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prize sugar into the British market, would have operated to the ruia of the sugar plantations; and would of course have been severely fels by the manufactures at home. Art. 25. An Enquiry into the Advantages and Difadvantages real

sulting from Bills of Inclosure, in which Obje&tions are ftated and Remedies proposed ; and the whole is humbly recommended to the ato tentive Consideration of the Legislature, before any more Bills (for

that Parpose) be enacted into Laws. 8vo. 15. Cadell. · The object of this fenfible and well-written tract is to corred the mischiefs apprehended by the Author from the indiscriminate admil fion of inclosure bills, by pointing ous the defects, and indeed the gross injustice, with which most of them are attended. He endeavours to establish fome general principles, that are well worthy to be enforced by a legislative fandion, to obviate these evils in future; as well as to serve for a liac of discrimination between such commons as ought, and such as ought not, to be inclosed. The former he deferibes as large barreo heaths, and wide {wampy moors, the inclosure of which he thinks beneficial both to individuals and to the Public: whereas the inclosure of small commons produces, as he contends, all the partial ills, without the general good : and are usually set on foot to gratify the avarice and rapacity of a few lordly and powerful nen, at the expence of their poor and friendless neighbours.

Whocver the Writer be, we admire the spirit, and esteem the philanthropy, which breathes through this performance. We hope, however, he has depicted the abuses to which inclosure bills are liable in colours too strong, and in figures larger than life. But while we beg leave to think more highly of the country gentlemen of England, than to believe that the cases he suggests are frequent, we admit that the call upon the Legislature, to guard against such abuses in the remoteft poflbility, is not the less forcible: and we must observe, with a just degree of commendation, that the Lords have, of late, fer a very laudable example to preserve the fountains of legis. lacion pure and untainted-in private bills, at least.

T. . . PHILOSOPHICAL... Art. 26. Philosophical Inquiries into the Laws of Animal Life.

Chapier the Third Preparatory to the Laws of Respiration. By
Hugh Smith, M. D. 4to. 18. L. Davis,

Our philosophy-in Nort, everybody's philosophy—and that of the Author, are so widely different; and we find ourselves so very litle edified by the perosal of this bis third chapter ; that we think it sufficient barely to announce its publication and price. Those who may bave approved she doctrine, and manner, of the two first chapters,

will naturally pay very little attention to any thing we hould say re. • Speating the third. La 'w.

. B..y Art. 27. An Abridgment of the Excise Laws, and of the Custom

Laws cherewich connected, now in force in Great Britain. Methodically arranged, with Noies and Observations. By Henry Mackay, Supervilor of 'Excise. 8vo. ; 3. Boards. Cadell.

The utility of an abridgment of this kind, or (as Mr. Mackay very modestly, though rather quaintly, expresies it) its tendency of use

fulness'

fulness' to persons concerned with the revenue-laws, is sufficiently ob vious. These persons are principally the revenue-officer ; the manu. facturer, or fair trader; and the fmuggler ; whose respective business it is to enforce, to conform to, or evade them. The work before us appears to be executed with great accuracy and knowledge of the subje&, and these qualities will no doubt recommend it to the diffe. rent parties we have enumerated : of whom the latt is commonly a man of less literature than the reft, but, in his studies to evade the re. venue-laws, he is far more acute and successful than the first is in inforcing them. In this respect the fmuggler wants not the aid of Ariftotle or of logic. He is often too powerful for the Legislature it. felf, watchful as it is to interpose from time to time with new segu. Jacions, framed to defeat all his wiles and stratagems, to overpower fubtiley with Atrength, and deaden the spirit of enterprise by the dread of peoalies. But, alas ! onc confequence of this very circumfance is, that no compiler or writer on the custom and excise-laws can expect a long contioved reception for a fingle work. Now fta. totes are yearly supervening, that shove the old ones out of use: the " vitæ fumma brevis", that is too generally the fate of modern au. thors, is from this caufe rendered fill shorter to authors of Mr. Mac. kay's description, unless, indeed, he hopes for the popularity of Burn's Justice, which, by the frequency of the editions, keeps pace in its improvements with the rapidity of the Legislature. Mr. Maa kay informs his readers, that he has been ten years compiling and digetting this work! and lo! fince its publication • a new ftatute bath been passed t containing regulations in the Excise of a very important kind; for the want of which this work will lose much of its value, and some inferior compiler that comes after (velut unda fupervenit undam) will injure, and probably fupercede its Sale!

MEDICAL. Art. 28. Reports of the Humane Society for the Recovery of

Persons apparenily drowned : for the Years 1779 and 1780. 8vo. 2 3. Rivington, &c.

The publication of annual reports of this benevolent inftitution having been found expensive to the Charity, the occurrences of two years are here comprised in one pamphlet. If such publicacions do not really pay their charges, we cannot bat chink that it would be better to drop them alcogether, and only print a sheet Lift of Subscribers, &c. with a general view of the success, as is done at the hospitals. We presume che Public are now sufficiently convinced of the posibility of effecting, in a considerable degree, what the humane intencions of the Society are dire&cd to.' The cases occurring are so similar chat, in a medical view, little information can be expected from the perusal of them : at least, among the number published, scarcely one in twenty deserves attention on this account. This we feel ourselves obliged to say as. Reviewers : in any other light, we concor with

. We must observe, that Mr. Mackay's book was published in 1779; though, by some accident, it did not, till very lately, come under our notice.

# In the close of last Sellions. "

every friend to humanity in withiog all imaginable success to fo well. directed a Charity.

A. Art. 29. A Treatise on Sympathy, in Two Parts. Part I. On the Nature of Sympathy in general; that of Antipathy; and the Force of Imagination, and on their exten live Imporcance and Re. lation to the Animal Oeconomy: with many interesting Obierva. tions on Medical Sympathy. Part Il. On febrile Sympathy and Consent; and on the Balance and Connection of x reme Vessels; illuitrated with practical Remarks; and a new Explanation of the various Affections of the Stomach and Skin in Fever. In which is attempted a full Refutation of the Doctrine delivered on the same Subject from the Practical Chair at the Univerhiiv of Edinburgh. By Seguin Henry Jackson, M. D. Member of the Roval College of Physicians, London; and of the Royal Medical Society, Edin

borgh; and Phyfician to the Wettminster. General Dispensary. ! 8vo. 46. Boards.' Marray. 1981. · A young Author has here got hold of an extremely abitrofe and

difficult subject of speculation, which it would require the molt ex-tensive knowledge of facts, and the molt cautious reasoning upon them, to discuss in a satisfactory manner. Whether the Writer be. fore us be fo qualified, we muft leave to his Readers to determine for themselves; as it is utterly impoffible for us to give any abridged view of do&rines which we confess we do not clearly comprehend. Some facts respecting fympathy, with pra&ical inferences from tben, communicated by Mr. John Hunter, will be thought curious and worthy of attention by those who may not be interested in the general theory of the book. With respect to the new doctrine of fever, which The Author advances against that of Dr. Cullen, it appears to us only one gratuitous bypothesis against another, fo valeat quantum valore

poteft.

S E R M 0. N. La Decence dans l'Exterieure confideré comme un Devoir. Sermon fur

1 à Timothée üi. 9, 10. Dedié au Beau-Sexe des Provinces Unies. Par un Hollandois. A Londres. 1780.-" Decency in external Appearance confidered as a Duty, A Sermon on 1 Tim. ü. 9, 1o. Dedicated to the Fair Sex in the United Provinces. By a Natire of Holland.”

This ferious lecture, like many others, might do good, if it could obtain an hearing : but how could our Author be so vain, or fo igo norant of the world, as to expect that his fermon would be admitted upon the toilet-unless to furnith Monfieur Frizeur with papillotes? E

*. * Mr. Hill's Remarks on Thelyphthora, and the Conclusion of The Account of the Bishop of Worcester's Sermons, intended for this Montb, muji, in consequence of an accident, be deferred till. Odober, ' '

+++ The Single Sermons in our next.

Letters from several Correspondents have been received, which, on account of our Editor's absence, on a journey of health, so diftant parts of the kingdom, cannot, at present, be more particularly acknowledged.

THE

MONTHLY REVIEW,

For OCTOBER, 1781.

Art. I. The Private Life of Lewis XV. CONCLUDED.-See last

Month's Review.

IT is not often seen, that the private character of Kings re

fleets a luftre upon their public station. That superior strength of understanding, acuteness of penetration, elevation of sentiment, and greatness of soul, by which alone the regal dignity can be supported and adorned, da neither belong to Kings, jure divino, nor pass by inheritance from father to son, with the sceptre and the crown. The history of the private life of Kings is frequently adapted to excite ridicule and contempt, and sometimes to create disgust and abhorrence, but seldom to command the tribute of fincere respect and veneration.

We need not have recourse to the black catalogue of the Roman Cæsars, to confirm the truth of this remark. The history of France presents us with a long series of characters under the name of Kings, which it is impossible to review, without feel. ing the emotions of risibility (if they be not suppreiled by the more serious emotions of indignation), on the recollection that such men have swayed the rod of empire, and received homage as the Lord's Anointed. To this list the narrative before us obliges us to add the name of Lewis XV.

The following is the sketch which the Author gives of the character of this Prince when he entered the age of adolescence:

• His contemporaries describe him as being handsome, of a proper ftature, with a leg perfeally well made, a nobie mien, his eyes large, his look rather mild than fierce, his eye-brows dark; and his appear. ance all together seeming to be speak that delicate habit of body, which he afterwards fortited so much by exercise, that he was able to bear the greatest fatigues. It is to this tardy progreis of nature in VOL, LXV.

R

him,

him, that we are undoubtedly to attribute the calmness of those para fions, which are so active at that age in most individuals of strong conftitutions, and especially among Princes, with whom every thing contributes to awaken these passions early. He then appeared indif. ferent for women, for play, and for high living, all of which he was much addicted to after. Hunting was his only pleasure; whether ir were that a secret instinct led bim to this falutary exercise, or that want of employment prompted him to it, from the apprehension of that tædium, which already began to embitter his belt days : for his education having been much neglected, from the fear of fatiguing him in his infancy, his mind was but little embellished, and he had not acquired that taste for ftudy, which is of so great resource at all times, and in every station. He had an invincible aversion for business, so that he could scarce bear to hear it spoken of. Having no thirst of glory, he wanted that energy, which, in his great grandfaiher, had corrected the defects of education, and made up for his ignorance. In a word, being of an easy, indolent, and timid disposition, he was calculated to be governed by the first person who should gain an ascendant over him. This circumstance the Preceptor of the Prince soon perceived, and he availed himself of it, to lay the foundation of his grandeur.'

The manner in which the King passed his moments of retirement from the public eye, in this early period of his life, may be gathered from the following passage :

• Fortunately, the King's inclinations induced him to attach himself to the Count de Clermont, who had been brought up with him, and who was almost of his own age; a heavy Prince, of weak understanding, and addicted to nothing but festivals, pleasures, and women ; and to the Count of Toulouse, a Prince not of bright parts, but of exquisite judgment, of very regular manners, not moved by any strong pasfion; he was moreover very circumspect, and too much alhamed of his disproportionate marriage, the declaration of which he had obtained, to set bimself against the Cardinal who governed.

"The Princesses who deserved the Monarch's attachment at that time, did not appear more dangerous to the Prime Minister. The Queen was at the head of them. She was in intire poffeffion of the heart of her august husband; me alone delighted him, and desired no other happiness. She had alseady given herself up to devotion, but of a mild kind, without fanaticism, so that the Priests who might have been disposed to intrigues, acquired but little ascendant over her. Beside, she was under the direction of a Jesuit, and their fociety was devoted to the Cardinal, who encouraged all their fury against the Jansenists. Lewis XV. tasted also the sweets of a tender friendship with Mademoiselle de Charolois, and the Countess of Toulouse. Though Mademoiselle de Charolois was fifter to the Duke of Bourbon, and daughter to the Grand Duchess, his mother, The was not of their cabals.Formed for pleasure from her youth, by the beauty and graces the possessed, she was endowed with an exquisite sensibility, which turned ii self entirely to love : she had had a number of admirers, and brought forth children almost every year, with little more secrecy than an opera-girl; though, to keep up appearances, it was said she was ill, during the fix weeks of her confinement; and

the

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