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· If the Lords and Commons are equally disabled to hold employe ments in the State, the weight of power will then fall into the hands of a separate party, and will create a separate intereft, which will be always attended with infinite mischiefs, and may probably terminate in the destruction of the liberties of Parliament.
* Whilst gentlemen of great fortunes, estates and interests in the counties of England, shall, by reason of their credit and weight in their counties, be the only persons thought capable of holding employments in the State, the power of employments (be they contracts or otherwise) will not be directed to hurt the liberties of the people, because the gentlemen who discharge them are interested in the most faithful execution of them.
But if ever gentlemen of such fortunes, estates and interests with the people, shall be the only men in England incapable of public employments, all the offices must be filled with others, who will have a Jess concern in the liberty and happiness of their country, and must be more easily drawn into measures against that common interest, in which their own share is so much less cooliderable.
• The objeétion of dependance on the Crown arising froin trusts of this nature, is merely invidious; for a gentleman of one thousand pounds per annum in his own right, will never lessen the security of his eftate on any confideration, even of double the sum enjoyed by favour. He may serve the King with greater affection for the honour of advantage accruing to him; but if he hath human reason, he will not balance a moment, when his only option must be, Whether he will hazard his liberty and fortune, or his employment.'
Dangerous as it may be, to repose too unreserved a confidence in any set of men engaged in the adminiftration of government, the above argument has much more fobriety in it, than is found in many fenatorial declamations, calculated to work on the prejudices of those who are apt to confider minillers, and all persons employed in na. tional affairs, as ex officio enemies to their country. How far it may coincide with Montesquieu's idea of the union of the legislative with the execu'ive power being destructive to liberty, or how far such abıtract propositions can be adhered to in practice, are points which must be left to the ingenuity of those who have abilities and leisure for the inveftigation.
DR AMRAT I C. Art. 17. The Loyal Shepherd: or, The Rustic Heroine, a
Dramatic Pastoral Poem, in one Act. To which is affixed, several Sonnets, Ballads, Acrostics, &c. Written by T. Goodwin, 8vo, is. Setchel, &c.
A wretched collection of trash! Art. 18. Gallic Gratitude; or, The Frenchman in India. A
Comedy in Two Acts, as performed at the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden. By J. S. Dodd. 8vo. Is. E. Johnson. 1779.
Suo fibi gladio hunc juguio! Here are the arms of the French turned againit themielves;-a Farce taken from that language, and converted into a national satire. The piece is not despicable, nor is its merit beyond mediocrity. The chief aim of the writer seems ta, have been, to serve and celebrate a theatrical heroine of the pame
of Jackson, whose picture and panegyric are prefixed and subjoined to his performance.
CONTROVERSI A L. , Art. 19. Three Letters to the Reverend Dr. Price: Containing Remarks on his Faft Sermon. By a Cobler. 8vo. 6d. Bladon.
Tam a Cobler, and the son of a Cobler,' says this arch letter. writer, but he does not inform us what kind of cobler; whether he means to rank as a cobler of shoes, a cobler of fouls (not foals), or a cobler of the state. We apprehend, he is of the last mentioned class ;- some bastard, perhaps, thrice removed from Sacheverel, or Filmer. A merry-begotten one, no doubt, he is, and, with his laudable zeal, and happy exertions, he may figure in time, at the head of some of our state-cobling Boards: a Lord of Trade, be. like, or a Commissioner of the Customs, or Standard-bearer to the Pensioners. He is certainly entitled to promotion, in reward of his attachment to the powers that be, and of his popular defence of their measures, in opposition to the antiministerial writer, Dr. Price; whom he really combats with a good deal of shrewdness : and it is but justice to his abilities to add, that he is one of the Doctor's most spirited antagonists. We wish we could likewise have said the most candid", and the most liberal.
Our theologico-political Cobler is even possessed (perhaps in vir. toe of his calling, for all coblers have, or hould have, a dath of the comic) of some portion of that rare quality, humour, -- very little of which is seen in the polemical papers of the present times,
MATHEMATICS Art. 20. Elements of Algebra, for the Use of Students in Uni
versities. 8vo. 3 s. 6 d. boards. Cadell. 1779. This little tract, as we learn from a short Advertisement prefixed to it, was drawn up for the use of Students attending the Author's lectures, and is not offered as a complete treatise on the subject. The work is divided into three parts, preceded by a short introduction, which contains some pertinent remarks on the nature, exrent, and obje&t of algebra, with its advantages over common arithmetic. The Author then proceeds to define the terms, characters, and notation of which he makes use; after which he treats of what he calls fundamental operations; that is, of Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Divifion; demonftrating, in a concise manner, the principal rules, &c,
He then proceeds to the doctrine of Algebraic fractions, propor. tion, the nature, management and methods of solving simple equa. tions; to involution and evolution of quantities, the doctrine of surds, the refolution of equations which involve pure powers, and also quadratic equations. He next explains the nature of indeterminate problems; of arithmetical, geometrical, and infinite series; and concludes his first part with an Appendix, Thewing the use of logarithme
* The following passage will justify this drawback on the commendation due to the Author's abilities :- Blush, Doctor :-if there is any blood in your veins, let us see it in your face.' p.31.Bluth, Cobler, blush!
in resolving algebraic questions, the application of algebra to phyfical problems, interest, annuisies, &c. &c.
In the second part, he treats of the origin and composition of gę. neral equations, their transformation, and resolucion, by different methods.
The third part is employed in the application of algebra to geametry: He here explains the methods of expressing geometrical mag. nitudes algebraically; also how the different orders of lines are ex. pressed and defined by algebraic equations; and hews how to determine the figure and general properties of curves from those equations, together with various other circumstances relating to this very curious and difficult subject. He concludes the book with Thewing the na. ture, use and consiruction of the loci of equations, and also how to construct the equations themselves.
From this account the Reader will perceive, notwithstanding the Author's modest Advertisement, that his book is not a mere syllabus; and we venture to pronounce that it will be found useful to all who ftudy this difficult and extensive science, either with or without a cotor, as it contains many curious and useful particulars, not to be met with in larger treatises of a'gebra. Art. 21. The Seaman's complete Daily Afifiant: Being an easy and
correct Method of keeping a Journalai Sea. Containing Rules for working the Cases in plain (plane) Middle-latitude, and Mercator's '. Sailing, by the Tables of difference of Latitude and Departure.
And for finding the Latitude, Longitude, Amplitude, and Azi. muth, by' Observation. Illudrated by a suflicient Number of Examples. Likewise Rules Thewing, how the Allowances are to be inade for Lee-way, Variation, Heave of the Sea, setting of the Currents, &c.- And to correft the dead Reckoning by an Obfervation in all Cases. The new Method of finding the Latitude by two Altitudes of the Sun; and the finding the Longitude by the Moon's Distance from the Sun, or a fixed Star, rendered easy to any common Capacity. To which are added. the Tables of Dif. ference of Latitude and Departure 10 300 Miles of Dilance; the new Solar Tables, and Tables of natural Sines; with a larger and more correct Table of ihe Latitudes and Longitudes of Places, than any hitherto published, together with all the Tables necessary for the Seaman's Qie, in working a Day's Work at Sea. The whole constructed upon a new Plan. By John Hamilton Moore, Author of the Practical Navigator, and formerly belonging to the Royal Navy. 8vo. 33. Robinson. 1779.
The Reader will readily judge of the true intent and complexion of this work, from the quantity of matter contained in its title-page : the proportion, however, which generally obtains in things of this nature ; namely, that the quantity of matter in the book is inversely as that in the title pige, fails here.
Mr. Moore, besides precepts in abundance, and a new journal, gives us tables of difference of latitude and departure to every degree, as well as to every point and quarter point of the compass, up LO 300 miles of distance, a table of meridional parts, a table of the Sun's amplitude for every degree of his declination, and to each degree of latitude from the equator to the polar-circle, and a table
ofthe variation of the sun's declination to every ten degrees of longitude, all taken from Haselden's old Seaman's Daily Afilant:- A table of the sefradion of the heavenly bodies in alitude, a table of the disc of the horizon, and a table of the correction of the moon's altitude for the joint effects of parallax and refraction, taken from the cables requifite to be used with the nautical Almanac:--Tables for finding the latisode by two alti: udes, and a table of natural fines from N. Faick, M D. who had before borrowed them from another person. These, togeiher with some others, of less use, from different Authors, render the work more comprehensive, and of course more useful, than the old one, to such persons as understand the use of the tables, without the help of the precepts which are annexed to them by the Compiler. But the precepts want that perfpicuity for which Harci. den's book has so long been admired; and this circumítance renders the present volume useless to such as have occasion to consult them : moreover, in attemp:ing to plume the feathers which he has borrowed, the Compiler bas betrayed a deficiency of knowledge in the subject on which he has undertaken to write.
For example, not content with the description of the nautical day, and the manner in which seamen keep their accounts of time, as he found is in other authors, he adds, “ Therefore, the declination used in settling any day’s lacitude, muit be the declination for the follow. ing day in the table of declination. Thus, in fecsling my latitude on Wednesday, May 6th, or finding my latitude at the close of that day, I use the declination for Thuriday, May 7th.” Now all thia is absolutely wrong, for the 6th nautical day begins on the 5th, at noon, according to the common, or civil account of days, and ends at noun on the oth, at which time the 6th astronomical day begins ; to which inftant, namely, the end of the 6th nautical day, and beginning of the och aftronomical day, the declination of the sun is computed in all tables whatsoever ; confequently, as the seaman al. ways makes up his reckoning at the end of bis day, and the beginning of the aitronomical one of the same name, he must use the declination put down in the tables for that day, and not “che de. clination for the following one," as Mr. Moore advises. This mistake, which runs through all Mr. Moore's nautical writings, is the more extraordinary in a person who tells us, he has formerly belonged to the royal navy: but, we will venture to affirm, chat on board no ship in the royal navy could he ever have worked an observation, at noon, without differing from every other person in ir.
From among the many unfortunate additions made by this Author, we hall only select one more, viz. page 6i, he gives the common rule for computing an azimuth (which is to be met with in every book of navigation), namely, . Add the complement of the latitude, the complement of the altitude, and the fan or Itar's polar dittance into one sum: from half that som, subtra& the polar distance, and note the half fum and the remainder.' So far our Author runs with the herd; but in order to supply the deficiencies of all, wha wrote before him, he adds," " But if the balf fum be less than the
See p. 162, of bis Pra&tical Navigator, 2d edit,
polar distance, then subtrait it from the polar distance f.” Now, if Mr. Moore had but luckily recollected, that it is impossible for any one side of a triangle to be greater than the sum of the other two, he would immediately have seen that what his forefathers had done, in this respect, was quite sufficient; and that his addition was entirely a work of supererogation. Art. 22. The Universal System: or Mechanical Cause of all the
Appearances and Movements of the visible Heavens; fhewing the true Powers which more the Earth and Planets in their Central Rolations. With a Dissertation on Comets, the Nature, Cause, Matter, and Use of their Tails, and the Reasons of their long
Trajectories : likewise an Artempt to prove what it is that moves the Sun round its Axis. 8vo. 1 s. boards. Buckland. 1779.
The Universal System seems to be written by a fenfible man * ; and to contain a lkerch of an ingenious theory, calculated to remove some difficulties in the system of the universe, as explained both by Car. tefian and Newtonian philosophers; and though the Author's reasons may not be considered as demonftrations, yet the probability and ingenuity of some of his conjectures sender this brief system worthy the attention of astronomers.
i PHILOSOPHICAL, Art. 23. An Account of the Experiments made at the Pantheon, on
the Nature and Use of Conductors, &c. Read at the Meetings of the Royal Society. By Benjamin Willon, F. R. S. &c. 410. 38. 6 d. Nourse. 1778.
We have already noticed this account of Mr. Wilson's Experi. ments, in our Review of the last volume of the Philosophical Transa&tions [Monthly Review, June 1779, page 415). The relation of these Experimental Observations is here republished, in a separate form, for the benefit of those, we suppose, who may not have an opportunity of consulting the Transactio75. We should further ob, serve, that to this republication ihe Author has annexed some new experiments made with the Leyden phial, respecting the proper termination of conductors : but these cannot be rendered intelligible, without a light of the plates that accompany them.
It may be acceptable to electricians to be informed of a method, here described, by which Mr. Cavallo repairs coated phials, &c. that have been cracked or perforated, eicher by a spontaneous disa charge, or other accident.--He removes the outside coating from the fractured part, and then makes it moderately hot by holding it to the fame of a candle; and while it remains hot, he applies burning fealing-wax to the pari, so as to cover the fracture intirely ; taking care that the thickness of this wax coating may be greater than that of the glass. Lastly, he covers all the lealing wax, and part of the Surface of the glass beyond it, with a composition made with four paris of bees-wax, one of resin, one of curpentine, and a very little oil of olives. This he spreads upon a piece of oiled lik, which he applies in the manner of a plailter. With this method,
+ Practical Navigator, p. 149.
The Preface is figncd John Lacy.