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And, with these boys, mine honour thou hast

wounded:

My foes I do repute you every one;

So, trouble me no more, but get you gone. Mart. He is not with himself; let us withdraw. Quint. Not I, till Mutius' bones be buried.

365

[Marcus and the Sons of Titus kneel.
Marc. Brother, for in that name doth nature plead,
Quint. Father, and in that name doth nature speak,—
Tit. Speak thou no more, if all the rest will speed.
Marc. Renowned Titus, more than half my soul,-
Luc. Dear father, soul and substance of us all,—
Marc. Suffer thy brother Marcus to inter

370

375

His noble nephew here in virtue's nest,
That died in honour and Lavinia's cause.
Thou art a Roman; be not barbarous :
The Greeks upon advice did bury Ajax
That slew himself; and wise Laertes' son,
Did graciously plead for his funerals.

368. not with] (the Folio omits "with") beside himself-a curious phrase, which seems founded on the notion that, as in the biblical "possession" or in the modern spiritualist's "control," the true self was in abeyance and some evil spirit in occupation. 380. Laertes' son] Ulysses.

There

is no doubt that this passage seems to imply a correct, if not intimate, knowledge of Sophocles' play of Ajax, of which it is alleged there was no extant translation in Shakespeare's time. In the first place, as I said before, I do not think a knowledge of the "plot" and "action" of a celebrated classical play necessarily implies ability to read it in the original. Many of us know something of books we have never read from the talk of others, from allusions

380

in books, etc. How many people have
really read Rabelais or the Faerie
Queene, or the second part of Faust?
Yet those who have got a general
acquaintance with the contents of these
books, if they were as clever and
observant as Shakespeare was, could
no doubt allude to them without blun-
dering. Besides, Shakespeare, even
in Jonson's grudging acknowledgment,
knew some Greek, possibly enough to
spell out a passage in a play. Mr.
Churton Collins maintains that Shake-
speare in all probability was well
acquainted with the Greek Tragedies
in the original, but there always re-
mains the alternative of his having
read them in Latin translations. See
Fortnightly Review, 1903.

381. funerals] Shakespeare fre

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Tit.

Let not young Mutius then, that was thy joy,
Be barr'd his entrance here.

Rise, Marcus, rise.

385

The dismall'st day is this that e'er I saw,
To be dishonour'd by my sons in Rome!
Well, bury him, and bury me the next.

[Mutius is put into the tomb.

Luc. There lie thy bones, sweet Mutius, with thy friends,
Till we with trophies do adorn thy tomb.
All. [Kneeling.] No man shed tears for noble Mutius;
He lives in fame that died in virtue's cause.
Marc. My lord, to step out of these dreary dumps,
How comes it that the subtle Queen of Goths
Is of a sudden thus advanc'd in Rome?

Tit. I know not, Marcus; but I know it is:

390

Whether by device or no, the heavens can tell.

395

Is she not then beholding to the man

That brought her for this high good turn so far?
Yes, and will nobly him remunerate.

Flourish. Re-enter, from one side, SATURNINUS, attended; TAMORA, DEMETRIUS, CHIRON, and AARON; from the other, BASSIANUS, LAVINIA, and Others.

Sat. So, Bassianus, you have play'd your prize:

quently uses the plural form, while he employs "nuptial" in all cases but one. Pericles, v. iii. 80.

389. No man shed tears, etc.] Steevens declares this to be a translation from Ennius, but it is one of those ideas which had long since become common property. Besides, it is not an accurate translation of the lines quoted. 395. device] plot, scheming.

stratagem,

396. beholding] beholden. Abbott, par. 372.

397. turn] a service or disservice, as in one good turn deserves another, as in Venus, 92; Sonnets, xxiv. 9.

398. Yes, and will, etc.] should apparently be said by Marcus in reply to Titus. Malone.

399. play'd your prize] won in your competition, in which sense prize is used elsewhere in Shakespeare (Mer

God give you joy, sir, of your gallant bride!
Bass. And you of yours, my lord! I say no more,
Nor wish no less; and so I take my leave.
Sat. Traitor, if Rome have law or we have power,
Thou and thy faction shall repent this rape.
Bass. Rape call you it, my lord, to seize my own,
My true-betrothed love and now my wife?
But let the laws of Rome determine all;
Meanwhile I am possess'd of that is mine.
Sat. 'Tis good, sir: you are very short with us;
But, if we live, we 'll be as sharp with you.
Bass. My lord, what I have done, as best I may,
Answer I must and shall do with my life.
Only thus much I give your grace to know:
By all the duties that I owe to Rome,

400

405

410

This noble gentleman, Lord Titus here,

415

Is in opinion and in honour wrong'd;

That, in the rescue of Lavinia,

With his own hand did slay his youngest son,

In zeal to you and highly mov'd to wrath

420

To be controll'd in that he frankly gave:
Receive him then to favour, Saturnine,
That hath express'd himself in all his deeds
A father and a friend to thee and Rome.
Tit. Prince Bassianus, leave to plead my deeds:
'Tis thou and those that have dishonour'd me.

chant of Venice, III. ii. 42). "A metaphor borrowed from the fencing schools, prizes being played for certain degrees in the schools where the art of defence was taught-degrees of Master, Provost, and Scholar," Dyce's Glossary, Littledale's New Edition.

425

409. short] abrupt, rude. 416. opinion] in the esteem of others.

416. wrong'd] injured, lowered. 420. To be controll'd, etc.] because he was controlled or opposed, etc. 420. frankly] freely, openly.

Rome and the righteous heavens be my judge,
How I have lov'd and honour'd Saturnine!

Tam. My worthy lord, if ever Tamora

Were gracious in those princely eyes of thine,
Then hear me speak indifferently for all;
And at my suit, sweet, pardon what is past.

Sat. What, madam! be dishonour'd openly,

And basely put it up without revenge?

430

Tam. Not so, my lord; the gods of Rome forfend
I should be author to dishonour you!
But on mine honour dare I undertake
For good Lord Titus' innocence in all,
Whose fury not dissembled speaks his griefs.
Then, at my suit, look graciously on him;

435

Lose not so noble a friend on vain suppose,

440

Nor with sour looks afflict his gentle heart.

[Aside to Saturninus.] My lord, be rul'd by me, be won

at last;

Dissemble all your griefs and discontents:

You are but newly planted in your throne;

Lest then the people, and patricians too,
Upon a just survey, take Titus' part,
And so supplant you for ingratitude,
Which Rome reputes to be a heinous sin.
Yield at entreats, and then let me alone.
I'll find a day to massacre them all,

433. put it up] submit to, endure, put up with seems to come from the notion of sheathing one's weapon without fighting. Beaumont and Fletcher, Wit at several Weapons, v. i., "put up, put up."

435. author] cause. Venus, 1005; Lucrece, 523, 1244.

445

450

440. suppose] supposition, as elsewhere in Shakespeare. Taming of the Shrew, v. 120.

449. at entreats] to entreaty.

449. let me alone] leave it all to me, commonly used by Shakespeare and others.

And raze their faction and their family,
The cruel father, and his traitorous sons,
To whom I sued for my dear son's life;
And make them know what 'tis to let a queen
Kneel in the streets and beg for grace in vain.

455

[Aloud.] Come, come, sweet emperor; come, Andronicus;
Take up this good old man, and cheer the heart
That dies in tempest of thy angry frown.

Sat. Rise, Titus, rise; my empress hath prevail'd.
Tit. I thank your majesty, and her, my lord.

460

These words, these looks, infuse new life in me.

Tam. Titus, I am incorporate in Rome,

A Roman now adopted happily,

And must advise the emperor for his good.

This day all quarrels die, Andronicus ;

465

And let it be mine honour, good my lord,

That I have reconcil'd your friends and you.

For you, Prince Bassianus, I have pass'd
My word and promise to the emperor,

That you will be more mild and tractable.

470

And fear not, lords, and you, Lavinia;

By my advice, all humbled on your knees,
You shall ask pardon of his majesty.

Luc. We do; and vow to heaven and to his highness,
That what we did was mildly, as we might,

Tendering our sister's honour and our own.

475

451. raze] destroy. Also Cymbeline, v. v. 7.

462. Titus, I am, etc.] This speech of Tamora's in dramatic fitness and in dignity is to my mind quite as skilfully conceived and framed as Lady Macbeth's equally hypocritical speeches to

Duncan, which are rather-perhaps intentionally-overdone.

475. mildly, as we might] as mildly and gently as possible-which was true.

476. Tendering] showing a tender regard for, defending; frequent in Shakepeare in this sense, as v. ii. 77, etc.

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