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For SEPTEMBER, 1779.

POLITICAL Art. 11. Remarks on the RESCRIPT of the Court of MADRID,

and on the MANIFESTO of the Court of VERSAILLES. In a Letter to the People of Great Britain. To which is added, An Appendix, containing the Rescript, the Manifello, and a Memorial of Dr. Franklyn to the Court of Versailles. 8vo. 2 s. Cadell.

1779. TN a prefatory advertisement, the very ingenious and spirited Au. I thor of these Remarks observes, that the Rescript and Manitesto above mentioned,' are intended to work upon the understandings and affections of four dininct classes of men The Rulers of other States -The Subjects of their own Dominions-His Majesty's rebellious Sobjeâs in America--and his loyal Subjects in every part of his dominions.

• But, in the following Address, it is not intended to examine them, either as they were meant to operate on the rulers of states, or on the subjects of France and of Spain ; or on his Majesty'rebel. lious subjects in America. It is intended to examine them merely as they are addressed to ourselves,

. So far as they are addressed to his Majesty's rebellious fubje&s in America, they are almost too ridiculous to deserve a serious anfwer. Every thing ferious, that can be said about them, has already been said, and well faid " One sentiment only can arise respecting the conduct of these powers, who, affecting the patronage of rights which they neither feel nor understand, could have but one objectAmidst the distractions of the British empire to gratify their own ambition."

So far as they are meant to operate upon the Rulers of States, it is the proper business of his Majelly's confidential servants to reply to them. They only are furnihed wish tae proper materials : to them alone can the buliness be safely committed, And I hope and trust, that they will acquit themselves of the task, with that preci. fion, which the juitice of their cause enables them to use; with chas fpirit, which the io folence of our encmies demands; with that dig. Dity, which the honour of the crown requires.

• So far as they are meant to operate on the deluded subjects of France, and of Spain, they must be answered in another way. Convi&tion mait be wrought, not by the force of argument, but by the vigoar of a.s. Would to Heaven, for the sake of humanity, conviction could be wrought in a milder way!

• So far as they are addressed to ourselves; as they are meant to operate upon os; to warp our understandings, or to bias our affections; to weaken our efforts, or to depress our spirits ; to alienate our minds from the government, or to leffen our confidence in the councils of our Sovereign; 1 thought it might not be useless, and I trufed it would not be anacceptable, to point out to my country

* • Sce Address from the Eat-India Company,'. Rev. Sept. 1779.


faces and Notes, with which M. Gobet has enriched this cole lection, render its perufal both agreeable and instructive.

VII. Esui sur la Jurisprudence Universelle, l'on examine quel eft le premier Principe de la Justice and le Fondement de l'Obligation Morale, &c. i. e. An Esay concerning Universal Jurisprudence, in which an Inquiry is made into the first Principles of Yustice and the Foundation of Moral Obligation. By FATHER THOMAS JACOB, Prior of the Jacobines at Paris. 12mo, Paris. 17-9. We are glad to see Monks writing on such subjects as there, when their productions do not smell of the convent. This Estay, which is a warm attack upon the Encyclopedists of Paris, as enemies not only of Revealed, but also of Natural Religion, would be read with more pleasure and profit, if the Author had treated his subject with more precision. He establishes, on folid foundations, the existence of a law of nature.-He hews that Christianity is not only its best interpreter, but also the dispensation that finishes its consistence, its obligation and perfection; but he has not carried the fagacity of the true analytic spirit into his researches concerning the principles of moral obligation.-He is far behind the British writers on this subject.

VIII. Essai sur l'Histoire Generale des Tribunaux des Peuples tant Anciens que Modernes, ou Diktionaire Historique et Judiciaire, contenant des Anecdotes piquantes & les Jugemens fameux des Tribunaux, &c. i. e. An Historical Essay concerning the Tribunals of ancient and modern Nations, or, An Historical and Juridical Dictionary, containing interesting Anecdotes, and the most remarkable Yudiciary Sentences of Public Tribunals in all Times and Nations. By M. Des Essarts, Advocate, and Member of several Academies. Vol. III. 8vo. Paris. 1779. Price 4 Livres. In this, and the two preceding volumes, we have an history of the passions and crimes of men, at least in their effects and punishment, and as the penal laws, employed by different nations for the discovery and chastisement of offenders, have a connection with the manners and government of each people, and are, generally speaking, no bad prognostic of the national spirit and character, a work of the nature of that before us, when well executed, must be curious and instructive; and such is the work of M. Des EssARTS.-It is, indeed, likely to be voluminous; for this third volume goes no farther than the first articles of letter H.

G E R M A N Y. IX. De Angyna Polyposa live Membranacea : i. e. Concerning the Membranous Quinzy, or that which is called the Angina Polyposa. By M. MICHAELIS, M. D. 8vo. Gottingen. 1778. The Author of this work is physician to the Heffian troops in the service of Great Britains a situation favourable to the ad


8vo. Pasi and Meltimes a

Kancement of medical knowledge by observation and experience. It is from these two guides, rather than from the peruial of the writings of his predecessors and contemporaries in the art of healing (with which, nevertheless, he seems perfectly well acquainted), that he has derived his knowledge of the disease here treated, and his opinion with respect to its nature and cause. Ic is from having opened the bodies of many persons, who died of this disease, that he deems the membranous quinzy lympbatic in its principle, instead of proceeding from phlegm, as many have supposed; for he found the membranes, in the persons he diffected, of the same nature with the polypus of the heart and the large blood vessels, and much softer and sooner corruptible than phlegm, which contracts a certain aridity and hardncss. With respect to the manner of treating this disorder, Dr. MICHAELIS distinguishes the quinzies into different classes, according to their different circumstances and symptoms, prescribes what is requisite in each case, and confiders, with peculiar attention, those cases where bronchotomy, or the opening the wind pipe, may be useful. His history of the disorder is curious, though chargeable with some omissions : we must not, however, consider as such, his making little or no mention of the authors, who have written concerning inflammatory quinzies, or other branches of that disease distinct from that here treated of.

X. Lobschrift auf Winkelman, &c. i. e. The Eulogy of the late Abbé Winkelman. By CHR. GOTTL. HEINE. This excellent piece, which is in every respect worthy of its subject, on whole tomb the arts and the graces will long weep, was crowned by the Academy of Antiquities at Hesse Caffel. In it the learned and judicious Author, so famous for his merits in classical literature, not only examines the writings of the celebrated Abbé with taste, judgment, and impartiality, but also points out the qualities that constitute the true Antiquary, and the improvements that have been himherto made; as also those that are yet required in that line of science.

XI. The New Edition of the Abbé DICQUEMARE's Apronomy, which has lately appeared, with important Additions and Improvements, deserves particular notice. Its new title is, Connoissance de l'Astronomie, rendu aiseé & mise à la porteé de tout Le Monde : i. e. The Knowledge of Astronomy made easy and proportioned to every Capacity. 8vo. With Cuts. Paris. 1779. The additions, which distinguish this edition, consist in several observations; in some articles entirely new, and in instructive notes, relative to the solar atmosphere, the apparent motions of the fixed stars, those of the planets, the parallax, &c. all which objects are illustrated by two new plates. Among the tables, we find one of the annual equation of the sun's mean motion, which


men the insolence of niyle, the fallacy of argument, and the groff pess of misrepresentation, which strongly markiog both the Reseripe and the Manifesto, reflect disgrace on their authors; and point then out to us as the objects at once of our indignation and contempt.

• Considering them with this view only, it will not be expected that I should enter into a minute detail of particular facts, or into a refutation of injuries pretended to have been sustained, demands of reparation pretended to have been frequently made, and as frequently setused. This is the proper business of men in office. It will be enough for my purpose, if I shew, that in admitting our rebellious subjects in America to a participation in all the privileges enjoyed by independent states, Lewis committed an unprovoked injury op the people of Great Britain ; that the reasons alleged to justify that admiffion, add infult to injury; that his forming a treaty of friend. ship and commerce, of alliance offensive and defensive, with them, was intended to perpetuate the original injury; and lastly, that the terms of accommodation proposed by France and recommended by Spain, were meant to be a gross repetition of the original insult.'

In effecting this purpose, viz. the pointing out to his countrymen • the infolence of style, the fallacy of argument, and the grossness of misrepresentation, which strongly mark both the Rescript and the Manifello,' the Remarker employs the united force of reason and ridicule. To the aid of these he has, moreover, called in the powers and embellishments of oratory; so that those readers who may not, in every instance, be convinced by his arguments, or influenced by his ludicrous comments, will, at lealt, allow, that he has given the publie a masterly piece of declamation. If he be accused, as he probably will (by those who look with more profound veneration on courts and crowned heads), of having taken unbecoming liberties with their most Christian and Catholic Majesties,- his defence is briefly this :-- In these Remarks I have spoken as I felt ; too regardless, I was fearful, of the forms and etiquettes of courts. On this head I was going to make some apology ; but the parties stopped me. I saw the epithets" absurd”-“ frivolous"-" insidious"-" perfi. dious”-bellowed with a liberal hand by Lewis on the King of Great Britain. I therefore concluded this to be the language of courts; and cannot but congraiulate myself, that, without knowing it, I have written like a courtier.' Art. 12. Strictures on the French King's Manifesto; or, Narra· tive of the Motives of his Conduct towards England: Exposing the

Sallacy of the Pretences therein set forth. Pointing out the real Mories which urge the French King, and thewing the Injustice of his Conduct towards England. Also, proving to a Demonstration, from the Words of the Manifesto, that he is the Aggressor and fole Beginner of the War, consequently the Cause of all the Blood that is or may be fhed in this unrighteous Quarrel. 8vo. 4 d. Bew. 1779.

These Stri&tures appeared originally in the Morning Poft, on fix different days; and they are now collected into a pamphlet, by the Writer, with the fole view of elucidating the truth, expofing falsehood, chicanery, and treachery, and furnishing the minds of his fellow.subjects with right and apt ideas of the different parties


engaged in the present confused quarrel, and enabling those who in ay travel into foreign parts, to repel the reproaches and reflections that foreigners may caft upon our country, on the faith of those fal• lacious Manifestos, &c.'

This was well done ; and we will readily give the Author credit for the best motives towards an undertaking which may contribute, with the reit of our publications on this subject, to convince the world, that we can cut write our enemies, if we do rot out fight them. Art. 13. A Political Mirror; or, a summary View of the present

Reign. With Noies explanatory and historical; and an authentic Lix of the Ships and Vellels of War, taken and defroyed, since the Commencement of Hotilities. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Fielding and Walker. 1779.

Calculated to support a very heavy, but not very novel charge against the system which has prevailed during the present reign. The Reviewer considers the Court as having, from the commencement of the Butean influence, entertained principles inimical to the Spirit and safety of the conftitution; and adminifiration he execrates for its unsleadiness and imbecility of conduct.-If the first allegation be true, it may be eventually happy for this nation that the second be true likewise.

As a specimen of what may be seen by looking into this Political Mirror, take the Writer's general deduction, or concluding summary view of our present uncomfortable situation, viz.- A murilated empire engaged in a war, the event of which is as uncertain as is the period of its conclusion; without an ally on whom she can de. pend, in the moment of danger and neceflity, for aflistance. The most valuable part of her commerce gone, for ever, into a different channel, and the other part subject to such risk, as to check the adventurous spirit of trade; while her people are oppressed by taxes, aod by aêls of parliament, which, in their consequences, tend to the total fubversion of their rights and liberties, and to prepare them for that slavery which, by their abject submillion to a shameless cabal, they seem to invite and deserve.

. Such is the precise and dreadful condition to which this country is reduced, by a progressive chain of events, which have regularly apprised us of what has at last happened ; and as we have not the vir. tue to bring the perpetrators of our misery and disgrace to condign and exemplary punilhment, it must be left to the justice of pofterity to mark with infamy and deteftation the memories of those who have brought the character of their sovereign into disrepure, his crown into absolute danger, and accelerated the decline of the British empire, by the complicated crimes of treachery, venality, and cora ruption.' Art. 14. Observations on a Pamphlet, entitled, “ A short History

of Oppofition,” &c. To which is prefixed, an Address to Messrs. Wedderburn, Gibbon, and Macpherson. By a Member of Parlialiament. 8vo. 2 s. 6d. W. Davis, Ludgace Hill. 1779.

The gentlemen whose names are mentioned in the title-page of this pamphlet, have been severally given, by report, as the writers of

# Vid. Review, July, Art. 36 of the Catalogue.


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