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means : but we hope, that Jacquin will soon reveal this secret to the wishes and curiosity of the cultivators of natural histo. sy.'

All that we could hope to be able to infer from M. Jacquin's intelligence, which must have been long since received, is, that there lubrift impudent quacks, and credulous dupes, in Egypt as well as in Europe.-Thus, if a philosophical missionary from the Grand Lama, or the Emperor of China, were to reside in London a week; he might, like M. Hasselquist, be enabled to inform his Sacerdotal or Imperial Highness, on his return, that he here too had met with a set of sages who daily avowed pretensions equal at least to those of the Egyptian sorcerers; and who, like them, could not be prevailed upon to disclose the fee crets of their art.

Dissertation VII. On Infeets, Oration : By Linnæus. DISSERTATION VIII. The Flora of Infects: By Jonas Gusta

vus Forsfahl. In the first of these two memoirs, Linnæus, in a concise manner, exhibits some of the more striking properties, habitudes, or manners, of particular insects. In the next dissertation, the principal design of the Author is to indicate those particular plants, or single parts of plants, which constitute the food of particular insects; with a view principally to promote and direct the researches of the naturalist, physician, gardener,

&c.

Dissertation IX. On Noxious Infects : By Michael

A. Baeckner. In this essay the Author considers and classes insects according to the injuries they do to animals, and to man personally ; as well as to our victuals, clothes, furniture, &c. to fruit trees, Arubs, forest trees, the kitchen garden, and the fields. Under the last head, the Author takes notice of an observation made by Linnæus, who discovered that the Mufca hordei every year des ftroyed at leaft one fifth part of the corn in the public granaries, or 100,000 tuns. From the short enumeration of their ravages here given, and which, according to the Author, are too little attended to, they appear to be truly formidable. DissERTATION X. Miracula InfeElorum : By Emanuel Avelin,

This paper may be considered as a supplement to the three preceding it. DISSERTATION XI. On the Silk Worm : By John Lyman.

In this dissertation the Author gives the natural history of this infect, and of its food, the mulberry; with a view to thew, that the filk worm may be bred in Sweden: where, in consequence of the introduction of the red mulberry into that kingdom, by

the

the celebrated Professor Kalm, some filk has been produced by no means of an inferior quality.'

DISSERTATION XII. Ejay on Corals : By Henry Fougt.

This dillerration, extracted from tie ist volume of the Ameni. tates, was con quenily published many years ago, and at a time when the true nature of these heteroclite beings had not been so satisfactorily ascertained by Ellis, following the footsteps of PeyFonelle, and Jufficu. He, as the Translator observes, went more extensively into the subject; and the finished elegance of his drawings has, in some degree, enabled his work to cast the memory of his two predeceffors (who had at least the honour of anticipating the outline of his discoveries) into a kind of thade.

This differtation terminates the present volume. We lball only express our wishes that the Tranilator may proceed to complete his plan; the execution of which cannot fail of being acceptable to the numerous lovers of natural history in this country, who have not an opportunity, or are not qualified, to consult the original work.

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FOREIGN LITERATURE..
GERM A N Y and ihe NOR TH..

ART. I.
D E la Litterature Allemande ; &c. i. c. A Letter concerning

German Literature, the Defects with which it is chargeable, the Caufis from whence theki Defeels proceed, and the Means of correeling them. 8vo, Berlin, 1780. This new production of a ROYAL AUTHOR, who takes up the pen when he has sheathed the sword, is superior, in point of stile and express fion, to alınost ali his preceding publications; but whether it is to be considor«d as a fair reprefentation of the present state of literature in Germany, is another queslion. This question we make no sort of scruple of determining in the negative. Between twenty and thirty years ago the representation would have been juít; but the face of literature has undergone such remarkable and advantageous alterations in most of its features since that period, that the portrait before us is rather a caricature, than a resemblance of its original.

Neu Historische Abhandlungen der Baierischen Academie der Willenschaften, i, e. New Hiflorical Memoirs of the Bavarian ficademy of Sciences, ift Vol. Munich. 1779. This is the first volume of a new series of memoirs, beginning with the epocha of the accelion of Charles. Theodore, Elector PaJacine, to the duchy of Bavaria The academy was formed in the year 1759, by the Elector Maximilian III. ; its memoirs have never been very interesting ; but the volume before us

furpafiis

surpaffes most of the preceding in aridity and nothingness. The historical, diplomatical, ecclesiastical, blafonical points which are discussed in it, cannot be interesting beyond the circle to which they relate, if we except the first Memoir concerning the Dukes of Bavaria, who preceded the time of Charlemagne, which contains the principal exploits of these princes, and is connected with the ancient history of the German empire.

III. Rheinische Beitrage zur Gelehrsamkeit, &c. i. e. Contributions to Literature and Science from the Borders of the Rhine. This is the only way we can translate without exciting a smile, the title of the excellent and instructive literary Journal, published at Manheim by Messrs. HAEFFLIN and MEDIKUS, and which contains a variety of interesting articles. In the volume before us there is an account of the collections of classic authors, that are coming forth successively from the rival presses of Manheim and Deux-ponts, and which are remarkable for their corre&tness and typographical elegance. There are also in this volume several articles relative to philosophy, natural history, and the arts. Of these we shall mention one, which does honour to a celebrated English astronomer, and an eminent English artist; it is Mr. Mayer's account of the pendulum vibrating reconds, of which the Elector Palatine made a present to the observatory of Manheim, and which was made by Mr. Arnold, watch-maker in London, under the inspection of Mr. Maskelyne. According to the testimony of Mr. Mayer, electoral artronomer, this pendulum is so accurate, that, from the 16th of September to the 16th of December, it scarcely underwent the alteration of more than a second. In the year 1753, the famous Mr. Short expressed in the Philosophical Tranfations, his surprize, that, from the 22d of February to the 6th of May, he had observed, in his pendulum, only a minute of alteration in a variation of heat of 10 degrees during these 69 days. In the present · cale, during a longer interval, the variation of heat was 20 degrees, and, nevertheless, Mr. Mayer, and his assistant Mr. Metzger, observed less alteration in the pendulum. This inftrument is therefore by much superior to that of the observatory of Gottingen, which, according to the report of Mr. Kaestner, varied two minutes and a second, from the month of January, to the month of August. See another account of Mr. Mayer's letter, in our Review for July

ITALY. IV. Congetture Meteorologiche, &c. i. e. Meteorological Conjectures. By M. LAWRENCE PIGNOTTI, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Pisa.- Dedicated to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, &c. an 8vo. of 192 Pages. Florence. 1781. One of the principal points discussed in this ingenious Work is that famous question, Why, in dusky and rainy weather, Rev. Oct. 1785.

the

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the fluid column of the barometer descends, and the air, confequently, has lefs weight than in dry and clear weather, in which the same fluid column rises above its ordinary height? Though M. PIGNOTTI acknowledges that the action of wind, that of heat, and the ascent of vapours and exhalations in the atmosphere may contribute to the variations of the barometer, in some instances, yet he afferts the insufficiency of these three causes to account for the variation, fpecified in the ques. tion now mentioned: he enters into a long and elaborate refutation of the reasonings of the philosophers, who have employed these causes to explain the phenomenon in queftion, and boldły affirms that its true cause has been hitherto unknown.-But he has found it out and according to him, the cause which, on the approach of rain, produces a change in the weight of the air, is the mixture of certain exhalations which then arife from the carth, with the atmosphere, which alter the quality of the air, render it noxious, and diminish its elasticity, its weight, and its volume, as appears kom repeated experiments of Dr. Priestley. These exhalations arise, says our Author, from a fubterraneous fermentation; and the reason he gives for their aptitude to die minish the weight and elafticity of the air, is, that the phlogiston, when introduced into the air which we breathe, decompounds its principles, and separates from it one of its conftituent parts, i, c. fixed air, whose specific gravity is much greater than that of common air, which, itfelf, has less weight than inflammable air. We shall only obferve, farther, that the work before us contains several observations and experiments relative to the evaporation of Huids, the action of air on water, and the caufes of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, that merit ata tention. · V. Saggio di Eglaghe Militari, &c. i. e. Military Eclogues Presented to the Alexandrian Academy of Unmoveables. By the Abbé JULIO CORDARA. Alexandria. 8vo. 1780. We have never before heard of soldiers introduced into eclogues bus to pillage and plunder, to frighten Insepherds and shepherdefles, to devour the hopes of the husbandman, and to spread disorder and confufion in the happy scenes of rural tranquillity. But in the military Areadia of this Author, the sons of Mars : appear with honour, and their duties, obligacions, and true glory are well described.

VI. Anecdote Historique de la Colorie Greque, &c. i. e. An Hiftorical Anecdote, relative to the Grecian Colony shat settled in Corsica in the Year 1676. By Mr. B. D. V. Cagliari. 8vo. 1780. This Anecdote is interesting, and so well related, that trould it even prove fabulous, it must still be esteemed entertaining, as the Author is certainly an elegant and leashed writer, and has enriched his publication with several well

. placed

and the good before the dic..Airis Gran

variations orations in and its Elapideo

placed extracts from the Byzantine history. The colony in question pretend, almost all, to be the descendants of Alexis Comnene, who mounted the imperial throne of Constantinople in the year 1081; and whose son, Stephen, fled to Peloponnesus to avoid the vengeance of his mother, whose adulterous lover he had assassinated; from whence his posterity Aed to Corfica, from the victorious arms of Amurath IV. the Turkish emperor, and settled, with the consent of the Genoese, at Ajaccio, where they are now under the jurisdiction of the Count de Marboeuf..

VI. Cajetani Cari, J. U. D. Piforiensis de Aëris Grau vitate ejusque Elaterio, Specimen Phyficum, &c. i. e. A Philofophical Elay concerning the Weight of the Air, and its Elasticity, &c.' There are several good observations in this work, concerning the air, and the variations of the barometer. The ex periments on the air are curious, well related, and seem to strike out some sparks of new light. To there are subjoined the description and analysis of a pneumatic instrument, which is adapted either to condense, the air in a receiver, or to draw it from thence. This instrument was invented by Dr. Defaguliers ; lo that the merit of the execution alone belongs to our Author.

VIII. FASTORUM Anni Romani a Verrio Flacco ordinatorum Reliquiæ ex Marmorearum Fabularum fragmentis Præneste nuper effollis collecte et illuftratæ, &c. i. é. Remains of the Fafti of the Roman Year, as they were arranged by Verrius Flaccus, cola lected and illustrated from the Fragments of Marble Tables lately dug up at Pranejte : To which are added all the Fragments of the Works of Verrius Flaccus, which are extant, and the Roman Fafti of every Month, taken from the Marble Kalendars, that have' bitherio been discovered, collated together. By P. F. FOGGINI. Folio. Rome. 1780. — It is known by the learned, that VERRIUS Flaccus, who was charged by Augustus with the education of his grandions, composed a series of the Roman fasti, which was engraved on tables of marble, and exposed to the view of the Public' at Præneste. To, recover these marbles Cardinal Stoppani, Bishop of Præneste, at the request of Monsignor Fog. GINI ordered several excavations to be made, by which the fragments of four tables only were discovered in the year 1774, and of these M. Foggini has undertaken the explication in the work before us. These fragments contain the fafti of January, March, April, and December, to which the learned Author has added extracts from the other books and collections of fasli that have escaped the ruins of time, in order to render the series as complete as was posible.

IX. Lettere del Signor Abbate, Domenico Sefini, &c. i; e: Letters written from Sicily and Turkey, to several Friends in Tuf

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cany.

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