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tion, I dare not say whether a majority or a minority, who retain the Indian dress in part. The younger men almost all dress like the whites around them, except that the greater number wear a turban instead of a hat, and in cold weather a blanket frequently serves for a cloak. Cloaks, however, are becoming common. There yet remains room for improvement in dress, and that improvement is making with surprising rapidity.

The arts of spinning and weaving, the Cherokee women, generally put in practice. Most of their garments are of their own spinning and weaving, from cotton, the produce of their own fields; though considerable northern domestic, and much calico, is worn, nor is silk uncommon. Numbers of the men wear imported cloths, broadcloths, &c. and many wear mixed cotton and wool,

the manufacture of their wives; but the greater part are clothed principally in cotton.

Except in the arts of spinning and weaving, but little progress has been made in manufactures. A few Cherokees, however, are mechanics.

Agriculture is the principal employment and support of the people. It is the dependence of almost every family. As to thc wandering part of the people, who live by the chase, if they are to be found in the nation, I certainly have not found them, nor even heard of them, except from the floor of Congress, and other distant sources of information." I do not know of a single family who depend, in any considerable degree, on game for a support. It is true that deer and turkics are frequently killed, but not in sufficient numbers to form any dependence as the means of subsistence. The land is cultivated with very different degrees of industry; but I believe that few fail of an adequate supply of food. The ground is uniformly cultivated by means of the plough, and not, as formerly, by the hoe only.

The houses of the Cherokees are of all sorts, from an elegant painted or brick mansion, down to a very mean log cabin. If we speak, however, of the mass of the people, they live in comfortable log houses, generally one story high, but frequently two; sometimes of hewn logs, and sometimes of unhewn; commonly with a wooden chimney, and a floor of puncheons, or what a New England man would call slabs. Their houses are not generally well furnished ; many have scarcely any furniture, though a few are furnished even elegantly, and many decently. Improvement in the furniture of their houses appears to follow after improvement in dress, but at present is making rapid progress.

As to education, the number who can read and write English is considerable, though it bears but a moderate proportion to the whole population. Among such, the degree of improvement and intelligence is various. The Cherokee language, as far as I can judge, is read ard written by a large majority of those between childhood and middle age. Only a few who are much beyond middle age bave learned.

la regard to the progress of religion, I cannot, I suppose, do better than to state, as nearly as I am able, the number of members in the churches of the several denominations. The whole number of

native members of the Presbyterian churches is not far from 180. In the churches of the United Brethren, are about 54. In the Baptist churches I do not know the number; probably as many as 50. The Methodists, I believe, reckon in society, more than 800; of whom I suppose the greater part are natives. Many of the heathenish customs of the people have gone entirely, or almost entirely, into disuse, and others are fast following their steps. I believe the greater part of the people acknowledge the Christian religion to be true religion, although many who make this acknowledgment know very little of that religion, and many others do not feel its power. Through the blessing of our God, however, religion is steadily gaining ground.

But, it will be asked, is the improvement which has been described, general among the people, and are the full-blooded Indians civilized, or only the half-breeds? I answer that, in the description which I have spoken of the mass of the people, without distinction. If it be asked, however, what class are most advanced I answer, as a general thing—those of mixed blood. They have taken the lead, although some of full blood are as refined as any. But, though those of mixed blood are generally in the van, as might naturally be expected, yet the whole mass of the people is on the march.

There is one other subject, on which I think it due to justice to give my testimony, whatever it may be worth. Whether the Cherokees are wise in desiring to remain here, or not, I express no opinion, But it is ceriaiuit fast, that it should be known whether or not they do, as a body, wish to remain. It is not possible for a person to dwell among them without hearing much on the subject, I have heard much. It is said, abroad, that the common people would gladly remove, but are deterred by the chiefs, and a few other infuential men. It is not so. I say, with the utmost assurance, it is not so, Nothing is plainer, than that it is the earnest wish of the whole body of the people to remain where they are. They are not overawed by the chiefs. Individuals may be overawed by popular opinion, but not by the chiefs. On the other hand, if there were a chief in favor of removal, he would be overawed by the people. He would know that he could not open his mouth in favor of such a proposition, but on pain, not only of the failure of his re-election, but of popular odium and scorn. The whole tide of national feeling sets, in one strong and unbroken current, against a removal to the west.

By all these remarks I do not intend to convey the impression, that the Cherokees have already reached or nearly reached a level with the white people of the United States in point of civilization. But they have made great advances, and are steadily advancing still. It is only requisite that they be not hindered, and that the means which God has so abundantly blessed in this respect continue to operate, and there is every reason to believe their progress will continue. Any theory in regard to their removal from this place, which is built upon the supposition of the impossibility of their rising where they are, is opposed to fact. They can rise for they are rising.


Dr, Buchanan first attracted attention to these interesting, but degraded, inheritors of the Christian name. There are 13,000, families, and perhaps 70,000 souls.

They have 55 churches still in their hands: the Papists have appropriated several of these to themselves. These churches, in general, resemble the parish churches of our own country, though of course they are of various sizes, and differ much as to the style of architecture. Some of them are respectable buildings, and of a considerable extent. They have neither pews nor benches inside: at the east end there is a kind of altar, with steps, on which a cross is placed, and tapers lighted in time of worship. Their mode of worship strongly resembles that of the Armenian churches; and strikingly approaches, in different ceremonies, those of the Church of Rome : though they have crosses in their churches, there is no crucifix nor carved image. The service is read in the Syriac language, of which the people know nothing, and but few of the catanars are acquainted with it. The catanars are the priests. Here is no preaching; and nothing in the whole service for their edification, but a short extract from one of the Gospels which is read in Malayalim, which is the language of these Syrian Christians : of course, they are in a state of the most wretched ignorance. In fact, these churches are but so many limbs of Popery, from which, as to doctrinal sentiment, they do not essentially differ.

The Church missionaries have for their object the introduction of the pure Gospel among these benighted Christians. The Rev. Mr. Bailey is engaged in translating and prioting the Scriptures in Malayalim, and has made considerable progress. The Rev. Mr. Doran is at the head of the college, in which are 51 students and stout boys: 28 of these are intended to be catanars: on examining all the pupils in mathematics, Latin, Greek, English, &c. we found them in a very reputable state of proficiency: the college building is large and commodious, and there is in it a valuable library. The Rev. Mr. Baker is at the head of the school system : here is a sort of grammar school, in which are 60 boys : from these are selected students for the college: we found them, also, in an excellent state; besides this, there are 55 other schools, containing about 1000 children of the Syrian Christians, in different parts of the country. Both the college and the schools are conducted on principles which are decidedly evangelical, to which the metropolitan does not object. He was from home, but we saw his substitute and representative. Of all the ca. tanars, there is but one, a young man, who appears to be truly pious. Mr. Bailey has been permitted occasionally to preach in the churches; and a good understanding appears to exist between the missionaries, and the metropolitan and catanars.

Of these missionaries, with Mrs. Bailey and Mrs. Baker, we cannot speak too highly: they are truly pious, and breathe an excellent spirit; and appear to be greatly devoted to their difficult work. Mrs. Baker has one school of fine Syrian girls under her care. A A church is about to be built here, in which the Gospel will be preached, and all the students will attend there. The missionaries have service in their own houses on Lord's days, after the manner of the Church of England. We were greatly interested in this mission, which we trust will be instrumental of great good ; though we fear that its operations will be slow, and the hopes of good are distant. Persons more suited to the undertaking could scarcely have been found by the Church Missionary Society. The houses of the missionaries are excellent, their situations beautiful, and the neighbouring locality exceedingly rich and fine.

The object of this mission is not to pull down the ancient Syrian church, and to build another upon some plan of their own with the materials; our object is to remove the rubbish, and to repair the deeayed places, of the existing church. This being the case, the missionaries must ever have in view the general good of the whole, rather than the welfare of individuals. We do not stand in the relation of pastors to the several flocks for whose good we are laboring, as other missionaries do: we are advisers and helpers, and instructors of such as are willing to hear. The Syrian Christians

manifest much willingness, and even a strong desire, to obtain the Holy Scriptures.


We have just returned from Gettysburg, where we attended a
meeting of the Directors of the Seminary, established by the General
Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States.
The following brethren, were elected officers for the ensuing year viz

Rev. Dr. J. G. SCHMU ER, of York, Pa, President.
Rev. DAVID F. SCHÆFFER, of Frederick, Md. V. President.
Rev. J. G. MORRIS, of Baltimore, Secretary.

C. A. BARNITZ, Esqr. of York, Treasurer. A most beautiful scite, for the purpose of erecting the buildings required for the seminary, has been selected, and twenty acres of land, partly in the borough of Gettysburg, were purchased. The Board of Directors, authorized the immediate purchase of materials, and a committee appointed for the purpose, will forthwith advertise, that proposals will be received for erecting the buildings.

The Rev. Dr. E. L. Hazelius, Professor of Theology and the Languages, in Hartwig Seminary, has been unanimously elected, Professor of Biblical and Oriental Literature, in the Gettysburg Se minary.

We congratulate the Lutherans, throughout the United States, upon the complete organization, and flourishing state of this institu. tion, whilst Protestants generally must rejoice with us.

Dr. Hazelius, ranks among the first literary characters, is sincerely pious and ardently devoted to the cause of the Bible. Of Professor Schmucker, we have had occasion to speak heretofore, but the classes that have enjoyed the advantage of his lectures, give ample testimony, that a more useful Professor could not be met with. The Rev. D. Jacobs superintends the classical department. He is a gena tleman, particularly gifted for the purpose, amiable, but a rigid disciplinarian. Mr. M. Jacobs, superintends the mathematical department, for which he is evidently well qualified. The increasing number of pupils, from different states, is a sufficient evidence that all the teachers, are well qualified to discharge their duties. We believe that there are now 33 students of Theology, or preparing to ens ter the Theological department, and, perhaps about 50 pupils in the Classical and Mathematical departments.

Although this institution is entirely under the direction of Lutherans, yet pupils of all denominations are received, and no direct or indirect method is, or ever dare be employed, to change the feelings of a Protestant, as to particular external forms and non-essential doctrines. There are now two Presbyterian (English) Ministers, who studied at our Seminary, who can attest the fact.

A few thousand dollars more, will be wanted to complete the buildings, and to secure a sum sufficient to compensate teachers, but we doubt not, that the sum can very easily be collected from among our numerous and wealthy members, of the different states.- Editor.


Extracts from the Address delivered before the society at its last annual

Meeting. From Franke's school our forefathers received Missionary help, in the States of Pennsylvania, and Maryland—and when they emigrated to the State of North Carolina they again received the words from Missionaries' lips, and through them, some of us were led to a saving interest in the Lamb of God who taketh away the sins of the world"-and since we have emigrated to the state of Tennessee, our children were growing up in ignorance, but blessed be God, througla

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