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you

go to-day. You

PORTER, WALKER, AND RUSH. All who attentively observe the movements of the voice in reading or in speaking, will perceive that it rises and falls as in singing. Let any one count slowly, and he will easily discover these variations of the voice; as, onè, twó, three-four, five, six ;-here it will be seen that the voice varies in its tones. Let these words drawl off the tongue and these slides of the voice will be still more apparent. In the question and answer, -Willy

?

-any one will easily perceive that the voice is inclined up.. wards on the word day, and downwards on no. These movements, or slides of the voice are called inflections, which include all those gradual waving variations which are heard in good reading, or in animated conversation.

The modifications of the voice are four-viz. The rising inflection, which turns the voice upwards, marked thus ()--the falling infection, which turns the voice downwards, marked thus the circumflex, which is a union of the falling and rising ioflections, marked thus -and the monotone which is a sameness of sound, marked thus (-). That the learner may acquire a practical knowedge of these inflections, it is important that he should be exercised on examples like the following, till he can easily distinguish one from the other.

RISING INFLECTION. FALLING INFLECTION.
Will you ride-

-or walk?
Will you reád-

or spell?
Did he act properly or improperly?
Is he rich-

-or poor?
Is he learned

-or ignorant ?
Will you gó-

or stay?
Did you see him' -or his brother?
Did I say fáme-

-or blame?
Did I say reád--

or read ? You must not say nó.

--but no.
Is he stúdious ?

So am 'I.
Does he study ?

I am idle.
Is he rích ?

I am poòr.
Does he ride?

I shall walk.
Will you walk ?

I shall ride. Rule 1. When interrogative sentences, connected by the disjunctive or, succeed each other, the first ends with the rising inflection, the latter with the falling ; as,

Did you say nó

-or yès ? Did you rún

or walk ? Will you write

of read? Rule 2. A direct question, or that which admits the answer of yes, or no, has the rising inflection, and the answer has the falling* ; as,

Did you say fáme? Nò. I said nåme.
Did you speak? I did.

Will you ride? I will walk. Rule 3. The indirect question and its answer, has the following infection ; as,

Why are you idle? I have no book.
Why do you stúdy? That I may learn.
What is your náme? A good scholar.

• Dr. Porter.

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NATIONAL PRECEPTOR:

OR

SELECTIONS IN PROSE AND POETRY ;

CONSISTING OF

NARRATIVE, DESCRIPTIVE, ARGUMENTATIVE, DIDACTIC, PATHETIC,

AND HUMOROUS PIECES;

TOGETHER WITH

DIALOGUES, ADDRESSES, ORATIONS, SPEECHES,

&c.

CALCULATED

TO IMPROVE THE SCHOLAR IN READING AND SPEAKING ; AND TO IMPRESS

THE MINDS OF YOUTH WITH SENTIMENTS OF PIETY AND VIRTUE.

DESIGNED FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIES.

SECOND EDITION.

BY J. OLNEY,
Author of“ A Practical System of Modern Geography and Atlas."

HARTFORD :

PUBLISHED BY GOODWIN & CO. AND D. F. ROBINSON & co.

808.58
0 52 na
1830

DISTRICT OF'CONNECTICUT, . [L. S.]

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the eighth day of August, in the fifty

fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Messrs. Goodwin & Co., of the said District, have deposited in this office the title of a Book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:

4 The National Preceptor, or Selections in Prose and Poetry, consisting of narrative, "descriptive, argumentative, didactic, pathetic, and humorous pieces : together with - dialogues, addresses, orations, speeches, &c.; calculated to improve the scholar in “ reading and speaking, and to impress the minds of youth with sentiments of piety and “ virtue. Designed for the use of schools and academies. By J. Olney, Author of “ a “ practical system of modern Geography and Atlas.' In conformity to the act of Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An act for the

encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the “ authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned."-And " also to the act, entitled, “ An act supplementary to an act, entitled, ' An act for the

encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the * authors and proprietors of such copies during

the times therein mentioned,' and extend“ing the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and w other prints.”

CHARLES A. INGERSOLL,

Clerk of the District of Connecticut. A true copy of record, examined and sealed by me,

CHARLES A. INGERSOLL, Clerk of the District of Connecticut.

66

Kellora

foundation qilginal

PREFACE.

To read in a natural and impressive manner, is an attainment highly valued by all ;-and among the numerous branches pursued in our schools, this art is of the first importance. It is not only the foundation of good speaking, but it may be termed the basis of a finished education. Notwithstanding the various opinions on the subject, experience has convinced me, that it may be easily acquired. But like all other branches, it must be begun in a proper manner, or bad habits will be formed-unseemly tones contracted-which can seldom be corrected. Correct habits must be formed at the beginning. Let the learner read such lessons as are intelligible and interesting to him. Let lois lessons be progressive-lead him on by a series of exercises, that are calculated to excite, interest, and engage his attention such as will awaken and arouse the feelings-and his reading will resemble graceful and animated conversation. By such a course, no bad habits are formed. He will read as he converses ; and instead of viewing this important art with indifference, he will pursue it with pleasure, and easily acquire the tones of an easy and agreeable style.

Questions like the following are often asked :-Why do children and youth more frequently fail in good reading, than in any other branch of education? Why is it that we often hear a youth converse in a graceful and animated manner, and read in a dull, monotonous, or drawling style ? Why are there so few good readers in society ? Let any one competent to judge, examine the books made use of for teaching this valuable art, and he will easily answer the above enquiries. It is to be regretted that those who have hitherto compiled reading books, were so little acquainted with the taste, wants, and capacities of those for whom they were laboring. Their selections are interesting to the professional man-to those of ma. ture years—but not to the scholar. He has not yet acquired a taste for such reading, he feels no interest in such lessons--and he must go through a preparatory course in order to relish them. Our reading books, generally speaking, have too much of a sameness as regards style, both in prose and poetry :-whereas, they ought to contain almost every possible variety,--thus giving exercise to the various functions of the voice, and the emotions of the mind. A youth may be furnished with innumerable rules and illustrations of rhetoric,—and may commit them to memory, but they would assist him but little in learning to read, unless in the application of them, the exercises were intelligible and interesting :-But on the other hand, if books are arranged with reference to the natural progress of the mind, the learner will easily acquire a practical knowledge of the inflections of the voice, and a habit of reading in a natural, easy, and impressive manner.

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