas become necessary to urge considerations drawn tyranny could scarcely be excited in the individual, the from comparative anatomy to prove that we are natu- power to tyrannize would certainly not be delegated by rally frugivorous.

society neither frenzied by inebriation nor rendered Crime is madness. Madness is disease. Whenever impotent and irrational by disease. Pregnant indeed the cause of disease shall be discovered, the root, from with inexhaustible calamity is the renunciation of inwhich all vice and misery have so long overshadowed stinct, as it concerns our physical nature; arithmetic the globe, will lie bare to the axe. All the exertions cannot enumerate, nor reason perhaps suspect, the mulof man, from that moment, may be considered as tend-ritudinous sources of disease in civilized life. Even ing to the clear profit of his species. No sane mind in common water, that apparently innoxious pabulum, a sane body resolves upon a real crime. It is a man when corrupted by the filth of populous cities, is a

deadly and insidious destroyer.' Who can wonder that The necessity of resorting to some means of purifying water, all the inducements held out by God himself in the and the disease which arises from its adulteration in civilized Bible to virtue should have been vainer than a nurse's countries, is sufficiently apparent.–See Dr Lambe's Reports on Cancer. I do not assert that the use of water is in itself unnatural, tale; and that those dogmas, by which he has there exbut that the unperverted palate would swallow no liquid capable of occasioning disease.

"Lambe's Reports on Cancer.

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